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Found 184 results

  1. In Late December, Minnesota is a land impossible to hunt fossils in. So when I took a trip to Ohio this Christmas, I was hoping mother nature would be kind to me and allow me to peak under a few rocks. While visiting my sister in NW Ohio, I convinced her to run up to Paulding with me to check out the Lafarge Quarry. Have seen postings about trilobites from there. We left Lima with no signs of snow on the ground. Two miles from our destination, the ground turned white, and snow was about 4 inches deep. Now I remember why I hated lake effect snow growing up in Ohio!! As long as we drove this far, we decided to travel on just to see the place. Fortunately, there had been a brisk wind that night and the tops of the rock piles were blown fairly clean of snow. Good enough for me. My sister thought I was nuts and remained in the vehicle. Here are the results of my short venture. Would love to visit this place in better conditions. I know how darctooth felt when he posted about his winter, snow covered excursion last week.
  2. Last week, after checking the weather wunderground numerous times, I decided to drive 3.5 hours from Chicago to St. Paul Stone Quarry. It was the last "open house" day according to the ESCONI website. I arrived at 7:45, the first and only person there. Shortly thereafter, after a brief safety instruction, I followed the manager to the collecting site, heaps and heaps of Waldron shale. Even though I dressed in layers, I still had to take breaks and warm up in the car for a few minutes, but I much rather prefer collecting in cold weather as opposed to hot summer sun with mosquitoes, any day. It didn't take too long to start finding fossils. Here are just a few of my finds: Eospirifer Platystrophia brachiopods with pyrite Platyceras niagarense encrusted with strophomenid, bryozoa and pyrite. front: back: Partial Dalmanitid Trilobite in matrix When prepping, it's really wonderful how the waldron "butter" shale just crumbles apart around the predictable morphology of an enrolled trilobite. The trip just wouldn't seem complete without a short drive east to the Cincinnati Arch roadcuts. I first went to South Gate and found a flexicalymene eroding right out of the cut. It is interesting to see the comparisons here. The trilobite on the left is from St Paul (Silurian) and has beautiful pyritized eyes. The one on the right is from South Gate (Ordovician). Both trilobites have 21 articulated segments; does this make them both the same age as "adults"? Interesting to note the difference in size, being 40 million years apart, same species.. Thanks for looking!
  3. Penn Dixie Dig With The Experts

    until
    2017 Dig with the Experts Thanks to increased interest, Dig with the Experts will be a two-day program in 2017! Ticket sales have begun — please select the links below to be taken to our online ticketing page. Alternatively, you may mail a check to us at Hamburg Natural History Society, 3556 Lakeshore Road, Blasdell, NY 14219. Please include the number of guests in your party and date(s) along with your order. Dates: Saturday May 27: 9 am to 4 pm Sunday May 28: 9 am to 4 pm Monday May 29: (Memorial Day) if there is enough interest Cost: Saturday May 27: Members $25, non-members $30 Sunday May 28: Members $15, non-members $20 Saturday & Sunday: Members $30, non-members $40 – SAVE $10 Monday May 29: TBD Join us for our signature event — Dig with the Experts! This is our very popular and yearly opportunity to unearth the best, most complete, and most unexpected fossils at Penn Dixie. We’ll have equipment on-site to do the heavy lifting and scientific experts on site to help with locating and identifying the best fossils. You’ll have to do your share of splitting and digging, of course, but you’re guaranteed to find something cool and interesting. Volunteers will lead the dig in a freshly excavated section of the Lower Windom Shale and will demonstrate how to find trilobites, cephalopods, fish remains, brachiopods, corals, wood, and many of the other fossils that can be found at Penn Dixie. But, wait — there’s more! ‘Paleo’ Joe Kchodl will once again join us for a special presentation the evening before the dig. Paleo Joe will present: Trilobite Treasures: Arthropods of the Ancient Seas at 6:30 pm in the Gateway Building Auditorium, 3556 Lakeshore Road in Blasdell, NY. The talk is FREE for Penn Dixie members and $5 for the public. Dig with the Experts draws collectors from around the globe for this unique opportunity, which is co-led by our friends from the Cincinnati Dry Dredgers. Bring a hammer, chisel, safety glasses, newspaper, and paper towels to wrap your fossils. Extra water is recommended, plus bring rain gear just in case the weather doesn’t cooperate. Penn Dixie Site 4050 North Street Blasdell, NY 14219 (716) 627-4560
  4. Cold weather has taken vacation here and Fall is stretching well into snow season. @DevonianDigger and I put new tools to the test and Penn Dixie delivered as usual. I think we moved about a ton of rock The Pile!
  5. I bought this fossils in the Houston Museum of Natural Science. They were label as Trilobita. They came from the Atlas mountains in Morocco. The age is Devonian. The top ones I consider them Acastoides sp. and the bottom ones as cf.Phacops? Please correct me if I'm wrong.
  6. Just spent the first morning in the new workshop playing with some bugs. Thought I would share day 1 progress. Eldredgeops rana after first prep session. Greenops boothi after some basic prep. Missing the cranidium and left librigena unfortunately. Tiny little Eldredgeops rana, with another little cephalon in association. Thinking this one has the potential to be a nice multi. Usually when I find these tiny little fellas this close together it's a mass mortality.
  7. Hello all, I'm looking for some Eurypterid pieces, but am also looking for trilobites and cephalopods. I'm not looking for complete pieces, just discards that I can practice prepping on. I'm also interested in getting my hands on a crab concretion. I have tons of Penn Dixie material to trade. Trilobites, corals, brachs, things of that sort. If anyone is interested and lets me know what they're interested in trading I can take some pictures of pieces I'm willing to trade.
  8. This weekend, travelled up north to Plattsburg to visit my friend Ray I know from the New York Paleontological Society. The next day took the ferry across Lake Champlain to Grand isle, Vermont and met Andy (Cluros) and his father. Here are some pics of the ferry ride over:
  9. I recently bought this trilobite fossil at a christmas market in Zurich. Could anyone name it fully, order and maybe time period? I'm just a curious amateur btw.
  10. Hi everybody. I'm trying to prepare this trilobite from Lower Devonian of Spain. Finalky I put off the rock and clean some parts, but now I have this problem: what's the best method for clean small details? What do you recommend me? Regards Juan
  11. I was sent to Dallas, Texas for work this past weekend, and after looking at the map, realized that it wasn't all that far from Oklahoma, where some of the nicest trilobites in the US can be found. I did some research on where to collect, and it seemed that access to Black Cat Mountain through Bob Carroll was iffy, so the other alternative was the Theisen Quarry, where it looked like a few TFF members had collected before, although there was sparse information on the quarry other than TNGray's nice trip report. I contacted Leon the week before and arranged for a trip this past Sunday. The weather looked a bit iffy with potential rain, but I took the gamble and drove the 2 hours up to Clarita, and met Leon bright and early Sunday morning at 7 AM. The weather was cold, windy and drizzly in the morning, but it cleared up and ended up being a fantastic day with spring-like weather after lunch. The collecting was easy - at least compared to my prison labor like experience in Morocco earlier this year. The exposures have been exposed by an excavator several years ago and tons of the productive strata are available for you to browse through. I'm generally a lazy collector and don't like doing hard quarrying and splitting so this was right up my alley. Here's a view of the Bois D'Arc Formation exposures at the quarry: I didn't even bring (or need) my brick hammer, although I brought a small rock pick to break down the larger pieces. There were signs of life everywhere, almost every piece of rock contained some signs of life - brachiopods, crinoids, Huntonia tails, and other trilobite fragments. Before long, I started finding trilobites - the most common ones are Paciphacops, which look almost exactly like the ones I found in Morocco, except they are a nice caramel color. Most are only partially exposed and will take some prep work to fully reveal, so it takes a sharp eye and some experience to know what to look for. Here's a typical Phacopid as found - they should prep out nicely: The find of the day was a matter of pure luck. I found a small Phacops in a rather large piece of rock, and asked Leon to help whack it down to a more reasonable size as I had to fly back to San Francisco that evening with all my finds. Here is the piece as found with the Phacops tail peeking out in the lower right corner of the rock. And this is what popped out... A beautiful 2" Huntonia! Leon had hit the rock in just the right spot. We were both in shock. It's missing a bit of the left cheek but should otherwise be complete and should prep out beautifully. Later in the afternoon, I found another smaller Huntonia just laying there in the rubble piles. Unfortunately it has some damage from weathering and is missing a cheek, but still should be a nice specimen. Later in the day, I was looking through the rubble piles and all of a sudden starting hearing a loud rattle and saw a huge rattlesnake crawl out from in between the rocks, staring right at me. It got the adrenaline rushing even more than finding the Huntonia, and I ran back to Leon and told him about the snake. He came over the spot and caught the snake for me to see, and eventually released it back to its den unharmed. Apparently there are a ton of them out there so be careful! I ended up collecting for almost 10 hours straight, and we stopped around 5 PM just as it started getting dark. Leon was a fantastic host and his enthusiasm for fossils was infectious, and he was out collecting with me the whole day from 7 AM to 5 PM and was in no hurry to get you off his quarry at a specified time. The price was a bit steep, but I had a fantastic time and would absolutely return again. That being said, if you're not a trilobite fanatic, and don't have the equipment to prepare them, this site is probably not for you, as most of the bugs will take considerable prep work (unlike the ones from U-Dig in Utah for example). All in all, I ended up with around 50 complete Phacopids, the two Huntonia, and a few partial Ketternaspis, in addition to a bag full other other assorted brachiopods. A memorable trip indeed. The finds. Every piece should contain a complete trilobite (mostly Phacopids, but maybe some other types if I'm lucky!):
  12. http://ir.uiowa.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1260&context=igsar
  13. I just received a trilobite from this area in a trade (Labiostria westropi.) and I would like to get a few more I have lots of complete Wheeler Shale trilobites, some microvertabrate fossils, upper Pierre Shale fossils, and more for trade. Please PM me if you have any of trilobites from the McKay group for trade Thanks!
  14. A mini fossil museum exists within the lobby of the Park Hyatt in Chicago, just off Michigan Avenue. I'm guessing not too many people know about it unless they're guests at the hotel. It's a wonderful display of very large Moroccan trilobites, ammonites and various other fossils from around the world. It is free, of course, because it's in the lobby and a nice diversion if you're ever in the area. Another added bonus is it's open 24 hours.
  15. I am looking for some information on a fossil I inherited from a family member. I really know nothing regarding fossils in general, so any information is helpful!
  16. Hi, I will be in Ft worth for a week & can fossil hunt & collect on the weekend 10/8 & 10/9. I've never found an echinoid, trilobite or a ammonite & would like to collect whatever I can . My current plan is to try Jacksboro, Ladonia, & Mineral Wells. I figure lake Texoma is a no go without a boat. I have Matthews' guide & understand any construction site with limestone is a possibility after seeking permission. I'm open to suggestions & would appreciate any other recommendations. thanks
  17. I have always loved the multi fish murals but I have no access to fish fossils here. So I'm going to attempt the same with my trilobites. So far it looks a small puzzle I hope to grow on. Has anyone tried this before? What are the protocols? I was planing to keep it to Penn Dixie stuff.
  18. Hey everyone! Sorry it has been so long since I last posted. I have been so busy with school, family life, and lots of technical problems. But I finally was able to finish my video and I am so excited to share my work with all of you! This video is about my latest fossil cleaning, It is my favorite trilobite to date! It is actually a complete body fossil, not just a shell, or a piece of one. I did learn a few new things this time. I had some trouble with this one because the air scribe I have is not not suited for microscopic fossils, which is what I am cleaning up. Because of this I ended up damaging my fossil. A technique I am trying is to find the edges of the fossil and clean them out before I clean out the middle of the fossil. I am doing this because the air abrasive is basically a s sand paper in air form. The top of this trilobite is quite detailed, if I cleaned up the detailed section first it would leave it open to be hit by unintentional air abrasive and thus damaging it. So I left the top to be done last. This seemed to work well. Which is pleasing. Watch and see how it all turned out!
  19. Good issue of one of my alltime favorite German publication series.Text is in German. Abbreviated contents Alberti on German trilobites(!!!!),alas no line drawings or photographs of specimens Groos on ostracods(paleoz) Foram teratologies a pretty funky and often cited piece by Walliser on the Runzelschicht of ammonites.Required reading!!!! miscellaneous structural geology and petrology http://www.geomuseum.uni-goettingen.de/museum/publications/images/GAGP/pdf/GAGP_Nr 5_Festschrift_Martin_Henno.pdf
  20. From the album Ordovician

    Flexicalymene sp. (distorted specimen) Ordovician South Hero Island Lake Champlain, Vermont
  21. From the album Middle Devonian

    Atactotoechus fruticosus (bryozoan) and Dipleura dekayi (trilobite pygidium) Middle Devonian Skaneateles Formation Delphi Member Hamilton Group Cole Hill Rd. North Brookfield, NY.
  22. From the album Middle Devonian

    Dipleura dekayi (two partial cephalons) Middle Devonian Skaneateles Formation Delphi Member Hamilton Group Cole Hill Rd. North Brookfield, NY.
  23. old,but good,still cited LARGE FILE!!! http://rspb.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/royprsb/136/883/291.full.pdf NB.:link expires nov.6th
  24. I have by good fortune acquired a few decent Devonian Phacops trilobite specimens from the Penn Dixie Quarry in Hamburg, NY. One particular rock has a few decent Phacops embedded directly in the rock. I wanted to know what the steps are for preparing these fossils, or if I should just send them to a preparer. Please provide any advice you can. Thank you. I have a bunch of fossils and am new to the preparing process.
  25. These are a few of the pdf files (and a few Microsoft Word documents) that I've accumulated in my web browsing. MOST of these are hyperlinked to their source. If you want one that is not hyperlinked or if the link isn't working, e-mail me at joegallo1954@gmail.com and I'll be happy to send it to you. Please note that this list will be updated continuously as I find more available resources. All of these files are freely available on the Internet so there should be no copyright issues. Articles with author names in RED are new additions since October 22, 2016. Phylum Arthropoda Subphylum Trilobitomorpha Silurian Trilobites Asia/Malaysia/Pacific Islands Ivanova, O., et al. (2009). Late Silurian trilobites from the Nuratau and Turkestan ranges, Uzbekistan and Tajikistan. Geobios, 42. Kobayashi, T. (1988). 22. Comparison of the Silurian Trilobites in Japan, South China, Thailand and Malaysia. Proc.Japan Acad., 64, Ser.B., Number 4. Kobayashi, T. (1988). The Silurian Trilobites in Japan. Proc. Japan Acad, Series B., Vol.64, Number 1. Kobayashi, T. (1985). The Silurian Proetidae (Trilobita) in Eastern Asia. Proc. Japan Acad., Series B. Vol.61, Number 9. Australia/New Zealand Fletcher, H.O. (1950). Trilobites from the Silurian of New South Wales. Records of the Australian Museum, 22(3). Holloway, D.J. and P.D. Lane (1998). Effaced Styginid Trilobites from the Silurian of New South Wales. Palaeontology, Vol.41, Part 5. Sandford, A.C. (2005). Homalonotid trilobites from the Silurian and Lower Devonian of south-eastern Australia and New Zealand (Arthropoda: Trilobita: Homalonotidae). Memoirs of Museum Victoria, 62(1). Sandford, A.C. and D.J. Holloway (2006). Early Silurian phacopide trilobites from central Victoria, Australia. Memoirs of Museum Victoria, 63(2). Sandford, A.C. and D.J. Holloway (1998). The Effaced Styginid Trilobite Thomastus from the Silurian of Victoria, Australia. Palaeontology, Vol.41, Part 5. Sherwin, L. (1968). Denckmannites (Trilobita) from the Silurian of New South Wales. Palaeontology, Vol.11, Part 5. Europe (including Greenland) Bruton, D.L. (1967). Silurian Odontopleurid Trilobites from Sweden, Estonia, and Latvia. Palaeontology, Vol.10, Part 2. Chlupac, I. (1971). Some Trilobites from the Silurian/Devonian Boundary Beds of Czechoslovakia. Palaeontology, Vol.14, Part 1. Clarkson, E.N.K., N. Eldredge and J.-L. Henry (1977). Some Phacopina (Trilobita) from the Silurian of Scotland. Palaeontology, Vol.20, Part 1. Curtis, M.L.K. (1958). The Upper Llandovery Trilobites of the Tortworth Inlier, Glouchestershire. Palaeontology, Vol.1, Number 2. Hughes, H.E. (2010). Palaeobiology of Silurian Trilobites from North Greenland. Ph.D. Thesis - The University of Birmingham. (374 pages, 23.5MB download) Lane, P.D. (1972). New Trilobites from the Silurian of North-East Greenland, With a Note on Trilobite Faunas in Pure Limestones. Palaeontology, Vol.15, Part 2. Ramskold, L. (1986). Silurian Encrinurid Trilobites from Gotland and Dalarna, Sweden. Palaeontology, Vol.29, Part 3. Ramskold, L. (1983). Silurian Cheirurid Trilobites from Gotland. Palaeontology, Vol.26, Part 1. Siveter, D.J. (1989). Silurian Trilobites from the Annascaul Inlier, Dingle Peninsula, Ireland. Palaeontology, Vol.32, Part 1. Siveter, D.J. (1985). The Type Species of Calymene (Trilobita) from the Silurian of Dudley, England. Palaeontology, Vol.28, Part 4. Siveter, D.J. (1980). Evolution of the Silurian Trilobite Tapinocalymene from the Wenlock of the Welsh Borderlands. Palaeontology, Vol.23, Part 4. Storey, A.J., A.T. Thomas and R.M. Owens (2016). The deep-water trilobite association of the Silurian Coldwell Siltstone Formation of northern England and its wider significance. Proceedings of the Yorkshire Geological Society, 61(1). Temple, J.T. (1975). Early Llandovery Trilobites from Wales With Notes on British Llandovery Calymenids. Palaeontology, Vol.18, Part 1. Tomczykowa, E. (1975). The Trilobite Subfamily Homalonotinae from the Upper Silurian and Lower Devonian of Poland. Acta Palaeontologica Polonica, Vol.XX, Number 1. Tomczykowa, E. (1970). Silurian Spathacalymene Tillman, 1960 (Trilobita) from Poland. Acta Palaeontologica Polonica, Vol.XV, Number 1. Vaněk, J., V. Vokáč and F. Hӧrbinger (1992). New trilobites from the Silurian and Devonian in the Prague Basin (Central Bohemia). Věstník Českého geologického ústavu, 67, 2. Whittington, H.B. (1971). Silurian Calymenid Trilobites from United States, Norway and Sweden. Palaeontology, Vol.14, Part 3. North America Adrain, J.M. (2003). Validity and composition of the Silurian trilobite genera Borealarges and Dicranogmus, with new species from the Canadian Arctic. Can.J. Earth Sci., 40. Adrain, J.M. (1998). Systematics of the Acanthoparyphinae (Trilobita), With Species from the Silurian of Arctic Canada. J.Paleont., 72(4). Adrain, J.M. (1997). Proteid trilobites from the Silurian (Wenlock-Ludlow) of the Cape Phillips Formation, Canadian Arctic Archipelago. Palaeontographia Italica, 84. Adrain, J.M. (1996). A New Otarionine Trilobite from the Henryhouse Formation (Silurian, Ludlow) of Oklahoma. J.Paleont., 70(4). Adrain, J.M. (1994). The Lichid Trilobite Borealarges N.Gen., With Species from the Silurian of Arctic Canada. J.Paleont., 68(5). Adrain, J.M. and B.D.E. Chatterton (1996). The Otarionine Trilobite Cyphaspis, With New Species from the Silurian of Northwestern Canada. J.Paleont., 70(1). Adrain, J.M. and B.D.E. Chatterton (1995). Aulacopleurine Trilobites from the Llandovery of Northwestern Canada. J.Paleont., 69(2). Adrain, J.M. and B.D.E. Chatterton (1994). The Aulacopleurid Trilobite Otarion, With New Species from the Silurian of Northwestern Canada. J.Paleont., 68(2). Adrain, J.M. and B.D.E. Chatterton (1993). A new rorringtoniid trilobite from the Ludlow of Arctic Canada. Can.J. Earth Sci., 30. Adrain, J.M. and G.D. Edgecombe (1997). Silurian (Wenlock) Calymenid Trilobites from the Cape Phillips Formation, Central Canadian Arctic. J.Paleont., 71(4). Adrain, J.M. and G.D. Edgecombe (1995). Balizoma and the New Genera Aegrotocatellus and Perirehaedulus: Encrinurid Trilobites from the Douro Formation (Silurian, Ludlow) of the Central Canadian Arctic. J.Paleont., 69(4). Adrain, J.M. and E.W. MacDonald (1996). Phacopid Trilobites from the Silurian of Arctic Canada. Journal of Paleontology, 70(6). Adrain, J.M. and D.K. Tetreault (2005). The brachymetopid trilobite Radnoria in the Silurian (Wenlock) of New York State and Arctic Canada. Bull.Can.J.Earth Sci.,42. Adrain, J.M. and S.R. Westrop (2002). Validity and composition of the Silurian trilobite genera Borealarges and Dicranogmus, With New Species from the Canadian Arctic. Can.J.Earth Sci., 40. Adrain, J.M., B.D.E. Chatterton, and R.B. Blodgett (1995). Silurian Trilobites from Southwestern Alaska. J.Paleont., 69(4). Campbell, K.S.W. (1967). Trilobites of the Henryhouse Formation (Silurian) in Oklahoma. Oklahoma Geological Survey, Bulletin 115. Caron, J-B, D.M. Rudkin, and S. Milliken (2004). A New Late Silurian (Pridolian) Naraoiid (Euarthropoda: Nektaspida) from the Bertie Formation of Southern Ontario, Canada - Delayed Fallout from the Cambrian Explosion. J.Paleont., 78(6). Edgecombe, G.D. (1994). New Lower Silurian (Llandovery) Encrinurine Trilobites from the Mackenzie Mountains, Canada. Journal of Paleontology, Vol.68, Number 4. Edgecombe, G.D. (1993). Silurian Acastacean Trilobites of the Americas. J.Paleont., 67(4). Edgecombe, G.D. and L. Ramskold (1992). The Silurian Encrinurine Trilobite Pacificurus: New Species from North America. Journal of Paleontology, Vol.66, Number 2. Edgecombe, G.D. and B.D.E. Chatterton (1990). Mackenziurus, a New Genus of the Silurian "Encrinurus" variolaris Plexus (Trilobita).American Museum Novitates, Number 2968. Holloway, D.J. (1981). Silurian Dalmanitacean Trilobites from North America and the Origins of the Dalmanitinae and Synphoriinae. Palaeontology, Vol.24, Part 4. Shergold, J.H. (1967). A Re-appraisal of the North American Species of the Siluro-Devonian Trilobite Genus Scotiella. Peabody Museum of Natural History, Postilla Number 112. Tomkins, S.L. (1993). Niagaran (Silurian) Trilobites from Ohio. B.S. Thesis - Ohio State University. Westrop, S.R. and D.M. Rudkin (1999). Trilobite Taphonomy of a Silurian Reef: Attawapiskat Formation, Northern Ontario. Palaios, Vol.14. Whittington, H.B. (1971). Silurian Calymenid Trilobites from United States, Norway and Sweden. Palaeontology, Vol.14, Part 3. South America/Central America/Caribbean Tortello, M.F., et al. (2012). Trilobites and graptolites from the Vargas Peña Formation (early Silurian), Paraná Basin, eastern Paraguay. Revue de Paléobiologie, Genève, Vol.spéc. 11. General Silurian Trilobites Order Odontopleurida Adrain, J.M. and B.D.E. Chatterton (1990). 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A Revision of Acastella spinosa (Salter 1864) and Related Trilobites. Palaeontology, Vol.10, Part 2. Thomas, A.T. (1998). Variation in the Eyes of the Silurian Trilobites Eophacops and Acaste and Its Significance. Palaeontology, Vol.41, Part 5. Tripp, R.P. (1962). The Silurian Trilobite Encrinurus punctatus (Wahlenberg) and Allied Species. Palaeontology, Vol.5, Part 3. Tripp, R.P., J.T. Temple and K.C. Gass (1977). The Silurian Trilobite Encrinurus variolaris and Allied Species with Notes on Frammia. Palaeontology, Vol.20, Part 4. Order Proteida Fusco, G., P.S. Hong and N.C. Hughes (2016). Axial growth gradients across the postprotaspid ontogeny of the Silurian trilobite Aulacopleura koninckii. Paleobiology, FirstView Article. Kobayashi, T. (1985). On Two Silurian Trilobite Genera, Prantlia and Latiproetus. Proc. Japan Acad., Series B, Vol.61, Number 9. Owens, R.M. and A.T. Thomas (1975). Radnoria, A New Silurian Proetacean Trilobite, and the Origins of the Brachymetopidae. Palaeontology, Vol.18, Part 4. General Adrain, J.M., et al. (2000). Silurian trilobite alpha diversity and the end-Ordovician mass extinction. Paleobiology, 26(4).