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Fruitbat's Pdf Library - Faunas And Localities - Africa And The Middle East

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These are a few of the pdf files (and a few Microsoft Word documents) that I've accumulated in my web browsing.

MOST of these are hyperlinked to their source.

If you want one that is not hyperlinked or if the link isn't working, e-mail me at joegallo1954@gmail.com and I'll be happy to send it to you.


Please note that this list will be updated continuously as I find more available resources. All of these files are freely available on the Internet so there should be no copyright issues.



Articles with author names in RED are new additions since March 23, 2018.



African and Middle Eastern Faunas (by country)

Africa/Middle East - General

Berger, L.R. and J. Brink. An Atlas of southern African Mammalian Fossil Bearing Sites - Late Miocene to Late Pleistocene.

Coryndon, S.C. and R.J.G. Savage (1973). The Origin and Affinities of African Mammal Faunas. Special Papers in Palaeontology, Number 12.

deMenocal, P.B. (2004). African climate change and faunal evolution during the Pliocene-Pleistocene. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 220.
Geraads, D. (2010). Biogeographic relationships of Pliocene and Pleistocene North-western African Mammals. Quaternary International, 212.

McKee, J.K., F. Thackeray and L.R. Berger (1995). Faunal Assemblage Seriation of Southern African Pliocene and Pleistocene Fossil Deposits. American Journal of Physical Anthropology, 96.

Abu Dhabi

Beech, M. and P. Hellyer (eds.)(2005). Abu Dhabi - 8 Million Years Ago. Abu Dhabi Islands Archaeological Survey.

Hill, A., et al. (2012). Chapter 2. Before Archaeology: Life and Environments in the Miocene of Abu Dhabi. In: Fifty Years of Emirates Archaeology.




Ghienne, J.F., et al. (2007). The Cambrian-Ordovician succession in the Ougarta Range (western Algeria, North Africa) and interference of Late Ordovician glaciation on the development of the Lower Palaeozoic transgression on northern Gondwana. Bulletin of Geosciences, 82(3).

Legrand, P. (2012). The Upper Silurian of Touat (Algerian Sahara) and its fauna. Bulletin of Geosciences, 87(4).

Nielsen, M.T., et al. (2010). Diagenesis of Paleocene phosphatic deposits in Djebel Onk, Algeria. The 1st International Applied Geological Congress, Department of Geology, Islamic Azad University - Mashad Branch, Iran.

Sahnouni, M. and J. de Heinzelin (1998). The Site of Ain Hanech Revisited: New Investigations at this Lower Pleistocene Site in Northern Algeria. Journal of Archaeological Science, 25.



Antunes, M.T., et al. (1990). Triassic Fishes from the Cassange Depression (R.P. De Angola). Ciencias da Terra (UNL), Special Volume.

Hoppener, H. (1957). Brief Report on the Paleontology of the Cuanza Basin - Angola. Boletim da Sociedade Geologica Portugal. Vol.XII, Number III.

Jacobs, L.L., et al. (2016). Post-Gondwana Africa and the vertebrate history of the Angolan Atlantic Coast. Memoirs of Museum Victoria, 74.
Jacobs, L.L., et al. (2006). The Occurrence and Geological Setting of Cretaceous Dinosaurs, Mosasaurs, Plesiosaurs, and Turtles from Angola. J.Paleont.Soc. Korea, Vol.22, Number 1.

Strganac, C., et al. (2014). Geological setting and paleoecology of the Upper Cretaceous Bench 19 Marine Vertebrate Bonebed at Bentiaba, Angola. Netherlands Journal of Geosciences.




Bamford, M. Fossil Wood from the Boteti River and Tshaitshe, Botswana. Botswana Notes and Records, Vol.29.

Modie, B.N. and A. Le Hérissé (2009). Late Palaeozoic palynomorph assemblages from the Karoo Supergroup and their potential for biostratigraphic correlation, Kalahari Karoo Basin, Botswana. Bulletin of Geosciences, 84(2).

Rayner, R.J., et al. (1997). Cretaceous Fossils from the Orapa Diamond Mine. Palaeont.afr., 33.




Otero, O., et al. (2010). The early/late Pliocene ichthyofauna from Koro-Toro, Eastern Djurab, Chad. Geobios, 43.

Otero, O., et al. (2009). First description of a Pliocene ichthyofauna from Central Africa (site KL2, Kolle area, Eastern Djurab, Chad): What do we learn? Journal of African Earth Sciences, 54.

Vignaud, P., et al. (2002). Geology and palaeontology of the Upper Miocene Toros-Menalla hominid locality, Chad. Nature, Vol.418.



Abdelghany, O. (2002). Lower Miocene stratigraphy of the Gebel Shabrawet area, north Eastern desert Egypt. Journal of African Earth Sciences, 34.

Bown, T.M. and M.J. Kraus (1988). Geology and Paleoenvironment of the Oligocene Jebel Qatrani Formation and Adjacent Rocks, Fayum Depression, Egypt. U.S. Geological Survey, Professional Paper 1452.

Dupuis, C., et al. (2003). The Dababiya Quarry Section: Lithostratigraphy, clay mineralogy, geochemistry and paleontology. Micropaleontology, Vol.49, Supplement Number 1.

El-Din, M.M.K. (2003). Petrified Wood from the Farafra Oasis, Egypt. IAWA Journal, Vol.24(2).

El-Sorogy, A.B., et al. (2005). Stratigraphy, Paleontology and Depositional Environments of Some Exposed Miocene Sediments in Cairo-Suez District, Egypt. Egypt.Jour.Paleont., Vol.5.

Gertsch, B., et al. (2010). Cenomanian-Turonian transition in a shallow water sequence of the Sinai, Egypt. Int.J. Earth Sci., 99.
Gingerich, P.D. (1992). Marine Mammals (Cetacea and Sirenia) from the Eocene of Gebel Mokattam and Fayum, Egypt: Stratigraphy, Age and Paleoenvironments. Museum of Paleontology - The University of Michigan, Papers on Paleontology, 30.
Hamilton, W.R. (1973). A Lower Miocene Mammalian Fauna from Siwa, Egypt. Palaeontology, Vol.16, Part 2.

Hannaa, W.S.A. (2011). Taxonomy and palaeoecology of the Cenomanian-Turonian macro-invertebrates from eastern Sinai, Egypt. Ph.D. Thesis - Bayerischen Julius-Maximilians-Universitat, Wurzburg. (54MB download)

Ismail, A.A., et al. (2007). Campanian-Early Eocene Stratigraphy of the Southern Galala Plateau, Eastern Desert, Egypt. Geologia Croatica, 60/2.
Kuss, J. and M.A. Boukhary (2008). A new upper Oligocene marine record from northern Sinai (Egypt) and its paleogeographic context. GeoArabia, Vol.13, Number 1.

Mekawy, M.S. (2012). Unusual Factor Affecting the Preservation of Fossils from Northern Sinai, Egypt. Earth Science and Climate Change, 3:3.
Osborn, H.F. (1908). New Fossil Mammals from the Fayum Oligocene, Egypt. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History, Vol.24, Article XVI.

Remington, J.E. (ed.)(1968). Early Cenozoic Mammalian Faunas Fayum Province, Egypt. Peabody Museum of Natural History, Yale University, Bulletin 28.

Part I. African Oligocene Mammals: Introduction, History of Study, and Faunal Succession.

Part II. The African Oligocene Rodentia

Sallam, H.M., et al. (2016). Vertebrate paleontological exploration of the Upper Cretaceous succession in the Dakhla and Kharga Oases, Western Desert, Egypt. Journal of African Earth Sciences, 117.

Seiffert, E.R., et al. (2008). Geology, Paleoenvironment and Age of Birket Qarun Locality 2 (BQ-2), Fayum Depression, Egypt. In: Elwyn Simons: A Search for Origins. Fleagle, J.G. and C.C. Gilbert (eds.), Springer.
Simons, E.L. (2005). Eocene and Oligocene Mammals of the Fayum, Egypt. First Conference on the Geology of the Tethys, Cairo University.
Simons, E.L. and P.D. Gingerich (1974). New Carnivorous Mammals from the Oligocene of Egypt. Annals of The Geological Society of Egypt, Vol.IV.
Tantawy, A.A., et al. (2001). Maastrichtian to Paleocene depositional environment of the Dakhla Formation, Western Desert, Egypt: sedimentology, mineralogy, and integrated micro- and macrofossil biostratigraphies. Cretaceous Research, 22.




Delfino, M., et al. (2004). Fossil Reptiles from the Pleistocene Homo-Bearing Locality of Buia (Eritrea, Northern Danakil Depression. Revista Italiana di Paleontología e Stratigrafia, Vol.110, Supplement.

Fiore, I., et al. (2004). Taphonomic Analysis of the Late Early Pleistocene Bone Remains from Buia (Dandeiro Basin, Danakil Depression, Eritrea): Evidence for Large Mammal and Reptile Butchering. Revista Italiana di Paleontología e Stratigrafia, Vol.110, Supplement.

Martínez-Navarro, B., et al. (2004). The Large Fossil Mammals from Buia (Eritrea): Systematics, Biochronology and Paleoenvironments. Revista Italiana di Paleontología e Stratigrafia, Vol.110, Supplement.



Alemseged, Z. and D. Geraads (2000). A new Middle Pleistocene fauna from the Busidima-Telalak region of the Afar, Ethiopia. Earth and Planetary Sciences, 331.

Bobe, R. (2011). Fossil mammals and Palaeoenvironments in the Omo-Turkana Basin. Evolutionary Anthropology, 20. 
Garcia Messini, J.L., B.F. Jacobs and N.J. Tabor (2010). Paleobotany and Sedimentology of the Late Oligoene Terrestrial Strata from the Northwestern Ethiopian Plateau. Palaeontologia Electronica, Vol.13, Issue 1.
Geraads, D., et al. The late Miocene mammalian fauna of Chorora, Awash basin, Ethiopia: systematics, biochronology and 40K - 40Ar ages of the associated volcanics.
Haile-Selassie, Y., et al. (2004). Mio-Pliocene mammals from the Middle Awash, Ethiopia. Geobios.
Jacobs, B.F., et al. (2005). Oligocene Terrestrial Strata of Northwestern Ethiopia: A Preliminary Report on Paleoenvironments and Paleontology. Palaeontologia Electronica, Vol.8, Issue 1.
Kappelman, J., et al. (2003). Oligocene mammals from Ethiopia and faunal exchange between Afro-Arabia and Eurasia. Nature, Vol.426.

Lesur, J., et al. (2016). Paleoenvironmental and biogeographic implications of terminal Pleistocene large mammals from the Ziway-Shala Basin, Main Ethiopian Rift, Ethiopia. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 449.
Sanders, W.J., J. Kappelman and D.T. Rasmussen (2004). New large-bodied mammals from the late Oligocene site of Chilga, Ethiopia. Acta Palaeontologica Polonica, 49(3).
Trapani, J. (2008). Quaternary fossil fish from the Kibish Formation, Omo Valley, Ethiopia. Journal of Human Evolution.
Urbanek, C., et al. (2005). Geology, Paleontology and Paleoanthropology of the Mount Galili Formation in the southern Afar Depression, Ethiopia. Joannea Geol.Palaont., 6.




Hampe, O., et al. (2013). A first Late Permian fish fauna from Baghuk Mountain (Neo-Tethyan shelf, central Iran). Bulletin of Geosciences, 88(1).

Kroh, A., et al. (2011). Echinoids and pectinid bivalves from the Early Miocene Mishan Formation of Iran. Acta Geologica Polonica, Vol.61, Number 4.

Roozbahani, P.R. (2011). Lithostratigraphy and Biostratigraphy of the Lower Cretaceous of the Jalmajird Area (Northeast of Khomeyn, Central Iran Basin), Iran. Geo.Alp, Vol.9, S.




Jassim, S.Z. and J.C. Goff (eds.) (2006). Geology of Iraq. Dolin, Prague and Moravian Museum, Brno. (486 pages)

Salih, A.L.M. (2013). Sedimentology of Sinjar and Khurmala Formations (Paleocene-Lower Eocene) in Northern Iraq. Ph.D. Thesis - University of Baghdad.

Sharbazheri, K.M., I.M. Ghafor and Q.A. Muhammed (2009). Biostratigraphy of the Cretaceous/Tertiary boundary in the Sirwan Valley (Sulaimani Region, Kurdistan, NE Iraq). Geologica Carpathica, 60(5).

Sissakian, V.K., et al. (2016). The Miocene Sequence in Iraq, a Review and Discussion, with emphasize on the Stratigraphy, Paleogeography and Economic Potential. Journal of Earth Sciences and Geotechnical Engineering, Vol.6, Number 3.




Martinez-Navarro, B., M. Belmaker and O. Bar-Yosef (2009). The large carnivores from 'Ubediya (early Pleistocene, Israel): biochronological and biogeographical implications. Journal of Human Evolution, 56.

Maul, L.C., et al. (2010). Microfaunal remains at Middle Pleistocene Qesem Cave, Israel: Preliminary results on small vertebrates, environment and biostratigraphy. Journal of Human Evolution, xxx. (Article in press)

Moshkovitz, S. (2012). The Mollusca in the Marine Pliocene and Pleistocene Sediments of the South-Eastern Mediterranean Basin (Cyprus - Israel). Geological Survey of Israel, Report GSI/25/2012. (180 pages)



Bandel, K. and A.M.B. Abu Hamad (2013). Permian and Triassic Strata of Jordan. In: The Triassic System. Tanner, L.H., J.A. Spielmann and S.G. Lucas (eds.), New Mexico Museum of Natural History and Science, Bulletin 61.

Bardet, N. and X.P. Suberbiola (2002). Marine reptiles from the Late Cretaceous Phosphates of Jordan: paleobiogeographical implications. Geodiversitas, 24(4).

Elicki, O. (2011). First skeletal microfauna from the Cambrian Series 3 of the Jordan Rift Valley (Middle East). Memoirs of the Association of Australasian Palaeontologists, 42.

Makhlouf, I.M. and A.A. El-Haddad (2006). Depositional environments and facies of the Late Triassic Abu Ruweis Formation, Jordan. Journal of Asian Earth Sciences, 28.


Bobe, R. (2011). Fossil mammals and Palaeoenvironments in the Omo-Turkana Basin. Evolutionary Anthropology, 20. 

Harris, J.M. and M.G. Leakey (eds.) (2003). Geology and Vertebrate Paleontology of the Early Pliocene Site of Kanapoi, Northern Kenya.Contributions in Science, Natural History Museum of Los Angeles County, Number 498.

Harris, J.M., F.H. Brown and M.G. Leakey (1988). Stratigraphy and Paleontology of Pliocene and Pleistocene Localities West of Lake Turkana, Kenya. Contributions in Science - Natural History Museum of Los Angeles County, Number 399.

Hill, A., et al. (1985). Neogene Palaeontology and Geochronology of the Baringo Basin, Kenya. Journal of Human Evolution, 14.
Madden, C.T. (1972). Miocene mammals, stratigraphy and environment of Maruarot Hill, Kenya. PaleoBios, Number 14.
Nakaya, H., et al. (1987). Additional Large Mammalian Fauna from the Namurungule Formation, Samburu Hills, Northern Kenya. African Study Monographs, Supplementary Issue 5.

Pickford, M., et al. (1987). The Middle Miocene Fauna from the Nachola and Aka Aiteputh Formations, Northern Kenya. African Study Monographs, Supplementary Issue 5.
Pickford, M., et al. (1984). The Biostratigraphic Analysis of the Faunas of the Nachola Area and Samburu Hills, Northern Kenya. African Study Monographs, Supplementary Issue 2.
Retallack, G.J. (1992). Middle Miocene fossil plants from Fort Ternan (Kenya) and evolution of African grasslands. Paleobiology, 18(4).
Tsujikawa, H. (2005). The Updated Late Miocene Large Mammal Fauna from Samburu Hills, Northern Kenya. African Study Monographs, Suppl., 32.




Al-langawi, A. (2012). New insight on the geology of the Kuwait Group-Jal Al-Zoor Escarpment-Al Ahmad National Reserve, Kuwait. Sabbatical Report - Allam Al-langawi.

Al-Shamlan, A.A. (1980). Microfacies and petrographic analyses of the Mauddud Formation in Kuwait and nearby regions. J.Univ. Kuwait (Sci.), 7.

Milton, D.I. (1967). Geology of the Arabian Peninsula - Kuwait. U.S. Geological Survey, Professional Paper 560-F.

Ozkaya, I. and E. Al-Awadi (1992). Indirect evidence of a diastem within the Eocene Dammam Formation of Kuwait. J.Univ. Kuwait (Sci.), 19.

Picha, F. and A.A.M. Saleh (1977). Quaternary sediments in Kuwait. J.Univ. Kuwait (Sci.), 4.

Strohmenger, C.J., et al. (2006). 6. Sequence Stratigraphy and Reservoir Architecture of the Burgan and Mauddud Formations (Lower Cretaceous), Kuwait. In: Giant hydrocarbon reservoirs of he worldL from rocks to reservoir characterization and modeling. Harris, P.M. and L.J. Weber (eds.), AAGP Memoir 88.


Dalla Vecchia, F.M., S. Venturini and M. Tentor (2002). The Cenomanian (Late Cretaceous) Konservat-Lagerstatte of en Nammoura (Kesrouane Province), northern Lebanon. Bollettino della Societa Paleontologica Italiana, 41(1).
Vokes, H.E. (1942). Contributions to the Paleontology of the Lebanon Mountains, Republic of Lebanon. Part II. Notes on "Cardium" biseriatum Conrad. American Museum Novitates, Number 1183.
Vokes, H.E. (1941). Contributions to the Paleontology of the Lebanon Mountains, Republic of Lebanon. Part I. A Pelecypod Fauna from Hajula. American Museum Novitates, Number 1145.



Argyriou, T., et al. (2015). A fish assemblage from an early Miocene horizon from Jabal Zaltan, Libya. Journal of African Earth Sciences, 102.

Dalla Vecchia, F.M. (1995). Second Record of a Site with Dinosaur Skeletal Remains in Libya (Northern Africa). Natura Nascosta, Number 11.
Fejfar, O. and I. Horacek (2006). The Early Miocene mammalian assemblages in Jebel Zelten, Libya. Lynx (Praha), n.s.,37.
Le Loeff, J., et al. (2010). An Early Cretaceous vertebrate assemblage from the Cabao Formation of NW Libya. Geol.Mag., 147(5).

Nessov, L.A., V.I. Zhegallo and A.O. Averianov (1998). A new locality of Cretaceous snakes, mammals and other vertebrates in Africa (western Libya). Ann.Paleontol., 84, 3-4.

Otero, O., et al. (2015). A Fish Assemblage from the Middle Eocene from Libya (Dur At-Talah) and the Earliest Record of Modern African Fish Genera. PLoS ONE, 10(12).


Burney, D.A., et al. (2008). New Findings at Andrahomana Cave, Southeastern Madagascar. Journal of Cave and Karst Studies, Vol.70, Number 1.

Ostrowski, S.A. (2012). The Teleost Ichthyofauna from the Late Cretaceous of Madagascar: Systematics, Distributions, and Implications for Gondwanan Biogeography. Ph.D. Dissertation - Michigan State University.
Rogers, R.R., J.H. Hartman, and D.W. Krause (2000). Stratigraphic Analysis of Upper Cretaceous Rocks in the Mahajanga Basin, Northwestern Madagascar: Implications for Ancient and Modern Faunas. The Journal of Geology, Vol.108.



Morocco - Ordovician


Hunter, A.W., et al. Preliminary report on new echinoderm Lagerstatten from the Upper Ordovician of the eastern Anti-Atlas, Morocco.

Lefebvre, B., et al. (2016). The Fezouata Shale (Lower Ordovician, Anti-Atlas, Morocco): a historical review. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 460.

Van Roy, P., et al. (2010). Ordovician faunas of the Burgess Shale type. Nature, Vol.465.

Vaucher, R., et al. (2016). A genetic link between Konzentrat- and Konservat-Lagerstatten in the Fezouata Shale (Lower Ordovican, Morocco). Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 460.


Morocco - Devonian


Becker, T.R., et al. (2004). Devonian litho- and biostratigraphy of the Dra Valley area - an overview. In: Devonian of the western Anti Atlas: correlations and events. Doc.Inst.Sci., Rabat.

De Baets, K., C. Klug and Y. Plusquellec (2010). Zlichovian faunas with early ammonoids from Morocco and their use for the correlation of the eastern Anti-Atlas and the western Dra Valley. Bulletin of Geosciences, 85(2).

Ebbighausen, V., et al. (2004). Late Emsian and Eifelian stratigraphy at Oufrane (Tata region, eastern Dra Valley, Morocco). In: Devonian of the western Anti Atlas: correlations and events. Doc.Inst.Sci., Rabat.

Frey, L., et al. (2014). Diversity and palaeoecology of Early Devonian invertebrate associations in the Tafilalt (Anti-Atlas, Morocco). Bulletin of Geosciences, 89(1).

Jansen, U., et al. (2004). The Emsian and Eifelian near Foum Zguid (NE Dra Valley, Morocco). In: Devonian of the western Anti Atlas: correlations and events. Doc.Inst.Sci., Rabat.


Morocco - Jurassic


Haddoumi, H., et al. (2016). Guelb el Ahmar (Bathonian, Anoual Syncline, eastern Morocco): First continental flora and fauna including mammals from the Middle Jurassic of Africa. Gondwana Research, 29(1).


Morocco - Cretaceous


Belvedere, M., et al. (2013). Vertebrate footprints from the Kem Kem beds (Morocco): A novel ichnological approach to faunal reconstruction. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 383-384.

Cavin, L. and D.B. Dutheil (1999). A new Cenomanian ichthyofauna from southeastern Morocco and its relationships with other early Late Cretaceous Moroccan faunas. Geologie en Mijnbouw, 78.

Cavin, L., et al. (2015). Taxonomic Composition and Trophic Structure of the Continental Bony Fish Assemblage from the Early Late Cretaceous of Southeastern Morocco. PLoS ONE, 10(5).
Cavin, L., et al. (2010). Vertebrate assemblages from the early Late Cretaceous of southeastern Morocco: An overview. Journal of African Earth Sciences, 57.

Daodi, L., et al. (2008). Palaeoenvironmental significance of clay minerals in Upper Cenomanian-Turonian sediments of the Western High Atlas Basin (Morocco). Clay Minerals, 43.

Engel, M.S., et al. (2012). A new Cenomanian-Turonian (Late Cretaceous) insect assemblage from southeastern Morocco. Cretaceous Research, 35.

Garcia, G., et al. (2003). First Record of Dinosaur Eggshells and Teeth from the North-West African Maastrichtian (Morocco). Palaeovertebrata, Montpelier, 32(2-4).

Ibrahim, N., et al. (2014). Dinosaur Footprints and Other Ichnofauna from the Cretaceous Kem Kem Beds of Morocco. PLoS ONE, 9(3).

Khalloufi, B., D. Ouarhache and H. Lelievre (2010). New paleontological and geological data about Jbel Tselfat (Late Cretaceous of Morocco). Historical Biology, Vol.22, Numbers 1-3.

Krassilov, V. and F. Bacchia (2013). New Cenomanian florule and a leaf mine from southeastern Morocco: Palaeoecological and climatological inferences. Cretaceous Research, 40.

Martill, D.M., et al. (2011). A new Plattenkalk Konservat Lagerstätte in the Upper Cretaceous of Gara Sbaa, south-eastern Morocco. Cretaceous Research, 32. (Thanks to doushantuo for finding this one!)


Morocco - Eocene


Adnet, S., H. Cappetta and R. Tabuce (2010). A Middle-Late Eocene vertebrate fauna (marine fish and mammals) from southwestern Morocco; preliminary report: age and palaeobiogeographical implications. Geol.Mag., 147(6).


Morocco - Pliocene


Geraads, D. (2002). Plio-Pleistocene Mammalian Biostratigraphy of Atlantic Morocco. Quaternaire, 13(1).

Geraads, D. The late Pliocene locality of Ahl al Oughlam, Morocco: vertebrate faunas and interpretation. Transactions of the Royal Society of South Africa, Vol.61(2).

Geraads, D., J.-P. Raynal and F.-Z. Sbihi-Alaoui (2010). Mammalian faunas from the Pliocene and Pleistocene of Casablanca (Morocco). Historical Biology, Vol.22, Numbers 1-3.


Morocco - Pleistocene


da Silva Marinheiro, J.A. (2015). Proboscideans and Other Vertebrates from Anchrif, Morocco. Masters Dissertation - Universidade Nova de Lisboa.

da Silva Marinheiro, J.A., et al. (2014). New Quaternary fossil sites from the Middle Atlas of Morocco. Comunicaoes Geologicas, 101, Special 1.

Geraads, D. (2002). Plio-Pleistocene Mammalian Biostratigraphy of Atlantic Morocco. Quaternaire, 13(1).

Geraads, D., J.-P. Raynal and F.-Z. Sbihi-Alaoui (2010). Mammalian faunas from the Pliocene and Pleistocene of Casablanca (Morocco). Historical Biology, Vol.22, Numbers 1-3.

Ouahbi, Y., et al. (2003). Recent Quaternary fossil mammals of Chrafate and Ez Zarka. The origin of modern fauna in the Northern Rif (NW Morocco, Northern Africa). Geologica Acta, Vol.1, Number 3.


Morocco - General


El Kadiri, K., et al. (2005). Lithostratigraphy and sedimentology of the latest Cretaceous-early Burdigalian Tamezzakht succession (Northern Rif, Morocco): consequences for its sequence stratigraphic interpretation. Facies, 50.



Pickford, M. (2012). Mocambique Palaeontology Reconnaissance, November 2012.




Darroch, S.A.F., et al. (2016). A mixed Ediacaran-metazoan assemblage from the Zaris Sub-basin, Namibia. Palaeogeology, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 459.

Pickford, M.H.L. (1995). Karoo Supergroup Palaeontology of Namibia and Brief Description of a Thecodont from Omingonde. Palaeont.afr., 32.

Pickford, M.H.L. (1995). Review of the Riphean, Vendian and Early Cambrian palaeontology of the Otavi and Nama Groups, Namibia. Communs.geol.Surv.Namibia, 10.




Smith, R.M.H., et al. (2015). Sedimentology and vertebrate taphonomy of the Moradi Formation of northern Niger: A Permian wet desert in the tropics of Pangaea. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 440.




Adegoke, O.S. (1977). Stratigraphy and Paleontology of the Ewekoro Formation (Paleocene) of Southwestern Nigeria. Bulletins of American Paleontology, Vol.71, Number 295. (446 pages)




Neubert, E. and D. van Damme (2012). Palaeogene continental molluscs of Oman. Contributions to Natural History, Number 20.




LeBlanc, J. (2008). A Fossil Hunting Guide to the Tertiary Formations of Qatar, Middle East.


Saudi Arabia

Kear, B.P., et al. (2013). First Dinosaurs from Saudi Arabia. PLoS ONE, 8(12).

Kear, B.P., et al. (2009). An Upper Cretaceous (Campanian-Maastrichtian) actinopterygian fish assemblage from the marginal marine Adaffa Formation of Saudi Arabia. Cretaceous Research.

Mandurah, M.H. (2010). Paleontological Studies on the Neogene (Miocene and Quaternary) Carbonate Rocks of Rabigh-Ubhur Areas, Red Sea Coast, Saudi Arabia. JAKU: Earth Science, Vol.21, Number 2.
Thomas, H., et al. (1999). Late Paleocene to Early Eocene marine vertebrates from the Uppermost Aruma Formation (northern Saudi Arabia): implications for the K-T transition. Earth & Planetary Sciences, 329.
Thomas, H., et al. (1998). First Pleistocene faunas from the Arabian Peninsula: An Nafud desert, Saudi Arabia. Earth and Planetary Sciences, 326.

Whitmore, F.C. and C.T. Madden (1995). Paleocene Vertebrates from Jabal Umm Himar, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. U.S. Geological Survey Bulletin 2093.

South Africa

Almond, J., B. de Klerk and R. Gess (2009). Palaeontological Heritage of the East Cape. SAHRA Technical Report (March 2009).

Anderson, J.M., H.M. Anderson and A.R.I. Cruikshank (1998). Late Triassic Ecosystems of the Molteno/Lower Elliot Biome of Southern Africa. Palaeontology, Vol.41, Part 3.

Avery, G. (1995). Archaeological and Palaeontological Survey: Milnerton Lagoon Mouth (3318CD). South African Museum. (Thanks to abyssunder for pointing me to this one!)

Berger, L.R. and R. Lacruz (2003). Preliminary report on the first excavations at the new fossil site of Motsetse, Gauteng, South Africa. South African Journal of Science, 99.
Churchill, S.E., et al. (2000). Erfkroon: a new Florisian fossil locality from fluvial contexts in the western Free State, South Africa. South African Journal of Science, 96.
Clarke, R.J. and K. Kuman (1999). The Sterkfontein Caves Paleontological and Archaeological Site.
Prevec, R., et al. (2009). Portrait of a Gondwanan ecosystem: A new late Permian fossil locality from KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology, 156.
Reynolds, S.C., R.J. Clarke and K.A. Kuman (2007). A view from the Lincoln Cave: mid- to late Pleistocene fossil deposits from Sterkfontein hominid site, South Africa. Journal of Human Evolution, 53.
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United Arab Emirates

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Updated October 2, 2010


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Updated October 25, 2010.


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Updated March 19, 2011.


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Updated December 20, 2011.


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Updated April 16, 2015.


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Updated July 24, 2016.


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Updated May 19, 2017.



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Partially updated - March 23, 2018.



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