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Found 6 results

  1. Evolution From Fin to Foot

    Article on new structural findings of Tiktaalik and other fish/tetrapod fins/feet https://m.phys.org/news/2019-12-fish-fins-evolved-transition.html
  2. Somewhat fishy

    Ahoi, I just finished a model of Dunkleosteus the lazy way, because I don´t have that much time these days. Lazy way means: Skull is a bought model from kaiyodo dinotales, postcranial is a skeletal drawing by Scott Hartmann I modified slightly and printed on some transparent foil. Like the outcome. It is quite small though, only 15 cm, representing a meager 3m in my chosen scale. can anyone tell what the other two are? both recent species, one handmade after a photograph, the other 3d printed from ct data. As I don´t know if I can add tags after posting , I just added the ones I may put in this thread if I ever find the time to build them. After all my Whales, other marine Mammals , Birds and Reptiles I thought it would be nice if I could include some more Reptiles and "Amphibians" (?) If it crossed the border between land and sea, its likeness shall be built by me -some day. -Placodus -Cyamodus -Mastodonsaurus -Tiktaalik -Ichthyostega -Diplocaulus Aloha, J
  3. I was around six years old, I suppose, when the rest of my life began - I can recall very few details about myself, but the sequence of events that unfolded remain as clear as day. My godparents had arrived at our old family home for a visit and brought me a present. Since they knew that every kid, myself included, went through a dinosaur phase, they handed me something a little different than I was expecting: a little fossil fish. Many years later, that fish is still sitting beside me on my desk at university. Most of you will recognize this immediately as a very standard, very respectable Knightia eocaena from the Green River Fm - I would not be surprised if many of you have gone collecting out there and chiseled away hundreds over the years. But to me, this was brand new, and I spent hours poring over a fossil guide to identify my new fish. That was the point of no return, and I have never left the long and winding road that is paleontology. Looking back, this turning point was a bit unusual. Before and after that day, I had next to no interest in fossil fish. Reptiles and birds were more my style, and indeed they remain my topics of interest. But my journey towards paleontology began with a fish - and in a delightfully ironic twist of fate, I find myself entering the professional and academic realm of paleo with a fish. Admittedly, it's been a while, hasn't it? Forum stats tell me I was last active sometime in 2016, and my last substantial posts of any kind were even earlier in 2014. It's been more than six years since I first joined TFF, which is incredibly scary, but even then I have relatively little to show for it. To be fair, I've been busy. I've completed my first year of a five-year university program in Philadelphia, working towards an undergraduate degree in geoscience with concentrations in paleontology - and I work at the Academy of Natural Sciences in numerous capacities, both publically, and behind the scenes. It's been a wonderful experience. After my first year, I decided to forgo my one potential summer break in favor of a ten-week, full-time research project in the vertebrate paleontology collections and the Daeschler lab at the Academy. You may have heard of this not-so-little fish called Tiktaalik roseae...apparently it's a pretty big deal when it comes to evolutionary biology...in any case, the Academy played a large part in its discovery and description, and the fossils were held there until about two years ago, when they went back to Canada. Thankfully, a number of casts remain in the collection, along with detailed CT scans of the specimens to be used in future research. Well, apparently we live in the future, because this is where I come in. Since June, I have been poring over the CT data from a large lower jaw of Tiktaalik - all 4000+ slices - and flung myself headfirst into the digital realm to explore details unseen to the naked eye. We have a pretty good handle on the lower jaw morphology of tristichopterid fish such as Eusthenopteron - the case is the same for more derived tetrapods such as Acanthostega. Not so much for the intermediate forms, Tiktaalik and co, these transitional forms. We still haven't properly identified where the bones ARE in the lower jaw (or even how many there are - a newly uncertain statistic in recent years). What can we tell by peering through the bone, identifying dimensions and suture points within the mandible? In context with more primitive and more derived organisms, the results could be insightful. So that's what I set out to do. Last week I presented the preliminary results at our annual on-site undergraduate research conference to the world at large - a wonderful and cathartic conclusion to the summer. (That's me in front of the poster, undoubtedly talking about infradentaries or somesuch...the required poster dimensions weren't nearly large enough for my images at any decent resolution, so I had to get innovative and throw in some pullout tabs for the Eusthenopteron and Acanthostega comparisons. If this arrangement becomes a trend...well, you saw it here first! photo: Vincent O'Leary) (And if you all want, I'll see what I can do about attaching a copy of the poster - it's made up of multiple files due to my somewhat necessary feat of engineering.) And at the same time, it was only the beginning of things to come. There's a grad student at the University of Chicago looking at sutures in the Tiktaalik cranium: since I'm working on the lower jaw, I'll be contacting him soon about the possibility of comparing notes and possibly even getting a model of the whole skull. Starting in the fall I'll be splitting my time between the Daeschler lab and the big prep lab downstairs, working on Jurassic and Cretaceous material recovered from Montana and Wyoming by the Bighorn Basin Paleontological Institute. In all likelihood, I'll be making the journey out west myself next year, and reaching even more exotic locales over the coming years. On a final note, I was also able to attend my first two academic conferences over the summer: the 2017 International Symposium on Paleohistology (in Trenton, NJ) and the 2017 Society of Vertebrate Paleontology meeting (in Calgary, AB). No presentations from me during either of them - these were just to attend, get to know people, and soak up the atmosphere. They were well worth the time. I have a brand new crop of lifelong friends that I look forward to meeting again many times down the road. It's been a tremendous experience so far, and only in the space of a year...we'll see what the future holds!
  4. Hi All, This is my first post in the forums, but probably won't be my last... I'm trying to write a kids book on evolution and want to draw some nice pictures to go with the rhymes (it's aimed at younger kids). However for the page I have written about Tiktaalik roseae I would like to do a picture of it resting on the bank of a river, with some of the likely associated flora and fauna that lived in the margins of freshwater at the time hanging out in the background/foreground (probably foreground as I suspect they were all fairly small). Unfortunately there don't seem to be a lot of good fossils from the Famennian in Canada at this time and so I was wondering if anyone would be able to help me identify some likely candidates. There is a lot of information on the tetrapods that lived with it but it seems like nobody has covered the land living/marginal species that may have crossed paths with it. There is also some info about things like e.g. Archaeopteris, Gigantocharinus, Microdecemplex, etc. but none of them seem to occur in the same location/stratigraphy. Hopefully the way I have written this doesn't make me sound completely clueless (although chances are good), as it's been a while since I've dabbled in palaeontology, but if anyone wants further clarification then let me know. Thanks in advance, this is a great website, by the way! Cheers SpoonMan
  5. Pros Stumped By 3 In. Fish-Gator

    This fossil was inherited so unfortunatly I don't know the background on it. The creature within is approximatly three inches in length. It appears to have skin like an alligator with the tail of a fish, most resembling a coelocanth tail. My interest in the fossil was renewed after reading about the discovery of tiktaalik. Unlike other supposedly pre-tetrapod fishes, there is no sign of any anterior fins (besides caudal) or appendages. This has given pause to some professional paleontologists who will not even hazzard a guess as to whether what I have is, as I believe, even a vertibrate. (I can't help but wonder if it may be some sort of transitional species, possibly even one with growth stages likened to a modern amphibian.) The previous owner of this fossil was a long-time resident of Corpus Christi, Texas. He also once lived near Fayetteville Arkansas. My suspicion is that the fossil is from the Nueces River Basin. GoodLuck.
  6. These are a few of the pdf files (and a few Microsoft Word documents) that I've accumulated in my web browsing. MOST of these are hyperlinked to their source. If you want one that is not hyperlinked or if the link isn't working, e-mail me at joegallo1954@gmail.com and I'll be happy to send it to you. Please note that this list will be updated continuously as I find more available resources. All of these files are freely available on the Internet so there should be no copyright issues. Articles with author names in RED are new additions since June 19, 2018. Class Sarcopterygii - Lobe-Finned Fish Qiao, T. and M. Zhu (2010). Cranial morphology of the Silurian sarcopterygian Guiyu oneiros (Gnathostoma: Osteichthyes). Science China - Earth Sciences, Vol.53, Number 12. Order Onychodontida (†) Andrews, M., et al. (2005). The structure of the sarcopterygian Onychodus jandemarri n.sp. from Gogo, Western Australia: with a functional interpretation of the skeleton. Transactions of the Royal Society of Edinburgh: Earth Sciences, 96. Johanson, Z., et al. (2007). New Onychodontiform (Osteichthyes: Sarcopterygii) from the Lower Devonian of Victoria, Australia. J.Paleont., 81(5). Long, J.A. (1991). Arthrodire predation by Onychodus (Pisces, Crossopterygii) from the Late Devonian Gogo Formation, Western Australia. Rec.West Aust.Mus., 15(2). Lu, J. and M. Zhu (2009). An onychodont fish (Osteichthyes, Sarcopterygii) from the Early Devonian of China, and the evolution of the Onychodontiformes. Proceedings of the Royal Society B, published online. Lu, J., et al. (2016). A Devonian predatory fish provides insights into the early evolution of modern sarcopterygians. Science Advances, 2(6). Schultze, H.-P. (1973). The skull of Grossius aragonensis, an onychodont from the Middle Devonian of Spain. Palaeontographica Abt.A, 143. Subclass Actinistia - Coelacanths and Their Allies Family Diplocercidae (†) Gess, R.W. and M.I. Coates (2015). Fossil juvenile coelacanths from the Devonian of South Africa shed light on the order of character acquisition in actinistians. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society, 175. Family Hadronectoridae (†) Friedman, M. and M.I. Coates (2006). A newly recognized fossil coelacanth highlights the early morphological diversification of the clade. Proc.R.Soc.B., 273. Family Laugiidae (†) Wendruff, A.J. and M.V.H. Wilson (2013). New Early Triassic coelacanth in the family Laugiidae (Sarcopterygii: Actinistia) from the Sulphur Mountain Formation near Wapiti Lake, British Columbia, Canada. Can.J. Earth Sci., 50. Family Rhabdodermatidae (†) Forey, P.L. (1981). The Coelacanth Rhabdoderma in the Carboniferous of the British Isles. Palaeontology, Vol.24, Part 1. Westoll, T.S. (1939). On Spermatodus pustulosus Cope, a Coelacanth from the "Permian" of Texas. American Museum Novitates, Number 1017. Order Coelacanthiformes Family Coelacanthidae (†) Brito, P.M. and D.M. Martill (1999). Discovery of a Juvenile Coelacanth in the Lower Cretaceous, Crato Formation, Northeastern Brazil. Cymbium, 23(3). Rieppel, O. (1980). A new coelacanth from the Middle Triassic of Monte San Giorno, Switzerland. Eclogae geol.Helv., Vol.73/3. Schaeffer, B. (1941). A Revision of Coelacanthus newarki and Notes on the Evolution of the Girdles and Basal Plates of the Medial Fins in the Coelacanthini. American Museum Novitates, Number 1110. Family incertae sedis (Coelacanthiformes) (†) Dutel, H., E. Pennetier and G. Pennetier (2014). A Giant Marine Coelacanth from the Jurassic of Normandy, France. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology, 34(5). Geng, B.-H., M. Zhu and F. Jin (2009). A Revision and Phylogenetic Analysis of Guizhoucoelacanthus (Sarcopterygii, Actinistia) from the Triassic of China. Vertebrata PalAsiatica, 47(3). Johanson, Z., et al. (2006). Oldest coelacanth, from the Early Devonian of Australia. Biology Letters, 2. Witzmann, F., M. Dorka and D. Korn (2010). A juvenile Early Carboniferous (Viséan) coelacanth from Rösenbeck (Rhenish Mountains, Germany) with derived postcranial characters. Fossil Record, 13(2). Family(?) Miguashaiidae (†) Cloutier, R. 19. The primitive actinistian Miguashaia bureaui Schultze (Sarcopterygii). Forey, P.L., et al. (2000). A New Coelacanth from the Middle Devonian of Latvia. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology, 20(2). Long, J.A. (1999). A new genus of fossil coelacanth (Osteichthyes: Coelacanthiformes) from the Middle Devonian of southeastern Australia. Records of the Western Australian Museum, Supplement Number 57. Suborder Latimerioidei Family Latimeriidae Cavin, L. and E. Grădinaru (2014). Dobrogeria aegyssensis, a new early Spathian (Early Triassic) coelacanth from North Drobrogea (Romania). Acta Geologica Polonica, Vol.64, Number 2. Clement, G. (2005). A New Coelacanth (Actinistia, Sarcopterygii) from the Jurassic of France, and the Question of the Closest Relative Fossil to Latimeria. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology, 25(3). Dutel, H., et al. (2012). The Giant Cretaceous Coelacanth (Actinistia, Sarcopterygii) Megacoelacanthus dobiei Schwimmer, Stewart & Williams, 1994 and Its Bearing on Latimerioidea Interrelationships. PLoS ONE, 7(11). Lehmann, J., M.W. Maisch and U. Resch (1997). Coelacanthiformes (Sarcopterygii, Actinistia) from the Cenomanian of NW Germany. N.Jb.Geol.Palaont. Abh., 206(1). Schwimmer, D.R. Giant Fossil Coelacanth from the Late Cretaceous of the Eastern United States. Fernbank Magazine. Uenyo, T. and Y. Yabumoto (2007). Origin of Extant Coelacanths. In: The Coelacanth: Fathom the Mystery. Family Mawsoniidae (†) Brito, P.M. and D.M. Martill (1999). Discovery of a Juvenile Coelacanth in the Lower Cretaceous, Crato Formation, Northeastern Brazil. Cymbium, 23(3). Brito, P.M., et al. (2018). First occurrence of a mawsoniid (Sarcopterygia: Actinistia), Mawsonia soba sp.nov., in pre-Aptian Cretaceous deposits from Cameroon. Cretaceous Research, 86. Carnier Fragoso, L.G., P.M. Brito and Y. Yabumoto (2018). Axelrodichthyes araripensis Maisey, 1986 revisited. Historical Biology, 2018. Cavin, L., X. Valentin and G. Garcia (2016). A new mawsoniid coelacanth (Actinistia) from the Upper Cretaceous of Southern France. Cretaceous Research, 62. Cavin, L., et al. (2005). Latest European coelacanth shows Gondwanan affinities. Biology Letters. Cupello, C., et al. (2016). Mawsoniid remains (Sarcopterygii: Actinistia) from the lacustrine Missao Velha Formation (Lower Cretaceous) of the Araripe Basin, North-East Brazil. Cretaceous Research, 65. de Carvalho, M.S.S. and J.G. Maisey (2008). New occurrence of Mawsonia (Sarcopterygii: Actinistia) from the Early Cretaceous of the Sanfranciscana Basin, Minas Gerais, southeastern Brazil. In: Fishes and the Break-up of Pangaea, Cavin, L., A. Longbottom and M. Richter (eds.). de Carvalho, M.S.S., V. Gallo and H.R.S. Santos (2013). New species of coelacanth fish from the Lower Cretaceous (Albian) of the Grajau Basin, NE Brazil. Cretaceous Research, 46. Deesri, U., et al. (2017). A mawsoniid coelacanth (Sarcopterygii: Actinistia) from the Rhaetian (Upper Triassic) of the Peygros quarry, Le Thoronet (Var, southeastern France). Geol.Mag., Rapid Communication. Dutel, H., M. Herbin and G. Clement (2015). First Occurrence of a Mawsoniid Coelacanth in the Early Jurassic of Europe. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology, e929581. Gallo, V., M.S.S. de Carvalho and H.R.S. Santos (2010). New occurrence of Mawsoniidae (Sarcopterygii, Actinistia) in the Morro do Chaves Formation, Lower Cretaceous of the Sergipe-Alagoas Basin, Northeastern Brazil. Bol.Mus.Para. Emilio Goeldi. Cienc.Nat., Belem, Vol.5, Number 2. Gottfried, M.D., R.R. Rogers and K.C. Rogers (2004). First record of Late Cretaceous coelacanths from Madagascar. In: Recent Advances in the Origin and Early Radiation of Vertebrates. Arratia, G., M.V.H. Wilson and R. Cloutier (eds.), Verlag Dr. Friedrich Pfeil, Munich, Germany. Miguel, R., V. Gallo and J.J. Morrone (2014). Distributional patterns of † Mawsoniidae (Sarcopterygii: Actinistia). Annals of the Brazilian Academy of Sciences, (2014). Schaeffer, B. (1952). The Triassic coelacanth fish Diplurus, with observations on the evolution of the Coelacanthini. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History, Vol.99, Article 2. (38.9 MB) Schaeffer, B. (1948). A Study of Diplurus longicaudatus With Notes on the Body Form and Locomotion of the Coelacanthini. American Museum Novitates, Number 1378. Yabumoto, Y. and P.M. Brito (2013). The second record of a mawsoniid coelacanth from the Lower Cretaceous Crato Formation, Araripe Basin, northeastern Brazil, with comments on the development of coelacanths. In: Mesozoic Fishes 5 - Global Diversity and Evolution. Arratia, G., H.-P. Schultze and M.V.H. Wilson (eds.), Verlag Dr. Friedrich Pfeil, Munich, Germany. Family Whiteiidae (†) Arratia, G. and H.P. Schultze (2015). A New Fossil Actinistian from the Early Jurassic of Chile and its Bearings on the Phylogeny of the Actinistia. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology, e983524. General Actinistia Cloutier, R. (1991). Patterns, trends and rates of evolution within the Actinistia. Environmental Biology of Fishes, 32. Cloutier, R. and P.L. Forey (1991). Diversity of extinct and living actinistian fishes (Sarcopterygii). Environmental Biology of Fishes, 32. Hauser, L.M. and D.R. Martill (2013). Evidence for coelacanths in the Late Triassic (Rhaetian) of England. Proceedings of the Geologists' Association, 124. Lund, R. and W.R. Lund (1985). Coelacanths from the Bear Gulch Limestone (Namurian) of Montana and the Evolution of the Coelacanthiformes. Bulletin of Carnegie Museum of Natural History, Number 25. Schaeffer, B. and J.T. Gregory (1961). Coelacanth Fishes from the Continental Triassic of the Western United States. American Museum Novitates, Number 2036. Schultze, H.-P. and K.A. Gonzalez-Rodriguez (2016). Actinistian gular plates from the Cretaceous of Mexico and the problem of assigning gular plates taxonomically. Foss.Rec., 19. Szrek, P. (2007). Coelacanths (Actinistia, Sarcopterygii) from the Famennian (Upper Devonian) of the Holy Cross Mountains, Poland. Acta Geologica Polonica, Vol.57, Number 4. Wang, N. and H. Liu (1981). Coelacanth Fishes from the Marine Permian of Zhejiang, South China. Vertebrata PalAsiatica, Vol. XIX, Number 4. Wen, W., et al. (2013). Coelacanths from the Middle Triassic Luoping Biota, Yunnan, South China, with the earliest evidence of ovoviviparity. Acta Palaeontologica Polonica, 58(1). Wendruff, A.J. (2011). Lower Triassic Coelacanths of the Sulphur Mountain Formation (Wapiti Lake) in British Columbia, Canada. Masters Thesis - University of Alberta. Zhu, M., et al. (2012). Earliest known coelacanth skull extends the range of anatomically modern coelacanths to the Early Devonian. Nature Communications, 3:772. Infraclass Dipnomorpha Order Porolepiformes (†) Ahlberg, P.E. (1992). A New Holoptychiid Porolepiform Fish from the Upper Frasnian of Elgin, Scotland. Palaeontology, Vol.35, Part 4. Cloutier, R. and H.-P. Schultze. 20. Porolepiform fishes (Sarcopterygii). Article starts on page 248. Downs, J.P., et al. (2013). Holoptychius bergmanni sp.nov. (Sarcopterygii, Porolepiformes) from the Upper Devonian of Nunavut, Canada, and a review of Holoptychius taxonomy. Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia, 162. Downs, J.P., et al. (2011). A New Species of Laccognathus (Sarcopterygii, Porolepiformes) from the Late Devonian of Ellesmere Island, Nunavut, Canada. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology, 31(5). Kulczycki, J. (1960). Porolepis (Crossopterygii) from the Lower Devonian of the Holy Cross Mountains. Acta Palaeontologica Polonica, Vol.V, Number 1. Mondejar-Fernandez, J. and P. Janvier (2014). Further evidence for the presence of holoptychiid porolepiforms (Sarcopterygii, Dipnomorpha) from the Frasnian of Colombia. C.R. Palevol, xxx-xxx (Article in Press) Mondejar-Fernandez, J. and G. Clement (2012). Squamation and Scale Microstructure Evolution in the Porolepiformes (Sarcopterygii, Dipnomorpha) Based on Heimenia ensis from the Devonian of Spitsbergen. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology, 32(2). Schultze, H.-P. (2000). A Porolepiform Rhipidistian from the Lower Devonian of the Canadian Arctic. Mitt.Mus.Nat.kd.Berl., Geowiss., Vol.3. Thomson, K.S. (1966). Glyptolepis from the Middle Devonian of Scotland. Peabody Museum of Natural History, Postilla Number 99. Subclass Dipnoi - Lungfishes Order Indet. Family Chirodipteridae (†) Clement, A.M. (2009). A new genus of lungfish from the Givetian (Middle Devonian) of central Australia. Acta Palaeontologica Polonica, 54(4). Henderson, S.A.C. and T.J. Challands (2018). The cranial endocast of the Upper Devonian dipnoan Chirodipterus australis. PeerJ Preprints. (Not peer reviewed) Long, J.A. (1992). Gogodipterus paddyensis (Miles) Gen.Nov., A Chirodipterid Lungfish from the Late Devonian Gogo Formation, Western Australia. The Beagle, Records of the Northern Territory Museum of Arts and Sciences, 9(1). Pridmore, P.A. and R.E. Barwick (1993). Post-cranial morphologies of the Late Devonian dipnoans Griphognathus and Chirodipterus and locomotor implications. Memoirs of the Association of Australasian Palaeontologists, 15. Schultze, H.-P. (1982). A Dipterid Dipnoan from the Middle Devonian of Michigan, U.S.A. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology, 2(2). Family Dipnorhynchidae (†) Campbell, K.S.W. (1965). An Almost Complete Skull Roof and Palate of the Dipnoan Dipnorhynchus sussmilchi (Etheridge). Palaeontology, Vol.8, Part 4. Campbell, K.S.W. and R.E. Barwick (2000). The Braincase, Mandible, and Dental Structures of the Early Devonian Lungfish Dipnorhynchus kurikae from Wee Jasper, New South Wales. Records of the Australian Museum, 52(1). Campbell, K.S.W. and R.E. Barwick (1985). An advanced massive dipnorhynchid lungfish from the Early Devonian of New South Wales, Australia. Records of the Australian Museum, 37(5). Campbell, K.S.W. and R.E. Barwick (1982). A New Species of Lungfish Dipnorhynchus from New South Wales. Palaeontology, Vol.25, Part 3. Campbell, K.S.W., et al. (2002). A new Middle Devonian dipnoan from Morocco: structure and histology of the dental plates. Records of the Western Australian Museum, 21. Clement, A.M., et al. (2016). The cranial endocast of Dipnorhynchus sussmilchi (Sarcopterygii: Dipnoi) and the interrelationships of stem-group lungfishes. PeerJ, 4:e2539. Thomson, K.S. and K.S.W. Campbell (1971). The Structure and Relationships of the Primitive Devonian Lungfish - Dipnorhynchus sussmilchi (Etheridge). Peabody Museum of Natural History - Yale University, Bulletin 38. Family Dipteridae (†) Clement, A.M. and P.E. Ahlberg (2014). The First Virtual Cranial Endocast of a Lungfish (Sarcopterygii: Dipnoi). PLoS ONE, 9(11). Clement, A.M. and J.A. Long (2010). Air-breathing adaptation in a marine Devonian lungfish. Biology Letters, 6. Long, J.A. (1992). Cranial Anatomy of Two New Late Devonian Lungfishes (Pisces: Dipnoi) from Mount Howitt, Victoria. Records of the Australian Museum, Vol. 44. Long, J.A. (1987). A redescriiption of the lungfish Eoctenodus Hills 1929, with reassessment of other Australian of the genus Dipterus Sedgwick & Murchison 1828. Rec. West Aust.Mus., 13(2). Long, J.A. and A.M. Clement (2009). The postcranial anatomy of two Middle Devonian lungfishes (Osteichthyes, Dipnoi) from Mount Howitt, Victoria, Australia. Memoirs of Museum Victoria, 66. Family incertae sedis (†) Cavin, L., et al. (2007). A new Thai Mesozoic lungfish (Sarcopterygii, Dipnoi) with an insight into post-Paleozoic dipnoan evolution. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society, 149. Clement, A.M. (2012). A New Species of Long-Snouted Lungfish from the Late Devonian of Australia, and Its Functional and Biogeographical Implications. Palaeontology, Vol.55, Part 1. Clement, G. and P. Janvier (2004). Powichthys spitsbergensis sp.nov., a new member of the Dipnomorpha (Sarcopterygii, lobe-finned fishes) from the Lower Devonian of Spitsbergen, with remarks on basal dipnomorph anatomy. Fossils and Strata, Number 50. Jude, E., et al. (2014). Early evolution of the lungfish pectoral-fin endoskeleton: evidence from the Middle Devonian (Givetian) Pentlandia macroptera. Frontiers in Earth Science, Vol.2, Article 18. Lu, J. and M. Zhu (2008). An Early Devonian (Pragian) Sarcopterygian from Zhaotong, Yunnan, China. Vertebrata PalAsiatica, 46(3). Pardo, J.D., A.K. Huttenlocker and B.J. Small (2014). An Exceptionally Preserved Transitional Lungfish from the Lower Permian of Nebraska, USA, and the Origin of Modern Lungfishes. PLoS ONE, Vol.9, Issue 9. Tuo, Q. and Z. Min (2008). A New Species of Dipnoi (Sarcopterygii, Osteichthyes) from Lower Devonian of Yunnan, China. Vertebrata PalAsiatica, 46. Ritchie, A. (1981). First complete specimen of the dipnoan Gosfordia truncata Woodward from the Triassic of New South Wales. Records of the Australian Museum, 33(11). Thomson, K.S. (1967). A New Genus and Species of Marine Dipnoan Fish, from the Upper Devonian of Canada. Postilla, Number 106. Order Ceratodontiformes Family Neoceratodontidae Agnolin, F., et al. (2018). Ceratodus tunuensis, Sp.Nov., A New Lungfish (Sarcopterygii, Dipnoi) from the Upper Triassic of Central East Greenland. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology, e1439834. Brinkmann, H., et al. (2004). Complete Mitochondrial Genome Sequences of the South American and Australian Lungfish: Testing of the Phylogenetic Performance of Mitochondrial Data Sets for Phylogenetic Relationships in Tetrapod Relationships. J.Mol.Evol., 59. Churcher, C.S. and G. De Iuliis (2001). A New Species of Protopterus and a Revision of Ceratodus humei (Dipnoi: Ceratodontiformes) from the Late Cretaceous Mut Formation of Eastern Dakhleh Oasis, Western Desert of Egypt. Palaeontology, Vol.44, Part 2. Churcher, C.S., G. De Iuliis, and M.R. Kleindienst (2006). A new genus for the Dipnoan species Ceratodus tuberculatus Tabaste, 1963. Geodiversitas, 28(4). Frederickson, J.A., T.R. Lipka and R.L. Cifelli (2016). A New Species of the Lungfish Ceratodus (Dipnoi) from the Early Cretaceous of the Eastern USA. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology, e1136316. Gottfried, M.D., et al. (2009). A new Cretaceous lungfish (Dipnoi: Ceratodontidae) from the Rukwa Rift Basin, Tanzania. African Natural History, Vol.5. Kemp, A. (1997). A Revision of Australian Mesozoic and Cenozoic Lungfish of the Family Neoceratodontidae (Osteichthyes: Dipnoi), with a Description of Four New Species. Journal of Paleontology, Vol.71, Number 4. Shimada, K. and J.I. Kirkland (2011). A mysterious king-sized Mesozoic lungfish from North America. Transactions of the Kansas Academy of Science, Vol.114, Numbers 1-2. Family incertae sedis (Ceratodontiformes) (†) Agnolin, F. (2010). A new species of the genus Atlantoceratodus (Dipnoiformes: Ceratodontoidei) from the Uppermost Cretaceous of Patagonia and a brief overview of fossil dipnoans from the Cretaceous and Paleogene of South America. Brazilian Geographical Journal: Geosciences and Humanities research medium, Uberlandia, Vol.1, Number 2. Alves, Y.M., et al. (2013). Redescription of two lungfish (Sarcopterygii: Dipnoi) tooth plates from the Late Cretaceous Bauru Group, Brazil. Cretaceous Research, 40. Cione, A.L., et al. (2010). The youngest non-lepidosirenid lungfish of South America (Dipnoi, latest Paleocene-earliest Eocene, Argentina). Alcheringa, iFirst article. Cione, A.L., et al. (2007). Atlantoceratodus, a new genus of lungfish from the Upper Cretaceous of South America and Africa. Paleontologia, 10(62). Skrzycki, P. (2015). New Species of Lungfish (Sarcopterygii, Dipnoi) from the Late Triassic Krasiejow Site in Poland, With Remarks on the Ontogeny of Triassic Dipnoan Tooth Plates. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology, 35(5). Toledo, C.E.V., et al. (2011). A new genus of Dipnoiformes from the Cretaceous of Brazil. Annals of the Brazilian Academy of Sciences, 83(4). Family Ptychoceratodontidae (†) Apestiguia, S., F.L. Agnolin and K. Claeson (2007). Review of Cretaceous dipnoans from Argentina (Sarcopterygii: Dipnoi) with descriptions of new species. Rev.Mus. Argentino Cienc. Nat., n.s., 9(1). de Sousa, E.P., et al. (2015). A new species of Equinoxiodus (Dipnoi: ?Neoceratodontidae) from the Late Cretaceous of Brazil. Zootaxa, 3905(3). Liu, H.-T. and S.-K. Yeh (1957). Two New Species of Ceratodus from Szechuan, China. Vertebrata PalAsiatica, 1(4). Toledo, C.E.V., et al. (2011). A new genus of Dipnoiformes from the Cretaceous of Brazil. Annals of the Brazilian Academy of Sciences, 83(4). Order Holodipterida (†) Campbell, K.S.W. and M.A. Smith (1987). The Devonian dipnoan Holodipterus: dental form variation and remodelling growth mechanisms. Records of the Australian Museum, 39(3). Clement, A.M. and J.A. Long (2010). Xeradipterus hatcheri, A New Dipnoan from the Late Devonian (Frasnian) Gogo Formation, Western Australia, and Other Holodontid Material. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology, 30(3). Order Lepidosireniformes Family Lepidosirenidae Brinkmann, H., et al. (2004). Complete Mitochondrial Genome Sequences of the South American and Australian Lungfish: Testing of the Phylogenetic Performance of Mitochondrial Data Sets for Phylogenetic Relationships in Tetrapod Relationships. J.Mol.Evol., 59. Family Protopteridae Churcher, C.S. and G. De Iuliis (2001). A New Species of Protopterus and a Revision of Ceratodus humei (Dipnoi: Ceratodontiformes) from the Late Cretaceous Mut Formation of Eastern Dakhleh Oasis, Western Desert of Egypt. Palaeontology, Vol.44, Part 2. Claeson, K.M., et al. (2014). A Revision of the Upper Cretaceous Lepidosirenid Lungfishes from the Quseir Formation, Western Desert, Central Egypt. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology, 34(4). General Lepidosireniformes Criswell, K.E. (2011). The Comparative Osteology and Phylogenetic Relationships of Lepidosirenid Lungfishes. Masters Thesis - The University of Texas at Austin. Order Uranolophina (†) Family Uranolophidae Long, J.A. (1992). Cranial Anatomy of Two New Late Devonian Lungfishes (Pisces: Dipnoi) from Mount Howitt, Victoria. Records of the Australian Museum, Vol. 44. Long, J.A. and A.M. Clement (2009). The postcranial anatomy of two Middle Devonian lungfishes (Osteichthyes, Dipnoi) from Mount Howitt, Victoria, Australia. Memoirs of Museum Victoria, 66. Schultze, H.P. (2001). Melanognathus, A Primitive Dipnoan from the Lower Devonian of the Canadian Arctic and the Interrelationships of Devonian Dipnoans. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology, 21(4). General Dipnoans Apesteguia, S., F.L. Agnolin and K. Claeson (2007). Review of Cretaceous dipnoans from Argentina (Sarcopterygii: Dipnoi) with descriptions of new species. Revista del Museo Argentino de Ciencias Naturales, Nueva Serie, 9(1). Clement, G., et al. (2006). First Devonian dipnoans (Vertebrata, Sarcopterygii) from Spitsbergen. C.R. Palevol, 5. Denison, R.H. (1974). The Structure and Evolution of Teeth in Lungfishes. Fieldiana Geology, Vol.33, Number 3. Denison, R.H. (1969). New Pennsylvanian Lungfishes from Illinois. Fieldiana Geology, Vol.12, Number 12. Denison, R.H. (1968). Early Devonian Lungfishes from Wyoming, Utah and Idaho. Fieldiana Geology, Vol.17, Number 4. Fanti, F., et al. (2016). Why so many dipnoans? A multidisciplinary approach on the Lower Cretaceous lungfish record from Tunisia. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 449. Long, J.A. and A.M. Clement (2009). The postcranial anatomy of two Middle Devonian lungfishes (Osteichthyes, Dipnoi) from Mt. Howitt, Victoria, Australia. Memoirs of Museum Victoria, 66. Smith, M.M. (1977). The Microstructure of the Dentition and Dermal Ornament of Three Dipnoans from the Devonian of Western Australia: A Contribution Towards Dipnoan Interrelations, and Morphogenesis, Growth and Adaptation of the Skeletal Tissues. Proc.R.Soc. B, Vol.281, Issue 979. (Thanks to doushantuo for pointing this one out!) Toledo, C.E.V. and R.J. Bertini (2005). Occurrences of the Fossil Dipnoiformes in Brazil and its Stratigraphic and Chronological Distributions. Revista Brasileira de Paleontologia, 8(1). Infraclass Tetrapodomorpha - 'Stem' Tetrapodomorphs Order Osteolepiformes (†) Holland, T. and J.A. Long (2009). On the phylogenetic position of Gogonasus andrewsae Long 1985, within the Tetrapodomorpha. Acta Zoologica (Stockholm), 90 (Suppl. 1). Family Canowindridae Long, J.A. (1985). New Information on the Head and Shoulder Girdle of Canowindra grossi Thomson, from the Late Devonian Mandagery Sandstone, New South Wales. Records of the Australian Museum, Vol.37(2). Family Megalichthyidae Janvier, P., G. Clement, and R. Cloutier (2007). A primitive megalichthyid fish (Sarcopterygii, Tetrapodomorpha) from the Upper Devonian of Turkey and its biogeographical implications. Geodiversitas, 29(2). Family Osteolepidae Thomson, K.S. (1976). Pleromic Dentine in a Permian Crossopterygian Fish (Family Osteolepidae). Palaeontology, Vol.19, Part 4. Thomson, K.S. (1972). New Evidence on the Evolution of the Paired Fins of Rhipidistia and the Origin of the Tetrapod Limb, With Description of a New Genus of Osteolepidae. Peabody Museum of Natural History, Postilla Number 157. Family Tristichopteridae Bishop, P.J. (2012). A second species of Tristichopterus (Sarcopterygii: Tristicopteridae), from the Upper Devonian of the Baltic Region. Memoirs of the Queensland Museum - Nature, 56(2). Clement, G. (2002). Large Tristochopteridae (Sarcopterygii, Tetrapodomorpha) from the Late Famennian Evieux Formation of Belgium. Palaeontology, Vol.45, Part 3. Cote, S., et al. (2002). Vertebral Development in the Devonian Sarcopterygian Fish Eusthenopteron foordi and the Polarity of Vertebral Evolution in Non-Amniote Tetrapods. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology, 22(3). Snitting, D. (2008). Morphology, Taxonomy and Interrelationships of Tristichopterid Fishes (Sarcopterygii, Tetrapodomorpha). Ph.D. Dissertation - Uppsala Universitet. Thomson, K.S. (1968). A New Devonian Fish (Crossopterygii: Rhipidistia) Considered in Relation to the Origin of the Amphibia. Peabody Museum of Natural History, Postilla Number 124. Zupins, I. (2008). A New Tristichopterid (Pisces, Sarcopterygii) from the Devonian of Latvia. Proceedings of the Latvian Academy of Sciences, Section B, Vol.62, Numbers 1-2. Zylberberg, L., F.J. Meunier and M. Laurin (2010). A microanatomical and histological study of the postcranial dermal skeleton in the Devonian sarcopterygian Eusthenopteron foordi. Acta Palaeontologica Polonica, 55(3). General Osteolepiformes Ahlberg, P.E. and Z. Johanson (1998). Osteolepiforms and the ancestry of tetrapods. Nature, Vol.395. Borgen, U.J. (1983). Homologizations of Skull Roofing Bones Between Tetrapods and Osteolepiform Fishes. Palaeontology, Vol.26, Part 4. Chang, M-M. and X. Yu (1997). Reexamination of the Relationship of Middle Devonian Osteolepids - Fossil Characters and Their Interpretations. American Museum Novitates, Number 3189. Holland, T. (2010). Upper Devonian osteichthyan remains from the Genoa River, Victoria, Australia. Memoirs of Museum Victoria, 67. Order Panderichthyida (Elpistostegalia) (†) Ahlberg, P.E., E. Luksevics and E. Mark-Kurik (2000). A Near-Tetrapod from the Baltic Middle Devonian. Palaeontology, Vol.43, Part 3. Boisvert, C.A., E. Mark-Kurik and P.E. Ahlberg (2008). The pectoral fin of Panderichthys and the origin of digits. Nature Letters Daeschler, E.B., N.H. Shubin and F.A. Jenkins (2006). A Devonian tetrapod-like fish and the evolution of the tetrapod body plan. Nature, Vol.440|6. Downs, J.P., et al. (2008). The cranial skeleton of Tiktaalik roseae. Nature, 455(7215). Hohn-Schulte, B., et al. (2013). Biomechanics and functional preconditions for terrestrial lifestyle in basal tetrapods, with special consideration of Tiktaalik roseae. Historical Biology, 25(2). Schultze, H.-P. and M. Arsinault (1985). The Panderichthyid Fish Elpistostege: A Close Relative of the Tetrapods? Palaeontology, Vol.28, Part 2. Shubin, N.H., E.B. Daeschler and F.A. Jenkins (2014). Pelvic girdle and fin of Tiktaalik roseae. PNAS, Vol.111, Number 3. Shubin, N.H., E.B. Daeschler, and F.A. Jenkins (2006). The pectoral fin of Tiktaalik roseae and the origin of the tetrapod limb. Nature, Vol.440. Order Rhizodontida (†) Family Rhizodontidae Cruickshank, A.R.I. (1968). Tooth Structure in Rhizodus hibberti A.G., a rhipidistian fish. Johanson, Z., S. Turner, and A. Warren (2000). First East Gondwanan record of Strepsodus (Sarcopterygii, Rhizondontida) from the Lower Carboniferous Ducabrook Formation, central Queensland, Australia. Geodiversitas, 22(2). Family Sauripteridae Jeffery, J.E., et al. (2002). Case 3203. Sauripterus Hall, 1843 (Osteichthyes, Sarcopterygii): proposed conservation as the correct original spelling. Bulletin of Zoological Nomenclature, 59(3). General Rhizondontida Long, J.A. and P.E. Ahlberg (1999). New observations on the snouts of rhizodontid fishes (Paleozoic Sarcopterygii). Records of the Western Australian Museum, Supplement Number 57. Vorobyeva, E.I. and H.D. Obrucheva (1977). Rhizodont Crossopterygian Fishes (Fam. Rhizodontidae) from the Middle Paleozoic Deposits of the Asian Part of the USSR. In: Essays on Phylogeny and Systematics of Fossil Agnathans and Fishes, Nauka, Moscow. Order/Family Uncertain (Tetrapodomorpha?) Ahlberg, P.E., et al. (2008). Ventastega curonica and the origin of tetrapod morphology. Nature, Vol.453/26. Lu, J., et al. (2012). The earliest known stem-tetrapod from the Lower Devonian of China. Nature Communications, 3:1160. Qiao, T. and M. Zhu (2010). Cranial morphology of the Silurian sarcopterygian Guiyu oneiros (Gnathostoma: Osteichthyes). Science China - Earth Sciences, Vol.53, Number 12. Swartz, B. (2012). A Marine Stem-Tetrapod from the Devonian of Western North America. PLoS ONE, 7(3). General Sarcopterygii Cloutier, R. and P.E. Ahlberg (1996). Chapter 17. Morphology, Characters, and the Interrelationships of Basal Sarcopterygians. In: Interrelationships of Fishes, Academic Press, Inc. Cloutier, R. and P.E. Ahlberg (1995). Sarcopterygian Interrelationships: How Far are We from a Phylogenetic Consensus? Geobios, Number 19. Cloutier, R. and A.-M. Candilier (1995). Palaeozoic Vertebrates of Northern France and Belgium: Part III - Sarcopterygii (Devonian to Carboniferous). Geobios, M.S. 19. Coates, M.I., M. Ruta and M. Friedman (2008). Ever Since Owen: Changing Perspectives on the Early Evolution of Tetrapods. Annual Review of Ecology, Evolution and Systematics, 39. Coates, M.I., J.E. Jeffery and M. Ruta (2002). Fins to limbs: what the fossils say. Evolution & Development, 4:5. Johanson, Z., et al. (2007). Fish Fingers: Digit Homologies in Sarcopterygian Fish Fins. Journal of Experimental Zoology (Mol Dev Evol), 308B. Juarez, B.H. (2015). 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