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Found 37 results

  1. Mazon Help - Number ten: worm

    Sorry, so small and dark it was difficult to photograph. Worm of some sort?
  2. Mazon Help - Number two: worm?

    Worm? Possibly Esconites Zelus or Achistrum?
  3. Mazon Help - Number three: worm?

    Worm? Possibly Paucijaculum samamithion?
  4. Another Burgess critter - chaetognath

    Not sure if anyone has posted a link to this already... a bit old, too (last Aug.) but new to me: https://phys.org/news/2017-08-scientists-id-tiny-prehistoric-sea.html#nRlv
  5. Petwood with worm and fossil poop?

    Hi, I was wondering if anyone could help me identify these strange fossils I found in the atacama desert in South America. I believe 2 of them are seeds of some sort, and petrified wood with what looks to be a worm, and also a weird poo looking chunk. any thoughts? Thanks The seeds? petrified wood with worm? petrified poo
  6. Clam and worm ID

    I found this clam a while back. The one side was pretty clean, but the other side and top were covered with something like mudstone. So I set about cleaning it up a little. I'm an amature wanna be so I didn't do that great of a job, but as I was cleaning off the mudstone like stuff I uncovered at least 3 other critters. I broke the fragile shell of creature # 2 attached to the top, before I realized it was another shell. I thought it was shell fragment in the mudstone. I uncovered creature # 3 a very tiny worm about 1 mm in diameter and maybe 2 cm long. I also uncovered creature # 4 a more robust worm about 6 mm in diameter. I'm not sure how long that one is, because I may have broken him in half before I realized he was there. I think it was wrapped around the clam on the top and side. There may be a 3rd worm down the side as well. I got distracted by something else and never finished cleaning it up. Anyway, can anyone tell me what type of clam this is? Can anyone tell if the worms are different species or is one just younger than the other? I don't think creature #2 is not really identifiable other than maybe a barnacle type or something. I don't know my creatures. I'm new at this.
  7. Worm Snail

    Found on the beach at near Matoaka Beach Cabins. Donated to the Delaware Museum of Natural History. Genus reassigned from Lemnitina.
  8. worms?

    Hi Could anyone shine some light on what these may be ? My dad found them in a river circa 1960 and has always thought they were worms. Any information would be appreciated. Thanks in advance
  9. Worm fossil id

    Does anyone know what this "worm" looking fossil is? Found in Colorado outside of Silverton.
  10. Did I find a worm?

    Now that the ticks have died back a bit I am back to fossil hunting. Is this a worm?
  11. Help Identify

    Hi folks. Been scratching my head over these for years now. Can find nothing similar through searching the web. A museum in Berkeley Springs, WV has loosely similar and call it squid, but not really close in appearance. The end of these are almost perfect taper and radiussed end, almost like machined. Some have a small stipple dead center on the rounded end. Some have shallow grooves but some (most) are as smooth as glass. A local suggested they were filled holes left by worms of sorts. Thanks for your time and attention. Regards, Rocky
  12. Worms?

    This rock has raised shapes on it. Look like worms or eels to me. Any ideas?
  13. Mazon creek fossil question?

    Hi this concretion opened up recently. It's from mazon creek. Can tell but looks like it may be a worm? Any idea? thanks
  14. Coprolite with cephalopod inclusions

    This coprolite is from a marine creature that swam in the Jurassic seas that once covered this parts of England. The dark inclusions that can be seen on the surface are cephalopod hooks. In April 2016, the University of Minnesota X-ray Computed Tomography Lab scanned the specimen using a X5000 high resolution microCT system with a twin head 225 kV x-ray source and a Dexela area detector (3073 x 3889 pixels). Many of the images shown here are of individual 3D elements/features within the coprolite that were separated/isolated using Blob3D. The taxonomic classification given is for the inclusions, not the coprolite. Aside from the hooks, it is hard to definitively identify the inclusions without damage to the coprolite. The following is a list of inclusions: 241 hooks of various sizes that are at least 75% intact. 200+ plate-like fragments of various sizes. 19 ellipsoidal structures, possibly forams or parasite eggs. 2 unidentified long, straight conical structures joined at wide end (A) 1 long rod-like structure with a bulbous end (B) 1 unidentified mass that looks like it was the attachment point for 5 rod-like structures (C) 1 1ong cylindrical (rod) structure that tapers in the center. The center density is much lower than the outer shell (D) 1 irregular structure that looks I originally thought might be an ink sack or buccal mass, but the size is wrong. Experta think it is more likely foraminifera (E) 1 irregular structure, possibly a statolith (F) Acknowledgements: Thank you to Neale Monks and Christian Klug for providing input.
  15. These are a few of the pdf files (and a few Microsoft Word documents) that I've accumulated in my web browsing. MOST of these are hyperlinked to their source. If you want one that is not hyperlinked or if the link isn't working, e-mail me at joegallo1954@gmail.com and I'll be happy to send it to you. Please note that this list will be updated continuously as I find more available resources. All of these files are freely available on the Internet so there should be no copyright issues. Articles with author names in RED are new additions since February 17, 2017. Phylum Annelida - Segmented Worms Class Clitellata - Earthworms, Leeches and Their Relatives Bomfleur, B., et al. (2012). Triassic leech cocoon from Antarctica contains fossil bell animal. PNAS, Vol.109, Number 51. Jannson, I.-M., S. McLoughlin and V. Vadja (2008). Early Jurassic annelid cocoons from eastern Australia. Alcheringa, 32. Manum, S.B., M.N. Bose and R.T. Sawyer (1991). Clitellate cocoons in freshwater deposits since the Triassic. Zoologica Scripta, Vol.20, Number 4. McLoughlin, S., et al. (2016). Fossil clitellate annelid cocoons and their microbiological inclusions from the Eocene of Seymour Island, Antarctica. Palaeontologia Electronica, 19.1.11A. Class Echiura - Spoon Worms McHugh, D. (1997). Molecular evidence that echiurans pogonophorans are derived annelids. Proc.Natl.Acad.Sci. USA, Vol.94. Class Machaeridia Adrain, J.M. (1992). Machaeridian classification. Alcheringa, 16. Adrain, J.M., B.D.E. Chatterton and L.R.M. cocks (1991). A New Species of Machaeridian from the Silurian of Podolia, USSR, With a Review of the Turrilepadidae. Palaeontology, Vol.34, Part 3. Ekleris, A. and S. Adzevičius (2013). The Upper Homerian (Silurian) machaerid sclerite from Lithuania. Geologija, Vol.55, Number 4(84). Herringshaw, L.G. and R.J. Raine (2007). The earliest turrilepadid: a machaeridian from the Lower Ordovician of the Northwest Highlands. Scottish Journal of Geology, 43(2). Högström, A.E.S. (1997). Machaeridians from the Upper Wenlock (Silurian) of Gotland. Palaeontology, Vol.40, Part 3. Högström, A.E.S. and W.L. Taylor (2001). The Machaeridian Lepidocoleus sarlei Clark, 1896, from the Rochester Shale (Silurian) of New York State. Palaeontology, Vol.44, Part 1. (Thanks to Jesuslover340 and piranha for pointing me to this one.) Högström, A.E.S., D.E.G. Briggs and C. Bartels (2009). A pyritized lepidocoleid machaeridian (Annelida) from the Lower Devonian Hunsrūck Slate, Germany. Proc.R.Soc. B, 276. Högström, A.E.S., O.K. Bogolepova and A.P. Gubanov (2002). Plumulitid machaeridian remains from the Silurian (Telychian) of Severnaya Zemlya, Arctic Russia. Norsk Geologisk Tidsskrift, Vol.82. Vinther, J. and D. Rudkin (2010). The First Articulated Specimen of Plumulites canadensis (Woodward, 1889) from the Upper Ordovician of Ontario, With a Review of the Anterior Region of Plumulitidae (Annelida: Machaeridia). Palaeontology. Vinther, J. and D.E.G. Briggs (2009). Machaeridian locomotion. Lethaia, Vol.42. Vinther, J., P. Van Roy and D.E.G. Briggs (2008). Machaeridians are Palaeozoic armoured annelids. Nature, Vol.451. (Thanks to Jesuslover340 and piranha for pointing me to this one.) Class Polychaeta - Bristle Worms (paraphyletic) Subclass Aciculata (Errantia) Order Amphinomida Family Amphinomidae - Fireworms Parry, L.A., et al. (2015). A new fireworm (Amphinomidae) from the Cretaceous of Lebanon identified from three-dimensionally preserved myoanatomy. BMC Evolutionary Biology, 15:256. Order Eunicida Family Dorvilleidae Eriksson, M. and S. Lindstrom (2000). Ophryotrocha sp., the first report of a jawed polychaete from the Cretaceous of Skane, Sweden. Acta Palaeontologica Polonica, Vol.45, Number 3. Family Eunicidae Thompson, I. and R.G. Johnson (1977). New Fossil Polychaete from Essex, Illinois. Geology, Vol.33, Number 25. Incertae Familiae Eriksson, M.E., L.A. Parry and D.M. Rudkin (2017). Earth's oldest 'Bobbit worm' - gigantism in a Devonian eunicidan polychaete. Scientific Reports, 7:43061. (Thanks to Oxytropidoceras for finding this one!) Hints, O. (2008). Kaljoprion - a new enigmatic jawed polychaete genus from the Upper Ordivician of Estonia. Estonian Journal of Earth Sciences, 57(4). Family Hartmaniellidae Szaniawski, H. and M. Imajima (1996). Hartmaniellidae - living fossils among polychaetes. Acta Palaeontologica Polonica, 41(2). Family Polychaeturidae Hints, O. and M.E. Eriksson (2010). Ordovician polychaeturid polychaetes: Taxonomy, distribution and palaeoecology. Acta Palaeontologica Polonica, 55(2). General Eunicida Mierzejewska, G. and P. Mierzejewski (1978). Ultrastructure of the Jaws of the Fossil and Recent Eunicida (Polychaeta). Acta Palaeontologica Polonica, Vol.23 Number 3. Mierzejewski, P. (1978). Molting of the Jaws of the Early Paleozoic Eunicida (Annelida, Polychaeta). Acta Palaeontologica Polonica, Vol.23, Number 1. Order Phyllodocida Family Aphroditiformia - Scale Worms Luque, J., S. Hourdez and O. Vinn (2015). A new fossil bristle worm (Annelida: Polychaeta: Aphroditiformia) from the late Cretaceous of tropical America. Journal of Paleontology, 89(2). Subclass Sedentaria Order Sabellida Family Sabellidae - Feather-duster Worms Jager, M. (2012). Sabellids and serpulids (Polychaeta sedentaria) from the type Maastrichtian, the Netherlands and Belgium. In: Fossils of the Type Maastrichtian. Jagt, J.W.M., S.K. Donovan and E.A. Jagt-Yazykova (eds.), Scripta Geologica Special Issue, 8. Jager, M. (2011). Sabellidae, Serpulidae, and Spirorbinae (Polychaeta sedentaria) from the Barremian (Lower Cretaceous) of the Serre de Bleyton (Drome, SE France). Ann.Naturhist.Mus. Wien, Serie A, 113. Koci, T. and M. Jager (2013). Sabellid and Serpulid Worms from the Bohemian Cretaceous Basin (Upper Cenomanian-Middle Coniacian) Originally in the Collection of Professor Antonin Fric. Acta Musei Nationalis Pragae, Series B - Historia Naturalis, Vol.69. Sanfilippo, R., et al. (2017). First record of sabellid and serpulid polychaetes from the Perman of Sicily. Acta Palaeontologica Polonica, 62(X). Vinn, O. and M.A. Wilson (2010). Sabellid-dominated shallow water calcareous polychaete tubeworm association from the equatorial Tethys Ocean (Matmor Formation, Middle Jurassic, Israel). N.Jb.Geol.Palaont. Abh., 258/1. Family Serpulidae Hosgor, I. and Y. Okan (2006). The annelid polychaete Rotularia spirulaea Lamarck, 1818 from the early Middle Eocene (middle-late Cuisian) of Cankiri Basin (Central Anatolia, Turkey). Yerbilimleri, 27(3). Ippolitov, A.P. (2010). Serpulid (Annelida, Polychaeta) Evolution and Ecological Diversification Patterns During Middle-Late Jurassic. Earth Science Frontiers, Vol.17, Special Issue. Ippolitov, A.P. (2007). Contribution to the Revision of Some Late Callovian Serpulids (Annelida, Polychaeta) of Central Russia: Part 2. Paleontological Journal, Vol.41, Number 4. Ippolitov, A.P. (2007). Contribution to the Revision of Some Late Callovian Serpulids (Annelida, Polychaeta) of Central Russia: Part 1. Paleontological Journal, Vol.41, Number 3. Ippolitov, A.P., et al. (2014). Written in stone: history of serpulid polychaetes through time. Memoirs of Museum Victoria, 71. Jager, M. (2012). Sabellids and serpulids (Polychaeta sedentaria) from the type Maastrichtian, the Netherlands and Belgium. In: Fossils of the Type Maastrichtian. Jagt, J.W.M., S.K. Donovan and E.A. Jagt-Yazykova (eds.), Scripta Geologica Special Issue, 8. Jager, M. (2011). Sabellidae, Serpulidae, and Spirorbinae (Polychaeta sedentaria) from the Barremian (Lower Cretaceous) of the Serre de Bleyton (Drome, SE France). Ann.Naturhist.Mus. Wien, Serie A, 113. Jager, M. (1987). Campanian-Maastrichtian Serpulids from Thermae 2000 Borehole (Valkenburg A/D Geul, The Netherlands). Annales de la Societe Geologique de Belgique, T. Jager, M. and T. Koci (2007). A new serpulid, Placostegus velimensis sp.nov., from the Lower Turonian of the Bohemian Cretaceous Basin. Acta Geologica Polonica, Vol.57, Number 1. Koci, T. and M. Jager (2015). Filogranula cincta (Goldfuss, 1831), A Serpulid Worm (Polychaeta, Sedentaria, Serpulidae) from the Bohemian Cretaceous Basin. Acta Musei Nationalis Pragae, Series B - Historia Naturalis, Vol.71. Koci, T. and M. Jager (2013). Sabellid and Serpulid Worms from the Bohemian Cretaceous Basin (Upper Cenomanian-Middle Coniacian) Originally in the Collection of Professor Antonin Fric. Acta Musei Nationalis Pragae, Series B - Historia Naturalis, Vol.69. Kupriyanova, E.K. and A.P. Ippolitov (2015). Deep-sea serpulids (Annelida: Polychaeta) in tetragonal tubes: on a tube convergence path from the Mesozoic to Recent. Zootaxa, 4044(2). Sanfilippo, R., et al. (2017). First record of sabellid and serpulid polychaetes from the Perman of Sicily. Acta Palaeontologica Polonica, 62(X). Schlagintweit, F. and H.-J. Gawlick. The Genus Carpathiella Misik, Sotak and Ziegler, 1999 (Serpulidae), Its Representatives from the Alpine Plassen Formation (Kimmeridgian-Berriasian) and Description of Carpathiella plasseniensis N.SP.. Geologica Carpathica. Suttner, T. J. and A. Lukeneder (2004). Accumulations of Late Silurian serpulid tubes and their palaeoecological implications (Blumau-Formation; Burgenland; Austria). Ann.Naturhist.Mus. Wien, 105A. Veira, F.S., et al. (2014). Serpulids (Annelida, Polychaeta) at Early Cretaceous of Sergipe Basin, Brazil. Estudios Geologicos, Vol.24(2). Vinn, O. (2008). Tube Ultrastructure of the Fossil Genus Rotularia DeFrance, 1827 (Polychaeta, Serpulidae). J.Paleont., 82(1). Vinn, O. (2005). The tube ultrastructure of serpulids (Annelida, Polychaeta) Pentaditrupa subtorquata, Cretaceous, and Nogrobs cf. vertebralis, Jurassic, from Germany. Proc. Estonian Acad.Sci.Geol., 54(4). Vinn, O. and H. Furrer (2013). Tube structure and ultrastructure of serpulids from the Jurassic of France and Switzerland, its evolutionary implications. N.Jb.Geol.Palaont. Abh., Vol.250/2. Vinn, O., M. Jager and K. Kirsimae (2008). Microscopic evidence of serpulid affinities of the problematic fossil tube 'Serpula' etalensis from the Lower Jurassic of Germany. Lethaia, Vol.41. Wade, B. The Fossil Annelid Genus Hamulus Morton, An Operculate Serpula. Proceedings U.S. National Museum, Vol.59, Number 2359. Weedon, M.J. (1994). Tube microstructure of Recent and Jurassic serpulid polychaetes and the question of the Palaeozoic 'spirorbids'. Acta Palaeontologica Polonica, 39(1). Family Siboglinidae Hilario, A., et al. (2011). New Perspectives on the Ecology and Evolution of Siboglinid Tubeworms. PLoS ONE, 6(2). (Read on-line or download a copy.) Kiel, S., et al. (2010). Fossil traces of the bone-eating worm Osedax in early Oligocene whale bones. PNAS, Vol.107, Number 19. General Polychaeta General Polychaeta - Africa/Middle East Peckmann, J., et al. (2005). Worm tube fossils from the Hollard Mound hydrocarbon-seep deposit, Middle Devonian, Morocco: Palaeozoic seep-related vestimentiferans? Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 227. Whittle, R., et al. (2008). Late Ordovician (Hirnantian) scolecodont clusters from the Soom Shale Lagerstatte, South Africa. Journal of Micropalaeontology, 27. General Polychaeta - Antarctica Bomfleur, B., et al. (2015). Fossilized spermatozoa preserved in a 50-Myr-old annelid cocoon from Antarctica. Biol.Lett., 11. Szaniawski, H. and R.M. Wrona (1987). Polychate Jaws from the Cape Melville Formation (Lower Miocene) of King George Island, West Antarctica. Palaeontologica Polonica, 49. General Polychaeta - Asia/Malaysia/Pacific Islands Baqri, S.R.H., G. Roohi and G. Mustafa (2001). A new record of trace fossil polychaete (annelid) from the Cambrian of the Salt Range, Punjab, Pakistan. Geol.Bull.Univ. Peshawar, Vol.34. Phuong, T.H., V. Baudu-Suiri and L.V. Giang (1996). Scolecodonts from the Ban Thang Formation (Lower Devonian) in Khao Loc - Quan Ba Area, Ha Giang Province (Viet Nam). Journal of Geology, Series B, Numbers 7-8. General Polychaeta - Australia/New Zealand Furey-Greig, T. (1999). Initial report on discovery of Ordovician scolecodonts from eastern Australia. Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales, 121. General Polychaeta - Europe (Including Greenland and Siberia) Hints, O. (1998). Late Viruan (Caradoc) polychaete jaws from North Estonia and the St. Petersburg region. Acta Palaeontologica Polonica, 43(3). Morris, S.C. and J.S. Peel (2008). The earliest annelids: Lower Cambrian polychaetes from the Sirius Passet Lagerstatte, Peary Land, North Greenland. Acta Palaeontologica Polonica, 53(1). Sorensen, A.M. and F. Surlyk (2010). Palaeoecology of tube-dwelling polychaetes on a Late Cretaceous rocky shore, Ivo Klack (Skane, southern Sweden). Cretaceous Research, 31. Suttner, T. J. and O. Hints (2010). Devonian scolecodonts from the Tyrnaueralm, Graz Palaeozoic, Austria. Memoirs of the Association of Australasian Palaeontologists, 39. Sutton, M.D., et al. (2001). A three-dimensionally preserved fossil polychaete worm from the Silurian of Herefordshire, England. Proc.R.Soc.Lond. B, 268. Szaniawski, H. (1968). Three New Polychaete Jaw Apparatuses from the Upper Permian of Poland. Acta Palaeontologica Polonica, Vol.XIII, Number 2. Szeniawski, H. and D. Drygant (2014). Early Devonian scolecodonts from Podolia, Ukraine. Acta Palaeontologica Polonica, 59(4). Szaniawski, H. and R.M. Wrona (1973). Polychaete Jaw Apparatuses and Scolecodonts from the Upper Devonian of Poland. Acta Palaeontologica Polonica, Vol. XVIII, Number 3. Tonarova, P., M.E. Eriksson and O. Hints (2012). A jawed polychaete fauna from the late Ludlow Kozlowskii event interval in the Prague Basin (Czech Republic). Bulletin of Geosciences, 87(4). General Polychaeta - North America Boyer, P.S. (1975). Polychaete Jaw Apparatus from the Devonian of Central Ohio. Acta Palaeontologica Polonica, Vol.XX, Number 3. Härling, J. (2012). The fossil wonders of the Eramosa Lagerstätte of Canada: the jawed polychaete faunas. Bachelor's Thesis - Lunds University. Hoare, R. and R.L. Walden (1983). Vermiforichnus (Polychaete) Borings in Paraspirifer bownockeri (Brachiopoda: Devonian). Ohio Journal of Science, Vol.83, Issue 3. Steele-Petrovich, H.M. and T.E. Bolton (1998). Morphology and Palaeoecology of a Primitive Mound-Forming Tubicolous Polychaete from the Ordovician of the Ottawa Valley, Canada. Palaeontology, Vol.41, Part 1. General Polychaeta - South America/Central America/Caribbean Vinn, O. and J. Luque (2013). First record of a pectinariid-like (Polychaeta, Annelida) agglutinated worm tube from the Late Cretaceous of Colombia. Cretaceous Research, 41. General Polychaeta Kielan-Jaworowska, Z. (1962). New Ordovician Genera of Polychaete Jaw Apparatuses. Acta Palaeontologica Polonica, Vol. VII, Numbers 3-4. Kielan-Jaworowska, Z. (1961). On Two Ordovician Polychaete Jaw Apparatuses. Acta Palaeontologica Polonica, Vol. VI, Number 3.Mierzejewski, P. and Mierzejewska, G. (1975). Xenognath Type of Polychaete Jaw Apparatuses. Acta Palaeontologica Polonica, Vol. XX, Number 3. Szaniawski, H. (1974). Some Mesozoic Scolecodonts Congeneric with Recent Forms. Acta Palaeontologica Polonica, Vol. XIX, Number 2. Szaniawski, H. and A. Gazdzicki (1978). A Reconstruction of Three Jurassic Polychaete Jaw Apparatuses. Acta Palaeontologica Polonica, Vol.23, Number 1. General Annelida Halliday, I., A.T. Blackwell and A.A. Griffin (1984). Fossils of Hydrothermal Vent Worms from Cretaceous Sulfide Ores of the Samali Ophiolite, Oman. Science, New Series, Vol.223, Number 4643. McLoughlin, S., B. Bomfleur and T. Morss (2016). The weird world of fossil worm cocoons. Deposits Magazine, Issue 46. Morris, R.W. and H.B. Rollins (1971). The Distribution and Paleoecological Interpretation of Cornulites in the Waynesville Formation (Upper Ordovician) of Southwestern Ohio. The Ohio Journal of Science, 71(3). Parry, L.A., J. Vinther and G.D. Edgecombe (2015). Cambrian stem-group annelids and a metameric origin of the annelid head. Biol.Lett., 11. Parry, L.A., A. Tanner and J. Vinther (2014). The Origin of Annelids. Palaeontology, 57(6). Timm, T., O. Vinn and A.D. Buscalioni (2016). Soft-bodied annelids (Oligochaeta) from the Lower Cretaceous (La Huerguina Formation) of the Las Hoyas Konservat-Lagerstatte, Spain. N.Jb.Geol.Palaont. Abh., 280/3. Vinn, O. and H. Mutvei (2009). Calcareous tubeworms of the Phanerozoic. Estonian Journal of Earth Sciences, 58(4). Wilson, M.A., O. Vinn and T.E. Yancey (2011). A new microconchid tubeworm from the Lower Permian (Artinskian) of central Texas, USA. Acta Palaeontologica Polonica, 56(4). Zaton, M. and D.P.G. Bond (2016). Insight into tube-building behaviour and palaeoecology of some agglutinating worms from the Upper Devonian of Nevada, USA. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 445. Phylum Chaetognatha - Arrow Worms Doguzhaeva, L.A., H. Mutvei and R.H. Mapes (2002). Chaetognath grasping spines from the Upper Mississippian of Arkansas (USA). Acta Palaeontologica Polonica, 47(3). Szaniawski, H. (2005). Cambrian chaetognaths recognized in Burgess Shale fossils. Acta Palaeontologica Polonica, 50(1). Szaniawski, H. (2002). New evidence for the protoconodont origin of chaetognaths. Acta Palaeontologica Polonica, 47(3). Phylum Nematoda - Roundworms Balinski, A., Y. Sun, and J. Dzik (2013). Traces of marine nematodes from 470 million years old Early Ordovician rocks in China. Nematology, 15. Koutsovoulos, G., et al. Palaeosymbiosis revealed by genomic fossils of Wolbachia in a strongyloidean nematode. Poinar, G.O. (2015). Chapter 2. The Geological Record of Parasitic Nematode Evolution. In: Advances in Parasitology, Vol.90. Poinar, G.O. (2003). Trends in the Evolution of Insect Parasitism by Nematodes as Inferred from Fossil Evidence. Journal of Nematology, Vol.35, Number 2. Poinar, G.O. (1984). Fossil Evidence of Nematode Parasitism. Revue Nématol., 7(2). Poinar, G.O. (1984). Heydenius dominicus n.sp. (Nematoda: Mermithidae), a Fossil Parasite from the Dominican Republic. Journal of Nematology, 16(4). Poinar, G.O. and R. Buckley (2006). Nematode (Nematoda: Mermithidae) and hairworm (Nematomorpha: Chordodidae) parasites in Early Cretaceous amber. Journal of Invertebrate Pathology, 93. Poinar, G.O., A. Akra and F. Akra (1994). Earliest fossil nematode (Mermithidae) in cretaceous Lebanese amber. Fundam.appl.Nematol., 17(5). Phylum Nematomorpha - Horsehair Worms Han, J., et al. (2007). Trunk ornament on the palaeoscolecid worms Cricocosmia and Tabelliscolex from the Early Cambrian Chengjiang deposits of China. Acta Palaeontologica Polonica, 52(2). Phylum Platyhelminthes - Flatworms Allison, C.W. (1975). Primitive fossil flatworm from Alaska: New evidence bearing on ancestry of the Metazoa. Geology. Olson, P.D., et al. (2010). Evolution of trypanorhynch tapeworms: Parasite phylogeny supports independent lineages of sharks and rays. International Journal for Parasitology, 40. Phylum Priapulida - 'Cactus' Worms Banta, W.C. and M.E. Rice (1970). A Restudy of the Middle Cambrian Burgess Shale Fossil Worm, Ottoia prolifica. Proceedings of the International Symposium on the Biology of the Sipuncula and Echiura. ######, X.-p., et al. (2005). The anatomy, affinity and phylogenetic significance of Markuelia. Evolution & Development, 7:5. Han, J., et al. (2003). A New Platy-armored Worm from the Early Cambrian Chengjiang Lagerstätte, South China. Acta Geologica Sinica, Vol.77, Number 1. Haug, J.T. and C. Haug (2015). Worm Palaeo-Evo-Devo - The ontogeny of Ottoia prolifica from the Burgess Shale. RRJZS, Vol.3, Issue 1. Hu, S.-X., et al. (2012). A new priapulid assemblage from the early Cambrian Guanshan fossil Lagerstätte of SW China. Bulletin of Geosciences, 87(1). Huang, D., J. Chen and J. Vannier (2006). Discussion on the systematic position of the Early Cambrian priapulomorph worms. Chinese Science Bulletin, Vol.51, Number 2. Maas, A., et al. (2009). Loricate larvae (Scalidophora) from the Middle Cambrian of Australia. Memoirs of the Association of Australasian Palaeontologists, 37. Morris, S.C. (1977). Fossil Priapulid Worms. Special Papers in Palaeontology, Number 20. Morris, S.C. and R.A. Robison (1986). Middle Cambrian Priapulids and Other Soft-Bodied Fossils from Utah and Spain. The University of Kansas Paleontological Contributions, Paper 117. Smith, M.R., T.H.P. Harvey and N.J. Butterfield (2015). The Macro- and Microfossil Record of the Cambrian Priapulid Ottoia. Palaeontology, doi: 10.1.111/pala.12168. Vannier, J. (2012). Gut Contents as Direct Indicators for Trophic Relationships in the Cambrian Marine Ecosystem. PLoS ONE, 7(12). Vannier, J., et al. (2010). Priapulid worms: Pioneer horizontal burrowers at the Precambrian-Cambrian boundary. Geology, Vol.38, Number 8. Yang, Y., Y. Zhao and X. Zhang (2015). Fossil priapulid Ottoia from the Kaili biota (Cambrian Series 3) of South China. Journal of Systematic Palaeontology. Phylum Sipuncula - 'Peanut' Worms Huang, D-Y., et al. (2004). Early Cambrian sipunculan worms from southwest China. Proc.R.Soc.Lond. B, 271. Other Worms Class Palaeoscolecida (Affinity Uncertain) Duan, B., X.-P. D#ng and P.C.J. Donoghue (2012). New Palaeoscolecid Worms from the Furongian (Upper Cambrian) of Hunan, South China: Is Markuelia an Embryonic Palaeoscolecid? Palaeontology, Vol.55, Part 3. Han, J., et al. (2007). Trunk ornament on the palaeoscolecid worms Cricocosmia and Tabelliscolex from the Early Cambrian Chengjiang deposits of China. Acta Palaeontologica Polonica, 52(2). Han, J., et al. (2007). New observations on the pelaeoscolecid worm Tylotites petiolaris from the Cambrian Chengjiang Lagerätte, south China. Paleontological Research, Vol.11, Number 1. Harvey, T.H.P., X. D#ng and P.C.J. Donoghue (2010). Are palaeoscolecids ancenstral ecdysozoans? Evolution & Development, 12:2. Huang, D., et al. (2014). The burrow dwelling behavior and locomotion of palaeoscolecidian worms: New fossil evidence from the Cambrian Chengjiang fauna. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 398. Kraft, P. and M. Mergl (1989). Worm-like fossils (Palaeoscolecida; ?Chaetognatha) from the Lower Ordovician of Bohemia. Sbor.geol. ved, Palaeontologie, 30. Martin, E.L.O., A. Lerosey-Aubril and J. Vannier (2016). Palaeoscolecid worms from the Lower Ordovician Fezouata Lagerstatte, Morocco: Palaeoecological and palaeogeographical implications. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, xxx. (Article in Press) Morris, S.C. and J.S. Peel (2010). New palaeoscolecidian worms from the Lower Cambrian: Sirius Passet, Latham Shale and Kinzers Shale. Acta Palaeontologica Polonica, 55(1).
  16. Another fossil I need help identifying!

    Same thing as before, my son found this fossil and we want to identify it. They are redoing the water lines near the house and all kinds of stuff is being kicked up! Thank you!
  17. The ancient oceans of Earth were filled with monstrous beings. Long before sharks or whales – 520m years ago – there were carnivorous, swimming beasts that resembled giant bizarre crustaceans, and huge, spiny insect-like creatures that scuttled along the ocean floor. We know about these prehistoric animals because of the fossils they left behind. But because these imprints are often incomplete, we sometimes have to guess the details of exactly what the creatures looked like. But a new complete fossil we found has helped solve a mystery about the origins of a certain type of scary-looking mouth. We now know it was shared by several different extinct creatures and can still be found in living animals today. Diverse animal life suddenly appeared on Earth about half a billion years ago in the Cambrian period (542m to 488m years ago). One explanation for this is that an increase in the amount of oxygen in the air and oceans enabled carnivorous predators (which need more oxygen to support their active lifestyles) to evolve for the first time. Anomalocaridid. H Zell/Wikimedia Commons, CC BY-SA This spurred an evolutionary arms race during which animals evolved skeletons to protect themselves or to help them attack their prey more efficiently. In the seas, some creatures learned to burrow to safety in the sand and mud or evolved pelagic (swimming and floating) lifestyles to escape predators. Some of the largest predators in the Cambrian period were primitive members of the arthropods, the group of animals that today includes insects, spiders and crustaceans. These nektonic (free swimming) predators were called anomalocaridids. Each had a set of swimming flaps down its body, a pair of large stalked, compound eyes on the head, a set of segmented grasping appendages and a circular mouth apparatus. This mouth was made up of rings of plates and teeth, and was remarkably similar to that of the “sarlacc” monster in the film Star Wars: Return of the Jedi. Quite the mouthful When the first anomalocaridid fossils were found, they were thought to be the remains of several different animals. The head appendages were interpreted as the tail of a shrimp, the body a sea cucumber, the mouth a jelly fish. However, painstaking analyses in the 1980s of the Burgess Shale fossils from Canada showed that they were a single animal and, at 70cm long, it was the largest known to have lived in the Cambrian period. worm. J. Vinther and F. Pleijel, Author provided When what appeared to be a giant anomalocaridid mouth was found on its own in 1994, researchers used it to argue that some anomalocaridids must have been up to two metres in length. But in 2006, other scientists argued that the mouth was more similar to that of a distantly related group of animals known as priapulans. The modern day “ worm” (named after its shape) is in this group and can grow up to tens of centimetres long in today’s oceans. But the researchers imagined the fossil mouth must have belonged to a giant priapulan they named Omnidens. Shared appendages But we have now described new fossils that show both these theories are wrong – and right. The fossil comes from another exceptional site in the northernmost part of Greenland, called Sirius Passet, and is of a more primitive relative of the anomalocaridids known asPambdelurion. It had large grasping appendages on its head and flaps on the body but had not evolved the unique appendage joints that arthropods have. However, we did find that its mouth was the spitting image of that of Omnidens, formed from the same three kinds of teeth and plates in the same circular arrangement. False colour relief image of Pambdelurion whittingtoni fossil. Fletcher Young, Author provided So it turns out that this kind of mouth was shared by anomalocaridids, Omnidens andPambdelurion, as well as today’s worms, and was present in their latest common ancestor, which probably originated sometime just before the Cambrian (540m years ago). What’s more, we can now estimate that Omnidens grew to be 1.5 metres long. This is about twice the estimated length of any Cambrian anomalocaridid, which was previously thought to be the largest animal of the period. This mouth worked with the robust grasping appendages and a complex digestive system to allow these creatures to effectively consume prey. This gave them a competitive edge in the brutal undersea world of the Cambrian. It was these kinds of features that helped shape the predatory arms race that accelerated the explosion of life on Earth and shaped the early seeds of modern biodiversity. http://theconversation.com/-worm-mouth-monster-how-we-solved-a-prehistoric-mystery-66153
  18. Mazon Creek Fauna

    A few items from my collection. Extra large Essexella asherae Multiple Essexella asherae Essexella asherae and worm
  19. Maotianshania cylindrica worm

    From the album Anomalocaris and friends.

    A finely detailed Cambrian (~525myo) worm, Maotianshania cylindrica. From the deposits at Maotianshan, Yunnan Prov, China.
  20. Maotianshania cylindrica worm, close up

    From the album Anomalocaris and friends.

    Close up of the head of a finely detailed Cambrian (~525myo) worm, Maotianshania cylindrica. From the deposits at Maotianshan, Yunnan Prov, China.
  21. Nematomorph worm.

    From the album Anomalocaris and friends.

    Very well preserved Nematomorph worm, Matianshania cylindrical, from the Cambrian Maotianshan Shales in Chengjiang, Yunnan Prov, China. ~515myo. The digestive tract is clearly visible with a dark line down the middle which I believe is sediment.
  22. Plant stem or worm?

    A friend found this in Central Montana and is wondering if it is a worm. It's from the Fort Union Formation in an area of plant fossils. I think it is a stem or root end. Any ideas? Only an inch long or so and has lots of fuzz or something.
  23. Can't find it anywhere

    I would really appreciate some help discovering what this discovery is. I found one in a limestone chunk a few years ago and never saw one until I found a spot that's filled with these things. They have some really nice calcite and a couple exceptional quartz crystals inside some of them and they break away easily from the matrix which appears to be in most cases part of the animal like in outer shell but the encasement or shell is usually pretty thick and there's usually more on one side than the other. Another unusual characteristic is they usually have parallel ridges formed that run lengthwise and some have spiky bumps on those ridges. Also found with nice horn corals. Jefferson County KY.
  24. Cretaceous worm casts.

    From the album Cretaceous finds in Western Australia

    These are worm casts I found in the Cretaceous Gingin Chalk of Western Australia.
  25. I couldn't stand it and went out to my new site in the Fort Union/ Hell Creek formation in central Montana for a couple hours despite the mud and found lots of plant material with straight grain and almost a reed look. This guy was in the middle of the sample. It is segmented and curved. Is it a worm or maybe a reed? Also there were what looked like seeds. I found different things but don't want to overdo.