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These are a few of the pdf files (and a few Microsoft Word documents) that I've accumulated in my web browsing.

MOST of these are hyperlinked to their source.

If you want one that is not hyperlinked or if the link isn't working, e-mail me at joegallo1954@gmail.com and I'll be happy to send it to you.


Please note that this list will be updated continuously as I find more available resources. All of these files are freely available on the Internet so there should be no copyright issues.



Articles with author names in RED are new additions since June 9, 2018.



Class (Clade) Synapsida


Order Therapsida


General "Dicynodonts"


Chowdhury, T.R. (1970). Two New Dicynodonts from the Triassic Yerrapalli Formation of Central India. Palaeontology, Vol.13, Part 1.

Cox, C.B. (1964). On the Palate, Dentition and Classification of the Fossil Reptile Endothiodon and Related Genera. American Museum Novitates, Number 2171.

Nesbitt, S.J. and K.D Angielczyk (2002). New evidence of large dicynodonts in the upper Moenkopi Formation (Middle Triassic) of northern Arizona. PaleoBios, 22(2).

Rozefelds, A.C., et al. (2011). New Evidence of Large Permo-Triassic Dicynodonts (Synapsida) from Australia. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology, 31(5).

Thulborn, T. and S. Turner (2003). The last dicynodont: an Australian Cretaceous relict. Proc.R.Soc.Lond. B, 270.


Suborder Anomodontia


Liu, J., B. Rubidge and J.-L. Li (2010). A new specimen of Biseridens qilianicus indicates its phylogenetic position as the most basal anomodont. Proc.R.Soc.B, 277.


Superfamily Anomocephaloidea


Chinsamy-Turan, A. (2011). Tiarajudens: A significant mammal-like reptile. S.Afr.J.Sci., 107(5/6).

Cisneros, J.C., et al. (2015). Tiarajudens eccentricus and Anomocephalus africanus, two bizarre anomodonts (Synapsida, Therapsida) with dental occlusion from the Permian of Gondwana. R.Soc. Open Science, 2.

Modesto, S.P., B. Rubidge and J. Welman (1999). The most basal anomodont therapsid and the primacy of Gondwana in the evolution of the anomodonts. Proc.R.Soc.Lond. B, 266.


Superfamily Venyukoioidea


Family Otsheridae


Fröbisch, J. and R.R. Reisz (2011). The postcranial anatomy of Suminia getmanovi (Synapsida: Anomodontia), the earliest known arboreal tetrapod. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society, 162.


Clade Chainosauria


Infraorder Dicynodontia


Family Dicynodontidae


Kammerer, C.F., K.D. Angielczyk and J. Frobisch (2011). A Comprehensive Taxonomic Revision of Dicynodon (Therapsida, Anomodontia) and its Implications for Dicynodont Phylogeny, Biogeography, and Biostratigraphy. Society of Vertebrate Paleontology Memoir 11, Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology, Vol.31, Supplement to Number 6. (158 pages)


Family Emydopidae


Angielczyk, K.D., J. Fröbisch and R.M.H. Smith (2005). On the stratigraphic range of the dicynodont taxon Emydops  (Therapsida, Anomodontia) in the Karoo Basin, South Africa. Palaeont.afr., 41.

Castanhinha, R., et al. (2013). Bringing Dicynodonts Back to Life: Paleobiology and Anatomy of a New Emydopid Genus from the Upper Permian of Mozambique. PLoS ONE, 8(12).

Fourie, H. (1993). A Detailed Description of the Internal Structure of the Skull of Emydops (Therapsida: Dicynodontia). Palaeont.afr., 30.

Fröbisch, J. and R.R. Reisz (2008). A New Species of Emydops (Synapsida, Anomodontia) and a Discussion of Dental Variability and Pathology in Dicynodonts. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology, 28(3).

Kammerer, C.F., K.D. Angielczyk and J. Fröbisch (2015). Redescription of Digalodon rubidgei, an emydopoid dicynodont (Therapsida, Anomodontia) from the Late Permian of South Africa. Foss.Rec, 18.


Family Endothiodontidae


Araujo, R., et al. (2018). Endothiodon cf. bathystoma (Synapsida: Dicynodontia) bony labyrinth anatomy, variation and body mass estimates. PLoS ONE, 13(3).


Family Geikiidae


Kammerer, C.F. and R.M.H. Smith (2017). An early geikiid dicynodont from the Tropidostoma Assemblage Zone (late Permian) of South Africa. PeerJ, 5:e2913.

Kammerer, C.F., K.D. Angielczyk and J. Frobisch (2015). Redescription of the Geikiid Pelanomodon (Therapsida, Dicynodontia), With a Reconsideration of 'Propelanomodon'. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology, e1030408.

Maisch, M.W. and E.V.I. Gebauer (2005). Reappraisal of Geikia locusticeps (Therapsida: Dicynodontia) from the Upper Permian of Tanzania. Palaeontology, Vol.48, Part 2.


Family incertae sedis


Boos, A.D.S., et al. (2016). A New Dicynodont (Therapsida: Anomodontia) from the Permian of Southern Brazil and its Implications for Bidentalian Origins. PLoS ONE, 11(5).

Cruickshank, A.R.I., N.D.L. Clark and C. Adams (2005). A new specimen of Dicynodon traquairi (Newton)(Synapsida: Anomodontia) from the Late Permian (Tartarian) of northern Scotland. Palaeont.afr., 41.


Superfamily Eodicynodontoidea


Family Eodicynodontidae


Rubidge, B.S., G.M. King and P.J. Hancox (1994). The Postcranial Skeleton of the Earliest Dicynodont Synapsid Eodicynodon from the Upper Permian of South Africa. Palaeontology, Vol.37, Part 2.


Superfamily Kingoroidea


Family Kingoriidae


Fröbisch, J. (2007). The cranial anatomy of Kombuisia frerensis Hotton (Synapsida, Dicynodontia) and a new phylogeny of anomodont therapsids. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society, 150.

Fröbisch, J., K.D. Angielczyk and C.A. Sidor (2010). The Triassic dicynodont Kombuisia (Synapsida, Anomodontia) from Antarctica, a refuge from the terrestrial Permian-Triassic mass extinction. Naturwissenschaften, 97.


Clade Diictodontia


Superfamily Robertoidea


Family Pylaecephalidae


Agnew, J.D. (1959). Cranio-Osteological Studies in Dicynodon grimbeeki With Special Reference to the Sphenethmoid Region and Cranial Kinesis. Palaeo.afr., 6. (27.4MB)

Barry, T.H. (1958). On the Significance of Tuskless Specimens of Dicynodon grimbeeki Broom. Palaeo.afr., V.

Sullivan, C. (2000). Cranial Anatomy of the Late Permian Dicynodont Diictodon, and Its Bearing on Aspects of the Taxonomy, Palaeobiology and Phylogenetic Relationships of the Genus. Masters Thesis - University of Toronto.

Thackeray, J.F. (1991). Growth increments in teeth of Diictodon (Therapsida). Koedoe, 34(1).


Clade Pristerodontia


Family Lystrosauridae


Colbert, E.H. (1974). Lystrosaurus from Antarctica. American Museum Novitates, Number 2535.

Crompton, R.W. and N. Hotton (1967). Functional Morphology of the Masticatory Apparatus of Two Dicynodonts (Reptilia, Therapsida). Peabody Museum of Natural History Postilla, Number 109.

King, G.M. and I. Jenkins (1997). The Dicynodont Lystrosaurus from the Upper Permian of Zambia: Evolutionary and Stratigraphical Implications. Palaeontology, Vol.40, Part 1.

Surkov, M.V., N.N. Kalandadze and M.J. Benton (2005). Lystrosaurus georgi, A Dicynodont from the Lower Triassic of Russia. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology, 25(2).


Family Oudenodontidae


Keyser, A.W. (1973). A Re-Evaluation of the Genus Tropidostoma Seeley. Palaeont.afr., 16.


Family Pristerodontidae


Crompton, R.W. and N. Hotton (1967). Functional Morphology of the Masticatory Apparatus of Two Dicynodonts (Reptilia, Therapsida). Peabody Museum of Natural History Postilla, Number 109.


Superfamily Kannemeyeriiformes


Family Kannemeyeriidae


Case, E.C. (1934). Description of a Skull of Kannemeyeria erithrea Haughton. Contributions from the Museum of Paleontology - The University of Michigan, Vol.IV, Number 7.

Cruickshank, A.R.I. (1975). The Skeleton of the Triassic Anomodont Kannemeyeria wilsoni Broom. Palaeont.afr., 18.

Liu, J. (2004). Parakannemeyeria chengi Sp.Nov. from Kelamayi Formation of Jimusar, Xinjiang. Vertebrata PalAsiatica, 42(1).
Liu, J. and J.-L. Li (2003). A New Material of Kannemeyerid from Xinjiang and the Restudy of Parakannemeyeria brevirostris. Vertebrata PalAsiatica, 41(2).


Family Stahleckeriidae


Abdala, F., et al. (2013). Strengthening Western Gondwanan correlations: A Brazilian Dicynodont (Synapsida, Anomodontia) in the Middle Triassic of Namibia. Gondwana Research, 23.

Bandyopadhyay, S. (1989). The Mammal-Like Reptile Rechnisaurus from the Triassic of India. Palaeontology, Vol.32, Part 2.

Kammerer, C.F. (2018). The first skeletal evidence of a dicynodont from the lower Elliot Formation of South Africa. Palaeontologia africana, 52. (40.84 MB) (Thanks to Kasia for pointing me to this one!)

Kammerer, C.F., J. Fröbisch and K.D. Angielczyk (2013). On the Validity and Phylogenetic Position of Eubrachiosaurus browni, a Kannemeyeriiform Dicynodont (Anomodontia) from Triassic North America. PLoS ONE, 8(5).


Anomodontia incertae sedis


Maisch, M.W. (2009). The small dicynodont Katumbia parringtoni (von Heune, 1942) (Therapsida, Dicynodontia) from the Upper Permian Kawinga Formation of Tanzania as gorgonopsian prey. Palaeodiversity, 2.

Vega-Dias, C. and C.L. Schultz (2004). Postcranial material of Jachalaria candelariensis Araújo and Gonzaga, 1980 (Therapsida, Dicynodontia), Upper Triassic of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. PaleoBios, 24(1).


General Anomodonts


Angielczyk, K.D. (2001). Preliminary Phylogenetic Analysis and Stratigraphic Congruence of the Dicynodont Anomodonts (Synapsida: Therapsida). Palaeont.afr., 37.

Angielczyk, K.D., et al. (2014). New Dicynodonts (Therapsida, Anomodontia) and Updated Tetrapod Stratigraphy of the Permian Ruhuhu Formation (Songea Group, Ruhuhu Basin) of Southern Tanzania. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology, 34(6).

Fröbisch, J. (2008). Global Taxonomic Diversity of Anomodonts (Tetrapoda, Therapsida) and the Terrestrial Rock Record Across the Permian-Triassic Boundary. PLoS ONE, 3(11).

Fröbisch, J. (2008). Taxonomic, Phylogenetic and Morphological Diversity of Anomodonts (Tetrapoda, Therapsida). Ph.D. Thesis - University of Toronto.

Keyser, A.W. (1972). A Re-Evaluation of the Systematics and Morphology of Certain Anomodont Therapsida. Palaeont.afr., 14.

Ruta, M., et al. (2013). Decoupling of morphological disparity and taxic diversity during the adaptive radiation of anomodont therapsids. Proc.R.Soc. B, 280.

Toerien, M.J. (1953). The Evolution of the Palate in South African Anomodontia and its Classificatory Significance. Ph.D. Thesis - University of Witwatersrand.

Walther, M. and J. Fröbisch (2013). The quality of the fossil record of the anomodonts. C.R. Palevol, 12.


Suborder Biarmosuchia


Benoit, J., et al. (2017). The bony labyrinth of late Permian Biarmosuchia: palaeobiology and diversity in non-mammalian Therapsida. Palaeont.afr., 52.

Day, M.O., B.S. Rubidge and F. Abdala (2016). A new mid-Permian burnetiamorph therapsid from the Main Karoo Basin of South Africa and a phylogenetic review of Burnetiamorpha. Acta Palaeontologica Polonica, 61(4). 

Kammerer, C.F. (2016). Two unrecognized burnetiamorph specimens from historical Karoo collections. Palaeont.afr., 50.

Kruger, A., et al. (2015). Lende chiweta, A New Therapsid from Malawi, And Its Influence on Burnetiamorph Phylogeny and Biogeography. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology, e1008698.

Li, J. and Z. Cheng (1997). First Discovery of Eotitanosuchian (Therapsida, Synapsida) of China. Vertebrata PalAsiatica, 35(4).

Sidor, C.A. (2015). The first biarmosuchian from the upper Madumabisa Mudstone Formation (Luangwa Basin) of Zambia. Palaeont.afr., 49.

Sidor, C.A., J.A. Hopson, and A.W. Keyser (2004). A New Burnetiamorph Therapsid from the Teekloof Formation, Permian of South Africa. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology, 24(4).

Smith, R.M.H, B.S. Rubidge and C.A. Sidor (2006). A New Burnetiid (Therapsida: Biarmosuchia) from the Upper Permian of South Africa and its Biogeographic Implications. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology, 26(2).

Whitney, M.R. and C.A. Sidor (2016). A New Therapsid from the Permian Madumabisa Mudstone Formation (Mid-Zambezi Basin) of Southern Zambia. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology, e1150767.


Suborder Cynodontia


Cynodonts - Africa/Middle East


Abdala, F. and R.M.H. Smith (2009). A Middle Triassic Cynodont Fauna from Namibia and Its Implications for the Biogeography of Gondwana. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology, 29(3).

Abdala, F., P.J. Hancox and J. Neveling (2005). Cynodonts from the Uppermost Burgersdorp Formation, South Africa, and Their Bearing on the Biostratigraphy and Correlation of the Triassic Cynognathus Assemblage Zone. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology, 25(1).

Botha, J. and A. Chinsamy (2004). Growth and life habits of the Triassic cynodont Trirachodon, inferred from bone histology. Acta Palaeontologica Polonica, 49(4).

Hopson, J.A. (1984). Late Triassic Transversodont Cynodonts from Nova Scotia and Southern Africa. Palaeont.afr., 25.

Jenkins, F.A. (1971). The Postcranial Skeleton of African Cynodonts. Peabody Museum of Natural History - Yale University, Bulletin 36.

Kemp, T.S. (1980). The Primitive Cynodont Procynosuchus: Structure, Function and Evolution of the Postcranial Skeleton. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London, Series B, Biological Sciences, Vol.288, Number 1027.

Sidor, C.A. and R.M.H. Smith (2004). A New Galesaurid (Therapsida: Cynodontia) from the Lower Triassic of South Africa. Palaeontology, Vol.47, Part 3.


Cynodonts - Antarctica


Colbert, E.H. and J.W. Kitching (1977). Triassic Cynodont Reptiles from Antarctica. American Museum Novitates, Number 2611.


Cynodonts - Asia/Malaysia/Pacific Islands


Matsuoka, H., N. Kusuhashi and I.J. Corfe (2016). A New Early Cretaceous Tritylodontid (Synapsida, Cynodontia, Mammaliamorpha) from the Kuwajima Formation (Tetori Group) of Central Japan. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology, e1112289.


Cynodonts - Europe (including Greenland)


Cuny, G. (2004). A Late Triassic Cynodont from Holwell Quarries (Somerset, England). Oryctos, Vol.5.

Renesto, S. and S.G. Lucas (2009). Cynodont teeth from the Carnian (Late Triassic) of northern Italy. Acta Palaeontologica Polonica, 54(2).

Shapiro, M.D. and F.A. Jenkins (2001). A Cynodont from the Upper Triassic of East Greenland: Tooth Replacement and Double-Rootedness. Bull.Mus.Comp.Zool., 156(1).

Tatarinov, L.P. (1968). Morphology and Systematics of the Northern Dvina Cynodonts (Reptilia, Therapsida; Upper Permian). Postilla, Number 126.


Cynodonts - North America


Hopson, J.A. (1984). Late Triassic Transversodont Cynodonts from Nova Scotia and Southern Africa. Palaeont.afr., 25.

Liu, J. and H.-D. Sues (2010). Dentition and Tooth Replacement of Boreogomphodon (Cynodontia: Transversodontidae) from the Upper Triassic of North Carolina, USA. Vertebrata PalAsiatica, 48(3).

Lucas, S.G. and W. Oakes (1988). A Late Triassic Cynodont from the American South-West. Palaeontology, Vol.31, Part 2.

Sues, H.-D., P.E. Olsen and J.G. Carter (1999). A Late Triassic Cynodont from the Newark Supergroup of North Carolina. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology, 19(2).


Cynodonts - South America/Central America/Caribbean


Abdala, F. and A.M. Sa-Teixeira (2004). A transversodontid cynodont of African affinity in the South American Triassic. Palaeont.afr., 40.

Abdala, F. and A.M. Ribeiro (2003). A new transversodontid cynodont from the Santa Maria Formation (Ladinian-Carnian) of southern Brazil, with a phylogenetic analysis of Gondwanan transversodontids. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society, 139.

Abdala, F. and A.M. Ribeiro (2000). A new therioherpetid cynodont from the Santa Maria Formation (middle Late Triassic), southern Brazil. Geodiversitas, 22(4).

Abdala, F., M.C. Barberena and J. Dornelles (2002). A New Species of the Transversodontid Cynodont Exaeretodon from the Santa Maria Formation (Middle/Late Triassic) of Southern Brazil. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology, 22(2).

Abdala, F., S. Dias-da-Silva and J.C. Cisneros (2002). First Record of Non-Mammalian Cynodonts (Therapsida) in the Sanga Do Cabral Formation (Early Triassic) of Southern Brazil. Palaeont.afr., 38.de Olveira, T.V. and C.L. Schultz (2016). Functional morphology and biomechanics of the cynodont Trucidocynodon riograndensis from the Triassic of Southern Brazil: Pectoral girdle and forelimb. Acta Palaeontologica Polonica, 61(2).

Liu, J. and J. Powell (2009). Osteology of Andescynodon (Cynodontia: Transversodontidae) from the Middle Triassic of Argentina. American Museum Novitates, Number 3674.

Martinelli, A.G. and G.W. Rougier (2007). On Chaliminia musteloides (Eucynodontia: Trithelodontidae) from the Late Triassic of Argentina, and a Phylogeny of Ictidosauria. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology, 27(2).

Martinelli, A.G., M.B. Soares and C. Schwanke (2016). Two New Cynodonts (Therapsida) from the Middle-Early Late Triassic of Brazil and Comments on South American Probainognathians. PLoS ONE, 11(10).

Martinelli, A.G., M. De La Fuente, and F. Abdala (2009). Diademodon tetragonus Seeley, 1894 (Therapsida, Cynodontia) in the Triassic of South America and Its Biostratigraphic Implications. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology, 29(3).

Melo, T.P., A.G. Martinelli and M.B. Soares (2017). A New Gomphodont Cynodont (Traversodontidae) from the Middle-Late Triassic Dinodontosaurus Assemblage Zone of the Santa Maria Supersequence, Brazil. Palaeontology, 2017.

Oliveira, E.V. (2006). Reevaluation of Therioherpeton cargnini Bonaparte & Barberena, 1975 (Probainognathia, Therioherpetidae) from the Upper Triassic of Brazil. Geodiversitas, 28(3). (Link updated thanks to Orohippus!)

Soares, M.B., A.G. Martinelli and T.V. Oliveira (2014). A new prozostrodontian cynodont (Therapsida) from the Late Triassic Riograndia Assemblage Zone (Santa Maria Supersequence) of Southern Brazil. Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências, 86(4).

Soares, M.B., F. Abdala and C. Bertoni-Machado (2011). A sectorial toothed cynodont (Therapsida) from the Triassic Santa Cruz do Sul fauna, Santa Cruz Formation, Southern Brazil. Geodiversitas, 33(2).

Soares, M.B., C.L. Schultz and B.L.D. Horn (2011). New information on Riograndia guaibensis Bonaparte, Ferigolo & Ribeiro, 2001 (Eucynodontia, Trithelodontidae) from the Late Triassic of southern Brazil: anatomical and biostratigraphic implications. Anais da Academica Brasileira de Sciencias, 83(1).

Veiga, F.H., J. Botha-Brink and M.B. Soares (2018). Osteohistology of the non-mammaliaform traversodontids Protuberum cabralense and Exaeretodon riograndensis from southern Brazil. Historical Biology, 2018.


General Cynodontia


Barghusen, H.R. (1968). The Lower Jaw of Cynodonts (Reptilia, Therapsida) and the Evolutionary Origin of Mammal-Like Adductor Jaw Musculature. Peabody Museum of Natural History, Postilla Number 116.

Damiani, R., et al. (2003). Earliest evidence of cynodont burrowing. Proc.R.Soc. B, 270.

Hopson, J.A. and J.W. Kitching (1972). A Revised Classification of Cynodonts. Palaeont.afr., 14.

Liu, J. and P. Olsen (2010). The Phylogenetic Relationships of Eucynodontia (Amniota: Synapsida). J.Mammal.Evol., 17.

Liu, J. and F. Abdala (2014). Chapter 15. Phylogeny and Taxonomy of the Transversondontidae. In: Early Evolutionary History of the Synapsida. Kammerer, C.F., K.D. Angielczyk and J. Fröbisch (eds.), Vertebrate Paleobiology and Paleoanthropology Series, Springer Science+Business Media, Dordrecht.

Ruta, M., et al. (2013). The radiation of cynodonts and the ground plan of mammalian morphological diversity. Proc.R.Soc. B, 280.


Suborder Dinocephalia


Atayman, S., B.S. Rubidge and F. Abdala (2009). Taxonomic re-evaluation of tapinocephalid dinocephalians. Palaeont.afr., 44.

Benoit, J., et al. (2017). Synchrotron scanning reveals the palaeoneurology of the head-butting Moschops capensis (Therapsida, Dinocephalia). PeerJ, 5:e3496.

Boos, A.D.S., et al. (2015). A tapinocephalid dinocephalian (Synapsida, Therapsida) from the Rio do Rasto Formation (Parana Basin, Brazil): Taxonomic, ontogenetic and biostratigraphic considerations. Journal of South American Earth Sciences, 63.

Cisneros, J.C., et al. (2012). Carnivorous dinocephalian from the Middle Permian of Brazil and tetrapod dispersal in Pangaea. PNAS, Vol.109, Number 5.

Day, M.O., et al. (2015). Youngest dinocephalian fossils extend the Tapinocephalus Zone, Karoo Basin, South Africa. South African Journal of Science, 111(3/4).

Güven, S., B.S. Rubidge and F. Abdala (2013). Cranial morphology and taxonomy of South African Tapinocephalidae (Therapsida: Dinocephalia): the case of Avenantia and Riebeeckosaurus. Palaeont.afr., 48.

Jiang, S. and S.-a. Ji (2014). New specimens of Stenocybus acidentatus (Therapsida: Dinocephalia) from the Middle Permian Dashankou Fauna of China. Acta Geologica Sinica, Vol.38, Number 3.

Kruger, A. (2014). Ontogeny and Cranial Morphology of the Basal Carnivorous Dinocephalian, Anteosaurus magnificus from the Tapinocephalus Assemblage Zone of the South African Karoo. Masters Dissertation - University of the Witwatersrand.

Modesto, S.P., et al. (2001). A dinocephalian therapsid fauna on the Ecca-Beaufort contact in Eastern Cape Province, South Africa. South African Journal of Science, 97.

Rowe, T. and J.A. van den Heever (1986). The hand of Anteosaurus magnificus (Dinocephalia: Therapsida) and its bearing on the origin of the mammalian manual phalangeal formula. Suid-Afrikaanse Tydskrif vir Wetenskap, Vol. 82.

Rubidge, B.S. (1991). A New Primitive Dinocephalian Mammal-Like Reptile from the Permian of South Africa. Palaeontolgy, Vol.34, Part 3.


Suborder Gorgonopsia


Araujo, R., et al. (2017). Aspects of gorgonopsian paleobiology and evolution: insights from the basicranium, occiput, osseous labyrinth, vasculature, and neuroanatomy. PeerJ, 5:e3119.

Boonstra, L.D. (1965). The Girdles and Limbs of the Gorgonopsia of the Tapinocephalus Zone. Annals of the South African Museum, 48.

Boonstra, L.D. (1935). On the South African Gorgonopsian Reptiles Preserved in the American Museum of Natural History. American Museum Novitates, Number 772.

Brink, A.S. and J.W. Kitching (1953). Studies on New Specimens of the Gorgonopsia.

Broom, R. (1913). 3.- On a Nearly Perfect Skull of a New Species of the Gorgonopsia. Annals of the South African Museum, 12.

Colbert, E.H. (1948). The Mammal-Like Reptile Lycaenops. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History, Vol.89, Article 6.

Kammerer, C.F. (2017). Rediscovery of the holotype of Clelandina major Broom, 1948 (Gorgonopsia: Rubidgeinae) with implications for the identity of this species. Palaeont.afr., 52.

Kammerer, C.F. (2016). Systematics of the Rubidgeinae (Therapsida: Gorgonopsia). PeerJ, 4:e1608.

Kammerer, C.F. and V. Masyutin (2018). Gorgonopsian therapsids (Nochnitsa gen.nov. and Viatkogorgon) from the Permian Kotelnich locality of Russia. PeerJ, 6:e4954.

Kemp, T.S. (1969). On the Functional Morphology of the Gorgonopsid Skull. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London Series B, Vol.256.


Suborder incertae sedis


Amson, E. and M. Laurin (2011). On the affinities of Tetraceratops insignis, an Early Permian synapsid. Acta Palaeontologica Polonica, 56(2).


Suborder Therocephalia


Benoit, J., et al. (2017). Reappraisal of the envenoming capacity of Euchambersia mirabilis (Therapsida, Therocephalia) using μCT-scanning techniques. PLoS ONE, 12(2).

Benoit, J., et al. (2016). Cranial Bosses of Choerosaurus dejageri (Therapsida, Therocephalia): Earliest Evidence of Cranial Display Structures in Eutheriodonts. PLoS ONE, 11(8).

Broom, R. (1937). On the Palate, Occiput and Hind Foot of Bauria cynops Broom. American Museum Novitates, Number 946.

Huttenlocker, A.K. and R.M.H. Smith (2017). New whaitsioids (Therapsida: Therocephalia) from the Teekloof Formation of South Africa and therocephalian diversity during the end-Guadalupian extinction. PeerJ, 5:e3868. (41.8MB)

Huttenlocker, A.K. and J. Botha-Brink (2014). Bone microstructure and the evolution of growth patterns in Permo-Triassic therocephalians (Amniota, Therapsida) in South Africa. PeerJ, 2:e325.

Huttenlocker, A.K. and J. Botha-Brink (2013). Body size and growth patterns in the therocephalian Moschorhinus kitchingi (Therapsida, Eutheriodontia) before and after the end-Permian extinction in South Africa. Paleobiology, 39(2).

Huttenlocker, A.K. and C.A. Sidor (2012). Taxonomic revision of therocephalians (Therapsida: Theriodontia) from the Lower Triassic of Antarctica. American Museum Novitates, Number 3738.

Kammerer, C.F. and V. Masyutin (2018). A new therocephalian (Gorynychus masyutinae gen. et sp.nov.) from the Permian Kotelnich locality, Kirov Region, Russia. PeerJ, 6:e4933. (Thanks to Scylla for pointing me to this one!) (80.1MB)

Liu, J. and F. Abdala (2017). The tetrapod fauna of the upper Permian Naobaogou Formation of China: 1. Shiguaignathus wangi gen. et sp.nov., the first akidnognathid therocephalian from China. PeerJ, 5:e4150. (40.8MB)

Liu, J. and F. Abdala (2017). Therocephalian (Therapsida) and chroniosuchian (Reptiliomorpha) from the Permo-Triassic transitional Guodikeng Formation of the Dalongkou Section, Jimsar, Xinjiang, China. Vertebrata PalAsiatica, 55(1).

Maisch, M.W. (2017). Re-assessment of Silphoictoides ruhuhuensis von Heune, 1950 (Therapsida, Therocephalia) from the Late Permian of Tanzania: one of the most basal baurioids known. Palaeodiversity, 10.

Schaeffer, B. (1941). The Pes of Bauria cynops Broom. American Museum Novitates, Number 1103.

Sigurdsen, T. (2006). New features of the snout and orbit of a therocephalian therapsid from South Africa. Acta Palaeontologica Polonica, 51(1).


General Therapsida


Benoit, J., et al. (2016). The sixth sense in mammalian forerunners: Variability of the parietal foramen and the evolution of the pineal eye in South African Permo-Triassic eutheriodont therapsids. Acta Palaeontologica Polonica, 61(4). 

Huttenlocker, A.K. (2014). Body Size Reductions in Nonmammalian Eutheriodont Therapsids (Synapsida) during the End-Permian Mass Extinction. PLoS ONE, 9(2).

Jacobs, L.L., et al. (2005). Therapsids from the Permian Chiweta Beds and the Age of the Karoo Supergroup in Malawi. Palaeontologia Electronica, Vol.8, Issue 1.

Kemp, T.S. (2009). Phylogenetic interrelationships and pattern of evolution of the therapsids: testing for polytomy. Palaeont.afr., 44.

Kemp, T.S. (2006). The origin and early radiation of the therapsid mammal-like reptiles: a palaeobiological hypothesis. European Society for Evolutionary Biology.

Rubidge, B.S. and C.A. Sidor (2001). Evolutionary Patterns Among Permo-Triassic Therapsids. Annu.Rev.Ecol.Syst. 2001, 32.

Surkov, M.V., et al. (2007). First Occurrence of Footprints of Large Therapsids from the Upper Permian of European Russia. Palaeontology, Vol.50, Part 3.


General Synapsida


Angielczyk, K.D. and L. Schmitz (2014). Nocturnality in synapsids predates the origin of mammals by over 100 million years. Proc.R.Soc. B, 281.

Brocklehurst, N. (2015). The Early Evolution of Synapsida (Vertebrata, Amniota) and the Quality of their Fossil Record. Ph.D. Dissertation - Humboldt-Universitat zu Berlin. (498 pages)

Brocklehurst, N. and K.S. Brink (2017). Selection towards larger body size in both herbivorous and carnivorous synapsids during the Carboniferous. Facets, 2.

Brocklehurst, N., C.F. Kammerer and J. Fröbisch (2013). The early evolution of synapsids, and the influence of sampling on their fossil record. Paleobiology, 39(3).

Fröbisch, J. (2013). Chapter 18. Synapsid Diversity and the Rock Record in the Permian - Triassic Beaufort Group (Karoo Supergroup), South Africa. In: Early Evolutionary History of the Synapsida. Kammerer, C.F., K.D. Angielczyk and J. Fröbisch (eds.), Springer Science+Business Media, Dordrecht.

Kummell, S.B. and E. Frey (2014). Range of Movement in Ray I of Manus and Pes and the Prehensility of the Autopodia in the Early Permian to Late Cretaceous Non-Anomodont Synapsida. PLoS ONE, 9(12).
Liu, J., B. Rubidge and J. Li (2009). New basal synapsid supports Laurasian origin for therapsids. Acta Palaeontologica Polonica, 54(3).
Oftedal, O.T. (2002). The Mammary Gland and its Origin During Synapsid Evolution. Journal of Mammary Gland Biology and Neoplasia, Vol.7, Number 3.
Sidor, C.A. (2001). Simplification as a Trend in Synapsid Cranial Evolution. Evolution, 55(7).

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Updated December 5, 2010.


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Updated March 1, 2012.


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Always a pleasure, Timbo. And welcome to The Fossil Forum!


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Updated August 17, 2014.


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Updated March 10, 2015.


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Updated July 29, 2016.


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Updated October 23, 2016.



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Split from 'Synapsids' and updated - October 3, 2017.



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Updated June 9, 2018.



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