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Found 64 results

  1. Tyrannosaurus sp? from West Texas. No restoration or repair. 1 1/2".
  2. Updated 3/25/17 Although a lot of this has already been posted on a number of topics, I thought consolidation it might prove useful with some additional information. If you're planning to purchase theropod teeth from Morocco's Kem Kem Beds or already have some in your collection check this out. Moroccan theropods are poorly understood and not a lot has been published. Very few articulated skeletons have been found and most are partial and without a skull. There is also lots of mis-information, mostly unintentional, from some dealers but especially online auction sites. Unfortunately these are the most misidentified commercially sold dinosaur fossil around. Please post your interest here on the forum before you buy. Background: The Kem Kem Beds also known as the ‘‘Continental Intercalaire’’ or "Continental Red Beds" is composed of three formations: Akrabou, Aoufous and Ifezouane Formation. The latter two are the dinosaur producing sediments with the Ifezouane being the principal one. They are Cenomanian in age. The attached drawing gives a representation how they lay. The distribution of the different groups of fossils in the Ifezouane Formation can been see in the pie chart below. Dinosaurs make up a small percentage of what is collected. So first lets identify what is known to the best of my knowledge. Theropods that have been described across North Africa Theropods that have been described in Kem Kem: (family) Spinosaurus aegyptiacus * (Spinosaurid) *Some paleontologist believe this species is unique to Egypt and Kem Kem material should be identified as Spinosauid indet. Lots of questions exist over Ibrahim (2014) diagnosis which validated this species. Carcharodontosaurus saharicus (Carcharodontosaurid) Deltadromeus agilis (Neovenatorid) Sigilmassasaurus brevicollis (Spinosaurid) Sauroniops pachytholus (Carcharodontosaurid) Theropods that have not been described from the Kem Kem but isolated teeth exist and have been reflected in scientific papers: Dromaeosaurid sp. Abelisaurid indet. Theropod teeth that are sold commercially but no scientific evidence yet to link them to the Kem Kem: Abelisaurus sp. (Not described from North Africa) Rugops sp. (Only described from Niger) Bahariasaurus sp. (Only described from Egypt) Elaphrosaurus sp. (From Jurassic of Tanzania) So what is being sold and what are the issues? Spinosaurid teeth are well understood by both collector and dealers, see photo. Issues are typically associated with restoration and compositing a larger tooth from multiple teeth. Teeth with matrix attached to them are suspect for restoration so be careful. At least two species of Spinosaurids exits and it's currently impossible to determine if they are Spinosaurus or Sigilmassasaurus or ?. Best identified as: Spinosaurid indet. Carcharodontosaurid teeth, those that are compressed and blade like, first photo. Wrinkles by the distal carina are diagnostic to this species. Mesial teeth are fat, slender and look very different (D shaped) (next three photos). Two species currently are described and it's impossible to differentiate between the two. Best identified as : Carcharodontosaurid indet. Theropod indet. There are also intermediate size teeth (1 1/2") that are being sold as Deltadromeus or another theropod. I believe these could be Deltadromeus teeth but until we see scientific evidence this morphology of tooth should be identified as Theropod indet. No skull was found with the holotype or in any other discoveries so we do not know what look like. Carcharodontosaurid serrations Theropod indet. Dromaeosaurus teeth... most all being sold are not, so here is what to look for. Teeth are typically small around 1/2" (1.2cm), recurved and there is a distinct difference in the serrations on both edges. These teeth should be identified as Dromaeosaurid indet. Although you see many sellers using the word Raptor next to what they are offering this is the ONLY true raptor in the Kem Kem that is currently known Abelisaurus teeth... This species does not exist in the Kem Kem but the teeth being sold as that are actually Abelisaurid indet. With new discoveries we can put a real species name to these teeth. These are easily identifiable. The teeth are very compressed, the cross-section is oval at the base, the mesial side is strongly curved and the distal side is almost straight to the base of the tooth, see red lines in the photo. These teeth are typically around an inch long but I've seen them up to 2 inches. These teeth could belong to Rugops since it's an Abelisaurid but we have no scientific information to support that claim. Bottom Line: There are NO theropod teeth in the Kem Kem Beds that you can currently assign to a Genus to, no less a Species.
  3. Hello Everyone, These two items were both collected by me last summer in Eastern Wyoming, Lance Formation (Upper Cretaceous). They come from a productive sandy microsite which also produced material from triceratops, hadrosaur, dromeosaur, fish, amphibian, crocodile, and if I remember correctly, mammal. I found the two claws below, and was looking for opinions on what they might belong to. I searched for a while trying to find the rest of the larger partial claw, but no luck. It may be tough to make out the grooves on that larger partial specimen due to weathering and lighting, but they are there. Any thoughts are greatly appreciated.
  4. The attached photos show a vertebra, probably from a dinosaur (theropod according to a very experienced collector, but no reference given) or crocodile from the Kem Kem beds in Morocco. The bone is 9,5 cm long and 9,0 cm tall. Any help to identify it to family, genus or species will be most appreciated.
  5. This is a Profile on the T.rex that I had written for English and would like to see what you all think and correct me on what is wrong about it! Tyrannosaurus Rex is one of the most famous of all non-avian dinosaurs to ever roam the earth, and is known by the name T-Rex. Well that is an incorrect wording as the correct way to write the animals name is T.rex. Very few people know this and is one of my life dreams to educate people about this. Tyrannosaurus means Tyrant Lizard king. The now outdated view of T.rex being a lizard with poor eye sight and lumbering, is incorrect. In all actuality Tyrannosaurus rex was a warm blooded feather coated bird that could run to 25 miles an hour and actually had the best eyesight the earth has ever witnessed with eye sight over 13 times more clear than a humans. The first clue of this is the fact Tyrannosaurus had front facing eyes, meaning it had perfect depth perception. We know this because of the recreation of the eyes based on the fossil skull, eye sockets, which indicated its eye was the size of a softball. T. rex’s binocular range was 55 degrees which is actually greater than that of a hawk, which is of course renowned for its remarkable vision. Mix this eyesight with a sense of smell better than a bloodhounds, and a complex bird brain, this would be a perfect predator. Tyrannosaurus needed all these advantages as its pray was far from defenseless. Its pray would have included Ankylosaurus, Triceratops and Hadrosaurus which all have hard armor or a thick tail to ram into the predator to hit it off its feet. Tyrannosaurus rex lived in North America about 70-66 million years ago in the Hell Creek formation that leads from Montana to Colorado and branch off into Utah and Canada. During the time of Tyrannosaurus, the Environment of Hell Creek was a flood plain, creeks, swamps and dry forests of conifer trees and ferns that dominated for millions of years. The Swamps were home to many creatures such as crocodiles, fish, lizards, small non-avian dinosaurs, amphibians, mammals and birds. Away from the swamps, you would find dry forests and plains, which had creatures such as Tyrannosaurus, Triceratops, Dakotaraptor, Pachycephalosaurus and an uncountable number of others, not including the thousands of plant and fungi species. Meanwhile giant pterosaurs roamed the sky, and giant marine lizards swam the oceans. All of this was the domain of the mighty Tyrannosaurus rex, an invasive species from Asia that came to America during the early cretaceous period through land bridges and shallow seas. They became the top predator, and knocked other predatory theropod dinosaurs off the throne of Top Predator. Tyrannosaurus, despite popular belief, was covered in soft downy feathers much like emus and ostrich. They only really had scales on the under side of the tail, while their legs and face would have skin like an ostrich leg. They also did not roar, and most likely cooed and/or quacked like a modern day bird. They cared for their young like a mother bird and would defend them from anything. The closest living relative of the Tyrannosaurus is now the Chicken, and it may surprise you to know Chickens can chase, catch and devour mice whole, much like the Tyrannosaurus assumingly. For the very last thing you need to know the T.rex comes from a group of animals called the Tyrannosaurids, this group includes the Dilong, Gorgosaurus, Albertosaurus and Tarbosaurus.
  6. Started reconstructing a Scipionyx for 3d printing Skull complete Skull + Jaw complete Started working on the chest and arms, they are so very small ----- The skull and jaw are available for printing at full size here.
  7. Hi everyone! So I've recently gotten into the Early Cretaceous coastal environment of what was the extended Gulf of Mexico in what's now Texas after finding out about the numerous dinosaur trackways in my area of the state. I've been combing various databases, and I've already visited the trackway up at the South San Gabriel River twice (A very beautiful group of tracks I might add). This morning, I came across something that surprised me. On the database site ( a very useful and interesting site that shows various fossil finds on a map), I found that there were supposedly tracks from some sort of theropod (probably the large sort found around a lot of Texas that have been attributed to Acrocanthosaurus atokensis if I was to put my money on one) were found as close to home as Jonestown. Would anyone happen to know any more about this set of tracks? Unfortunately, there is nothing about exact location on the site like GPs coordinates, so all I have to go off of is the specimen number it provides and a name "TMM 43007, Sandy Creek". Thanks for any help anyone can provide!
  8. Arm or leg bone of a small theropod dinosaur.
  9. I have a 3/8" premax theropod tooth from the Hell Creek formation in Montana, Carter County. Anyone have any ideas whether this is dromaeosaur or tyrannosaur? I know most of the tyrannosaur premax teeth like this do not have serrations, but there are always exceptions. 19 serrations per 5mm.
  10. I have heard that dinosaur bones are different in structure. I have some questions. Are all theropod bones hollow including sauropods? And are all ornithischian bones more solid? And can that be tell from a small fragment of bone?
  11. Hi everyone! I have another puzzle for you all! I REALLY appreciate your help identifying these bones, and even though I may never know what they really came from it is so interesting to propose and discuss possibilities. The majority of the bones I found this summer (in Montana) were really odd and hard to identify... They all came from roughly the same 5'x5' spot in the same formation. Anyways, this one is no doubt theropod. It's beautiful with awesome preservation aside from the whole 'missing an entire side' thing. Hopefully you can help me out! Thanks so much! More to come... ☺️ -Lauren P.S. Sorry for the white spots. Had to put it back together and haven't painted yet.
  12. Hi everyone, I have another bone I would love for you to identify if you can. I also found this one in Montana. It's definitely hollow and theropod. It looks like it has some kind of process along the side. It's not a concretion. What's really neat about the bone is that you can still see the struts inside. From what I understand, struts are structures found within pneumatic bones that allowed the bone to be lightweight while also creating pockets of air within the bone (air sacs) which essentially aided in respiration. (Please correct me if I'm wrong ). Birds still have these struts today; which is pretty incredible to think about... Anyways, please let me know what you think this might come from! It's medium sized. Just over 8 inches long. Thank you!! -Lauren
  13. I found this tooth a few years ago in Northeast Mississippi. It is most likely from the Demopolis Formation, which is a late Cretaceous marine lag deposit. I have found several mosasaur teeth here, thousands of shark and fish teeth, and 2 hadrosaur dino teeth. This particular tooth is almost 1.5cm in length, and is unfortunately split right down the middle of the tooth. The part of both sides that is remaining near the tooth makes it look like this was a skinny tooth, more like the shape of a theropod tooth, similar to Dryptosaurus. The recurve is also more theropod-like. The color and weathering is also similar to mosasaur teeth that I have found though, and I am just unsure of what to think about it. Theropod teeth have been found in this area, but they are incredibly rare, whereas, I have found several mosasaur teeth. Perhaps the cross-section of the break along the tooth might give a clue? Perhaps @Troodon knows. I am currently leanung towards it being a strange mosasaur tooth, but I would like other opinions. Northeast Mississippi Demopolis Formation Late Creataceous ~ 72 MYA This photo has a pencil tip for size reference.
  14. I bought this nice theropod tooth online and the seller told me that it was a Daspletosaurus from the Judith River Formation, Montana. While looking online for more info, I found a few people saying that some dealers lie about the genus of tyrannosaurid teeth (especially with Daspletosaurus) as they are hard to identify. Just wondering if anyone here can I.D. this tooth? Suggestions are much appreciated!
  15. I was given this as a gift. It is tentatively identified is a dinosaur digit bone. Possible theropod. Found on a private Ranch in the Hell Creek formation area of Montana. Can anyone give me any further identification information? Thank you
  16. Researchers at the China University of Geosciences discovered a semitranslucent mid-Cretaceous amber sample containing appendage covered in delicate feathers, thought to belong to a dinosaur that roamed the Earth more than 99 million years ago. The lead paleontologist Lida Xing commented that "this is the most impressive finding of my career to date". The study was funded in part by National Geographic and the Chinese University. The 1.4 inch amber sample was later analysed to gather more data using CT scans and Microscopic analysis which led to the revelation that the appendage consisted of eight vertebrae from the middle or end of a long, thin tail that may have been originally made up of more than 25 vertebrae (see below). Based on these findings the researchers believe that the tail belongs to a juvenile coelurosaur, part of a group of theropod dinosaurs that includes everything from tyrannosaurs to modern birds.
  17. Doing my usual sieving of material and came across what I believe to be another toe bone. The identification will be impossible to an actual described species, so I am looking for conformation that the bone fits into the general shape of a genre. I suspect it is either a bird or small theropod so will be going to the museum to live and be displayed. The specimen was found in the Marine Cretaceous deposits of Central Queensland Australia near Richmond, but I doubt it is marine. The specimen is 9 mm long x 4 mm wide. Thanks for all input in advance. Mike D'Arcy
  18. Hi all I have no clue about the owner of this tiny theropod tooth coming from Kem Kem basin (Morocco). To whom it may belong? Size: 1cm more or less. It appears that its shape is different from those identified as Carcharodontosaurus, but denticles are of similar size in both carinae, so it may not belong to dromaeosaurids. Abelisaurid perhaps? Thank you very much in advance
  19. A member of the forum asked if I cam put a topic together to help identify claws from the Hell Creek/Lance formation. Its fraught with difficulty since so little has been published and described from these faunas but will attempt to put something together. All subject to discussion and mistakes. Although the focus there is with the dinosaurs of the Upper Maastrichtian its applicable to most of the other faunas of the Campanian and Lower Maastrichtian ages. Ceratopsian indet. This family of dinosaurs include Triceratops, Torosaurus and other large bodied Ceratopsaian yet to be described. Identifying unguals to a Genus/Species level is impossible and these are best identified as Ceratopsian indet. Ceratopsian unguals are best described as being rugose with many pits/holes on the front perimeter of the ungual. There is also a ledge (more pronounced on some than others) on the ventral side as shown by my red marks. I find it difficult to tell the difference between hand and foot unguals of the same size other than the wings are not has pronounced. The more symmetrical the wings are the closer the ungual is to the midline Digit III. Photos are the best way to show what they look like and here are some from my collection Dorsal view Ungual 1 Ventral View Ungual 1 Dorsal View Ungual 2 Ventral View Ungual 2 Dorsal View Ungual 3 Ventral View Ungual 3 An illustration of a Hand (Manus) A photo of a composite foot Leptoceratops indet. A small Ceratopsian in these faunas is a Leptoceratops. Teeth are the most common material found or sold but there are skeletal elements found. Here is an ungual I found in the Hell Creek. The dorsal view is like an isosceles triangle and very compressed. Dorsal View Ventral View Since these are extremely rare here is an additional photo of a associated set of unguals from the Two Medicine Formation An illustration of an campanian foot An illustration of a digit.
  20. Partial metatarsal (or metacarpal?) of a Theropod dinosaur. Posssibly from a Dromaeosaurid.
  21. I bought some new cool stuff at a local show. I only bought Moroccan material. A few Mosasaur pieces and stuff from Kem Kem. I've only started cleaning and will research them a bit more later. So I thought I'd share some pics first. I also got some new display items that will be nice to showcase some of my other stuff in. From left to right. Top: First there's a chuck with two roots and one tooth. There's also some bone fragments that look like they could be jaw pieces. Will be a fun prepping project. Then there's a Prognathodon tooth that isn't the prettiest but it's really big and it was cheap so I had to get it. And at the end there's a Plesiosaur vertebra with a partial neural arch that will be fun to clean. Bottom: On the left there's a neural arch from a Spinosaurid. I compared it to the recent reconstruction of Spinosaurus and it looks like it's a pretty close match with some of the first dorsal vertebrae. Middle top there's a small caudal vertebra. Middle bottom there's a fish jaw. And on the right from top to bottom. A possible distal femur. A metacarpal/tarsal? And a possible proximal tibia. All three are hollow and probably Theropod or bird. So I have some research and cleaning to do! Really big ugly Mosasaur tooth. Mosasaur tooth and jaw fragments. Fish jaw. Distal femur. It's very asymmetrical as well. Metacarpal or tarsal. The head is almost symmetrical but the shaft seems to be angled more. Spinosaur neural arch from a different angle. Roughly a dorsoposterior view. Since it's not very complete on one side this will make for a great piece to scan and digitally mirror so that I can recreate a bit of the missing pieces. So I'll be having fun with these pieces for a while.
  22. Here is the newest addition to my dinosaur fossil collection. I normally don't share my new additions, unless there is something that might interest other collectors to go along with the specimen. This is a right femur from Nanotyrannus lancensis. It was found by a rancher friend of mine, on a neighboring ranch in Custer County, Montana, Hell Creek Formation. It was prepped and identified by Neal Larson. I am in the camp that Nanotyrannus is a valid taxon, and I enjoy reading publications and watching documentaries that try to prove or disprove that it is. As I was reading an article called "The Case for Nanotyrannus" by Pete Larson, published in a book called Tyrannosaurid Paleobiology, I found an interesting table, pictured below. According to this table, Jane's femur, who Larson believes to be a Nanotyrannus, is 720mm, or 28 inches in length. In the National Geographic documentary, "Dino Death Match", Jane's femur was studied histologically at Oklahoma State University, and found to be that of a juvenile. Her corresponding tibia was found to be 31 inches in length. For comparisons sake, member Troodon kindly provided me with the measurements for the femur and tibia from the Nanotyrannus of the Dueling Dinos, believed to be an adult specimen. The measurements are as follows: femur is 760mm or 30 inches long, and the tibia is 863mm or 34 inches long. That being said. This little femur is 19 inches in length, making it a juvenile younger than Jane, and a little less than 2/3 the length of an adult. (under construction. More in a minute).
  23. Partial tibia of a Theropod dinosaur. Seems very similar to both the tibia of raptors and that of Spinosaurs.
  24. Proper identification of Dinosaur Material with European auctions is typical of what you find in Domestic one. Here are comments on a few items being offered since a number of our members are attracted by their offerings. Here is a beautiful rooted Tyrannosaur tooth being offered. The description suggest it might be a Tyrannosaurus rex but states it there is no label. The preservation looks like a Tarbosaurus from Mongolia, not T rex. The other observation I would make is that there appears to be significant restoration to the lower half of the root which is not stated. A number of T rex teeth being offered appear to look more like Nanotyrannus not T rex. Use caution on all teeth. All of the teeth offered as Albertosaurus should be labeled has Tyrannosaurid indet. e A Triceratops horridus ungual being offered looks more like the hadrosaur Edmontosaurus. Numerous lots of items being offered are Triceratops horridus should be better identified has either Triceratops sp. or Ceratopsian indet. Quite a bit Moroccan Kem Kem material being offered, caution with all of it. The larger teeth are accurate but smaller Abelisaurid teeth are misidentified has Deltadromeus or Rugops. This Deltadromeus raptor claw may not even be Dinosaurian difficult to make that call. Isolated toe bones are hard to ID to a species especially . This one may be has listed Spinosaurus but a better call would be Theropod indet. Just exercise caution and if there are items you are interested in feel free to post them here for our input.
  25. A caudal vertebra of a small dinosaur. Probably Theropod, possibly from a raptor. The vertebra perticularly looks like a vertebra from the base of a Dromaeosaurid tail.