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Found 98 results

  1. Yixian formation theropod tooth

    Does anyone know the ID of his tooth ? its form Yixian formation looking at it I can say its belong to a tyrannosaurid has its robust has well. TB2uUNSbAfb_uJkSnb4XXXCrXXa_!!23247098.jpg_600x600Q50s50.jpg_.webp TB2RAKDgsLJ8KJjy0FnXXcFDpXa_!!23247098.jpg_600x600Q50s50.jpg_.webp TB2PCuBcdHO8KJjSZFHXXbWJFXa_!!23247098.jpg_600x600Q50s50.jpg_.webp
  2. Triassic Tooth

    This is my first post, so please bear with me. I found this tooth this summer in the Rendonda formation in Quay county New Mexico. This should date it to the late Triassic, 202-204 mya. The area where it was found contains almost exclusively Phytosaur fossils, but I am 99% certain that this one is not. It measures about 2.5 cm in length and has one edge with fine serrations. Based on the general shape and serrations, I am guessing some sort of theropod, however I do not know enough about other crocodilian species such as Postosuchus to rule something like that out. Any help would be appreciated, and if you need more pictures/information, feel free to let me know!
  3. Kem Kem Vertebrae ID Thread

    So, lets figure out vertebrae from the Kem Kem beds. As many of you know the Kem Kem beds has a pretty enigmatic palaeo fauna. There is some literature about it, but not a whole lot. Some of it is behind a paywall and much information is pretty scattered. So I got this idea that maybe we could combine our knowledge and information to collectively get a better picture of which bone belongs to which animal, in this case, vertebrae. I know some of you have some fantastic specimens in your collections, if we combine these in this thread we might be able to see some patterns. We probably won't be able to put a genus or species name on each type, but perhaps assigning certain vertebrae to a morphotype might be possible. With that I encourage everyone that has any vertebrae from the Kem Kem beds to share photos of their specimens and post them here so we can use this thread as a sort of library as well as an ID thread that everyone can use to better ID their Kem Kem vertebrae. So please, share your photos! And it might help to number your specimens for easier reference. I will be updating this first post as new information arises with examples to make ID easier. Theropods Spinosaurus aegyptiacus Spinosaurus is known for it's tall neural spines, which are pretty characteristic. Unlike Sigilmassasaurus, Spinosaurus does not have the ventral triangular rough plateau on the centra Spinosaurus cervical vertebrae Spinosaurus dorsal, sacral and caudal vertebrae Sigilmassasaurus brevicollis Sigilmassasaurus is a Spinosaurid that might be closely related to Baryonyx and Suchomimus. It differs from Spinosaurus in that it has a ventral keel on many vertebrae and a triangular rough plateau on the bottom back end. A is Sigilmassasaurus, B is Baryonyx Sigilmassasaurus cervical vertebrae Sigilmassasaurus dorsal vertebrae Indeterminate Spinosaurid vertebrae Not a whole lot has been published yet, so some bones can probably not be ID'd on genus level. Spinosaurid caudal vertebrae From Paleoworld-101's collection Charcharodontosaurids Due to an old paper Sigilmassasaurus vertebrae are sometimes misidentified as Carcharodontosaurid. These vertebrae should be identified on the basis of the original description by Stromer. Carcharodontosaurid cervical vertebrae Abelisaurids examples needed Deltadromeus agilis better examples needed Sauropods Rebbachisaurus garasbae Not a whole lot is known about this titanosaur, as only a few bones have been found. Notice that the vertebrae are very extensively pneumaticised. Rebbachisaurus dorsal vertebrae Unnamed Titanosaurian mid caudal vertebra Crocodiles more examples needed Kemkemia This crocodile is only known by a single terminal caudal vertebra. Kemkemia caudal vertebra Turtles examples needed Pterosaurs Azhdarchids Azhdarchid (probably Alanqa) posterior fragment cervical vertebra Azhdarchid Mid cervical vertebra Sources Spinosaurids https://peerj.com/articles/1323/?utm_source=TrendMD&utm_campaign=PeerJ_TrendMD_1&utm_medium=TrendMD http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0144695 Sauropods Jeffrey A. Wilson & Ronan Allain (2015) Osteology of Rebbachisaurus garasbae Lavocat, 1954, a diplodocoid (Dinosauria, Sauropoda) from the early Late Cretaceous–aged Kem Kem beds of southeastern Morocco, Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology, 35:4, e1000701, DOI: 10.1080/02724634.2014.1000701 https://www.researchgate.net/publication/304214496_Evidence_of_a_derived_titanosaurian_Dinosauria_Sauropoda_in_the_Kem_Kem_beds_of_Morocco_with_comments_on_sauropod_paleoecology_in_the_Cretaceous_of_Africa Kemkemia sisn.pagepress.org/index.php/nhs/article/viewFile/nhs.2012.119/32 Pterosaurs https://docs.google.com/viewer?url=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.thefossilforum.com%2Fapplications%2Fcore%2Finterface%2Ffile%2Fattachment.php%3Fid%3D432009&fname=journal.pone.0010875.PDF&pdf=true https://riviste.unimi.it/index.php/RIPS/article/view/5967
  4. 3 years ago a very gullible me bought a lot on ebay containg what were sold as Spinosaurus aegyptiacus teeth. It was pretty much a disappointment, i paid a lot for teeth in a very bad shape, visibly glued together and with sediment still attached to them. I was a beginner at collectig fossils so I considert that purchase as false but needed step. However this particular tooth intrigue me. It's in a very bad shape, but it's different from the others more "pale" (and fortunately better) Spinosauridae sp. teeth that I had in my little collection. It was written that they all comes from the Kem Kem formation, but I don't know if that's true. Can someone identify the specie to which it belog? Thanks Fn8
  5. Theropod sp.

    From the album Dinosaur teeth

    Theropod sp. Jurassic (Bathonian) Isalo III Formation Ambondromany, Mahajana Province, Madagascar
  6. so was ti prey or apex predator? This is a partial femur measauring in at 24 1/2 inches or 627mm purchased from a dealer in Merzouga, it has been with him for around three months watched his co workers dig it up cam from the layer of conglomerate sediment.
  7. Updated 11/7/17 Although a lot of this has already been posted on a number of topics, I thought consolidation it might prove useful with some additional information. If you're planning to purchase theropod teeth from Morocco's Kem Kem Beds or already have some in your collection check this out. Moroccan theropods are poorly understood and not a lot has been published. Very few articulated skeletons have been found and most are partial and without a skull. There is also lots of mis-information, mostly unintentional, from some dealers but especially online auction sites. Unfortunately these are the most misidentified commercially sold dinosaur fossil around. Please post your interest here on the forum before you buy. Background: The Kem Kem Beds also known as the ‘‘Continental Intercalaire’’ or "Continental Red Beds" is composed of three formations: Akrabou, Aoufous and Ifezouane Formation. The latter two are the dinosaur producing sediments with the Ifezouane being the principal one. They are Cenomanian in age. The attached drawing gives a representation how they lay. The distribution of the different groups of fossils in the Ifezouane Formation can been see in the pie chart below. Dinosaurs make up a small percentage of what is collected. So first lets identify what is known to the best of my knowledge. Theropods that have been described across North Africa (focus on large bodied theropods) Theropods that have been described in Kem Kem: (family) Spinosaurus aegyptiacus * (Spinosaurid) *Some paleontologist believe this species is unique to Egypt and Kem Kem material should be identified as Spinosauid indet. Lots of questions exist over Ibrahim (2014) diagnosis which validated this species. Carcharodontosaurus saharicus (Carcharodontosaurid) Deltadromeus agilis (Neovenatorid) Sigilmassasaurus brevicollis (Spinosaurid) Sauroniops pachytholus (Carcharodontosaurid) Theropods that have not been described from the Kem Kem but isolated teeth exist and have been reflected in scientific papers: Dromaeosaurid sp.? Hendrickx suggested these are actually Noasaurid indet. Abelisaurid indet. Theropod teeth that are sold commercially but no scientific evidence yet to link them to the Kem Kem: Abelisaurus sp. (Not described from North Africa) Rugops sp. (Only described from Niger) Bahariasaurus sp. (Only described from Egypt) Elaphrosaurus sp. (From Jurassic of Tanzania) So what is being sold and what are the issues? Spinosaurid Teeth are well understood by both collector and dealers, see photo. Issues are typically associated with restoration and compositing a larger tooth from multiple teeth. Teeth with matrix attached to them are suspect for restoration so be careful. At least two species of Spinosaurids exits and it's currently impossible to determine if they are Spinosaurus or Sigilmassasaurus or Undescribed taxon. Conflicting taxonomic hypotheses have been proposed. Ibrahim at al (2014) suggest that all specimens found belong to Spinosaurus aegyptiacus. Evers et al (2015) regard Spinosaurus maroccanus and Sigiilmassaurus brevicollis as belonging to the same taxon Sigiilmassaurus brevicollis which is also supported by Hendrickx et al (2016). Ever at al (2015) also described additional specimens from a second unnamed Spinosaurid. Bottom line we do not have enough specimens to eliminate ontogenetic or sexual dimorphism differences and accurately describe Spinosaurids in the Kem Kem. So these teeth are best identified as: Spinosaurid indet. Carcharodontosaurid Teeth, those that are compressed and blade like, first photo. Wrinkles by the distal carina are diagnostic to this species. Mesial teeth are fat, slender and look very different (D shaped) (next three photos). Two species currently are described Carcharodontosaurus saharicus and Sauroniops pachytholus and its impossible to differentiate teeth between these taxons. Similiar to the Spinosaurid debate one exists with these two species and if Sauroniops is valid. Similiar to Spinosaurids the big issue is having enough specimens to make a proper determination in what exists.. For these reasons best identified as : Carcharodontosaurid indet. Theropod indet. There are also intermediate size teeth (1 1/2") that are being sold as Deltadromeus or another theropod. I believe these could be Deltadromeus teeth but until we see scientific evidence this morphology of tooth should be identified as Theropod indet. No skull was found with the holotype or in any other discoveries so we do not know what look like. Carcharodontosaurid serrations Theropod indet. Dromaeosaurid: Teeth being sold as Dromaeosaurus are most likely misidentified, so here is what to look for. There are a few morphologies floating around but nothing as been formally described. Teeth are typically small around 1/2" (1.2cm) to over 1" (2.5cm) One morphology of these teeth are suggested by Hendrickx to be from a Noasaurid dinosaur. Although you see many sellers using the word Raptor next to what they are offering it's unknown if there is a true raptor in the Kem Kem. Abelisaurids are not raptors This figure identifies a study of isolated teeth by Richter (2015) and identifies two morphologies (A to D) and (E to G) as Dromaeosaurid. Mesial and distal carinae show a distinct density difference in serrations. The tip of the tooth extends past the base. On morph E/F a faint but visible constriction between crown and root is visible. The later form suggested by some paleontologists is most similiar to troodontids. Morph variant 3 that I have in my collection but not seen in any papers Mesial and distal carinae range show a distinct difference. A distinct twist to the mesial carina. Abelisaurid indet. With new discoveries we can put a real species name to these teeth but currently they are indet. These are easily identifiable but can easily be misidentified with certain morphologies of Dromaeosaurid teeth. The teeth are very compressed, the cross-section is oval at the base, the mesial side is strongly curved and the distal side is almost straight to the base of the tooth, see red lines in the photo. Mesial and distal carinae range from only a slight to a distinct difference. The only morphological feature that discriminates a tooth of a dromaeosaurid from that of an abelisaurid is the unique mesial and distal curvature profile of the abelisaurid crown. These teeth could belong to Rugops since it's an Abelisaurid but we have no scientific information to support that claim. Premaxillary Bottom Line: There are NO theropod teeth in the Kem Kem Beds that you can currently definitively assign to a Genus to, no less a Species.
  8. Late Cretaceous Small rib

    We found this little fragmented rib during our last fossil hunting trip. We were lucky to find most of the pieces eroding from the Badlands. We usually come across lots of hadrosaur ribs and this one looks totally different, not just in size, but also in shape. The cross-section near the bend in the rib is more square then the usual oval. Late Cretaceous Alberta, Dinosaur Park formation. Thanks
  9. Straight Outta Mesozoic

    As a graphic design artist I sometimes like to create some paleo-art and pop-art mash-ups. Please feel free to comment.
  10. Kem Kem Raptor Humerus

    I bought a number of cool little Kem Kem fossils recently. There's a number of quite interesing ones in there. One of them turned out to be pretty special. As far as I know Dromaeosaurid material is pretty rare in the Kem Kem beds. But this seems to be the upper part of a right humerus of a raptor. Other Theropods are generally pretty different and those of birds while more similar also don't match. the bone is obviously hollow but the bone wall is still fairly substantial, which makes me think its Dromaeosaur instead of bird. The bone is also almost identical in shape and size to the humerus of the small Dromaeosaurid Bambiraptor. Though mine is obviously not as complete, but still very nicely preserved in 3D. I feel confident enough to call this raptor that I wanted to share this with you guys. Bambiraptor humerus. Needless to say, I'm really happy with this piece.
  11. Hey everyone! I came across a listing for a partial limb bone of a T Rex, where the seller states that you know it's from a T Rex because of the honeycomb structure of the interior bone. However, I was of the understanding that all theropods had this structure (please correct me if I'm wrong, I'm still learning). If that's the case, is there a way to tell if it's from a T Rex and not from another theropod? I can provide more photos if necessary.
  12. Hey everyone. I purchased this fossil recently and wanted to get your opinions on it. It is from the Hell Creek formation of Montana. The seller says that is either a surangular or angular bone from a theropod jaw. After looking at pictures it does look very similar to the angular bone of a Nanotyrannus, looks about the right size too. What do you dinosaur experts think? Thanks! -Mike
  13. Check out my new t rex partial limb bone. Any expert thoughts, comments?
  14. Hi For some time, I am working on a composite of a juvenile Spinosaurus foot. Currently, it is about 65% complete. Finding bones that are a good match in terms of size/geometry is quite tricky. More specifically, I am looking for the following Spinosaurus material that comes from the Kem Kem beds in Morocco: - 3 phalanges with a length between 50mm and 70mm (2 inch to 2.75 inch)- One foot claw with a length of about 70mm to 90mm (2.75 inch to 3.5 inch) - The metatarsal at the backside of the foot (digit I), about 60mm long (2.4 inch) - The reduced digit V, about 90mm long (3.5 inch) In return, I can offer interesting dinosaur material from the Cretaceous and Jurrasic including teeth, metatarsals, vertebrae etc. I know that this request is probably a long shot. However, I noticed that there are several more fossil enthusiasts who collect material from the Kem Kem. Maybe you can help me with that.
  15. I've always wanted to find my own triassic/jurassic footprints and looking for a suggestion or two. I live by the Riker Hill area where extracting dinosaur footprints is now prohibited and it's a bummer. So, does anyone know of a place nearby where I can try finding my own footprint legally?
  16. I am thinking of buying this but have no idea if it is just a small vert or juvenile as it's for the kem kem dealer I know it is genuine but there would be no way to put an i.d. on it apart from caudal.
  17. Help with some Hell Creek fossil ID

    Hello there! I live in western South Dakota, and my family has a ranch right in the middle of the Hell Creek Formation. There is a location about 1 mile from a river where about three years ago I found several serrated tooth fragments. I went back to this location last week to see if I could find any more of the tooth fragments. I did find some more serrated fragments, but they are from a different tooth, and possibly different species entirely. There are several areas within a 50 yard radius with bones surfacing, but they seem to be from several different creatures. I'm used to seeing triceratops and duckbill bones at the surface, which are light in color, spongy, and very, very crumbly. Most of the bones in this area are much different, and I'm not sure if that would be due to the type of sediment it was preserved in, the location, or the species. Many of these outcroppings could almost be mistaken for iron ore rock that is breaking apart. I was hoping to get some help identifying one piece in particular. Please ignore the rubber bands, I'm trying to find the missing pieces before I glue the large sections together. All the pieces together will make it around a foot long. In some areas, the bone is a dark chocolate brown, and very smooth and shiny. Any help would be greatly appreciated. I have a really hard time finding any sources of information on theropod, Hell Creek, or Cretaceous identification. If anyone knows of any good literature for this area, feel free to post a link, it would be greatly appreciated!
  18. Theropod/bird cast

    Hello, I am new here (sorry if I did something wrong or something I shouldn't have) and I am volunteering at a geology museum and I was given this cast of a fossil to look at and see what it was by a visitor. The visitor told me she got it as a gift and she does not know where it came from, nor does she know what it is. I was wondering if anyone here might be of some assistance in figuring out what it might be? I think it is some sort of Coelurosaurian (maybe a primitive bird?). Unfortunately I do not have any more or better pictures available right now. I could get some more pictures, but I'm not back at the museum until next week so it will take a few days. Also the cast is about a foot long (give or take about 2 inches).
  19. Dinosaur Track? Nova Scotia

    ...Will post 3 more images Is this a Dinosaur footprint? Looks like Theropod maybe? Found on Nova Scotia Beach Any insight is appreciated for this amateur. Thanks in advance.
  20. Moroccan Claw

    I never really had much belief this claw was real but I would like to get some more opinions. It's from the Kem Kem region.
  21. Tyrannosaurid tooth

    Tooth of a Tyrannosaurid. This tooth belongs to either Albertosaurus, Gorgosaurus or Daspletosaurus. Note the wear facets on the top and medial side of the tooth.
  22. Coelophysis pt. 2 thoughts?

    The teeth are extremely small. Hard to see it clearly, but just wanted to know some general thoughts. I'm more worried about the authenticity factor. Also I'm assuming that this is a juvenille. Let me know what you guys think. Thanks.
  23. Coelophysis

    Just recently purchased one of these teeth for the cheap price of $14 dollars from a seller on ebay. I was wondering if anyone with more experience with fossils than I, could tell me if they believe this tooth to be authentic? The ebay seller has all positive reviews. Thank you.
  24. Hi, I've noticed a lot of talk about the different issues with theropod teeth that originate from the Kem Kem beds on this board, and it reminded me that I had a 'Spinosaurus' tooth in my collection. I bought it when I was a kid, and obviously didn't question it's legitimacy or ID in any way. But now that I'm older and have a lot more experience I noticed some features of the tooth that I find slightly dubious. Firstly is the size, it's small, only around 3cm which doesn't compare to some of the enormous teeth in the dentition of Spinosaurus that I've seen. Secondly is the presence of sandy matrix material around the base of the crown which as I've read on here can indicate restoration, and to me looks quite strange. I was wondering if anyone could help confirm if the tooth does appear to be from a Spinosaurid and whether or not it has been restored/composited in anyway. Thanks, Theo
  25. Weird Kem Kem Theropod Tooth

    Picked up this odd little theropod tooth from Kem Kem today. Not sure what it is, the only tooth I've ever seen share these qualities is a Torvosaur Anterior tooth. It's round, only has serrations on distal side. The mesial side is devoid of serrations (not from wear) The tooth is about 3/4" long.
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