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Fruitbat's Pdf Library - Family Bovidae - Bison, Cattle, Antelopes And Their Allies


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These are a few of the pdf files (and a few Microsoft Word documents) that I've accumulated in my web browsing.

MOST of these are hyperlinked to their source.

If you want one that is not hyperlinked or if the link isn't working, e-mail me at joegallo1954@gmail.com and I'll be happy to send it to you.


Please note that this list will be updated continuously as I find more available resources. All of these files are freely available on the Internet so there should be no copyright issues.


Articles with author names in RED are new additions since November 14, 2017.


Family Bovidae


Subfamily Alcelaphinae - Wildebeest and Topi


Brink, J.S., et al. (1995). A New Find of Megalotragus priscus (Alcelaphini, Bovidae) from the Central Karoo, South Africa. Palaeont.afr., 32.

Dmitrieva, E.L. (1977). Tajikistan's and India's Fossil Alcelaphinae. Journal of the Palaeontological Society of India, Vol.20.

Faith, J.T., et al. (2011). Taxonomic status and paleoecology of Rusingoryx atopocranion (Mammalia, Artiodactyla), an extinct Pleistocene bovid from Rusinga Island, Kenya. Quaternary Research, 75.

Gentry, A.W., A. Gentry and H. Mayr (1995). Rediscovery of fossil antelope holotypes (Mammalia, Bovidae) collected from Olduvai Gorge, Tanzania, in 1913. Mitt.Bayer.Staatslg.Palaont.hist.Geol., 35.

Laubscher, N.F., F.E. Steffens and E.S. Vrba (1972). Statistical Evaluation of the Taxonomic Status of a Fossil Member of the Bovidae (Mammalia: Artiodactyla). Annals of the Transvaal Museum, Vol.28, Number 2.

Vrba, E.S. (1997). New Fossils of Alcelaphini and Caprinae (Bovidae, Mammalia) from Awash, Ethiopia, and Phylogenetic Analysis of Alcelaphini. Palaeont.afr., 34. (29.6MB)

Vrba, E.S. (1979). Phylogenetic analysis and classification of fossil and recent Alcelaphini Mammalia: Bovidae. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society, 11.

Vrba, E.S. (1978). Problematical Alcelaphine Fossils from the Kromdraai Faunal Site (Mammalia: Bovidae). Annals of the Transvaal Museum, Vol.31, Number 3.

Vrba, E.S. (1977). New Species of Parmularius Hopwood and Damaliscus Sclater and Thomas (Alcelaphini, Bovidae, Mammalia) from Makapansgat, and Comments on Faunal Chronological Correlation. Palaeont.afr., 20.

Vrba, E.S. (1971). A New Fossil Alcelaphine (Artiodactyla: Bovidae) from Swartkrans. Annals of the Transvaal Museum, Vol.27, Number 5.


Subfamily Antilopinae - Gazelles, Dwarf Antelopes and Saiga


Tribe Antilopini - Gazelles and Dwarf Antelopes


Antilopini - Africa/Middle East


Brink, J.S. and J.A. Lee-Thorp (1992). The feeding niche of an extinct springbok, Antidorcas bondi (Antilopini, Bovidae), and its palaeoenvironmental meaning. South African Journal of Science, Vol.88.

Lerp, H., et al. (2013). Chapter 3. Speciation of Arabian Gazelles. In: Speciation: Natural Processes, Genetics, and Biodiversity. Michalak, P. (ed.), Nova Science, New York.

Peters, J. and J.S. Brink (1992). Comparative Postcranial Osteomorphology and Osteometry of Springbok, Antidorcas marsupialis (Zimmerman, 1780) and Grey Rehbok, Pelea capreolus (Forster, 1790) (Mammalia: Bovidae). Navorsinge Van De Nasionale Museum Blomfontein, Vol.8, Part 4.

Reynolds, S.C. (2007). Temporal variation in Plio-Pleistocene Antidorcas (Mammalia: Bovidae) horncores: the case from Bolt's Farm and why size matters. South African Journal of Science, 103.

Vrba, E.S. (1973). Two Species of Antidorcas  Sundevall at Swartkrans (Mammalia: Bovidae). Annals of the Transvaal Museum, Vol.28, Number 15.

Vrba, E.S. (1970). Evaluation of Springbok-Like Fossils: Measurement and Statistical Treatment of the Teeth of the Springbok, Antidorcas marsupialis marsupialis Zimmerman (Artiodactyla: Bovidae). Annals of the Transvaal Museum, Vol.26, Number 13.


Antilopini - Asia/Malaysia/Pacific Islands


Babar, M.A., et al. (2015). Fossils of Gazella (Bovidae, Mammalia) from Dhok Bun Amir Khatoon Chinji Formation of Pakistan. Biologia (Pakistan), 61(2).

Chen, G.-F. (2005). Dorcadoryx Teilhard et Trassaert, 1938 (Bovidae, Artiodactyla) from the Bahe Formation of Lantian, Shaanxi Province, China. Vertebrata PalAsiatica, 43(4).

Chen, G.-F. (1997). The genus Gazella Blainville, 1816 (Bovidae, Artiodactyla) from the Late Neogene of Yushe Basin, Shanxi Province, China. Vertebrata PalAsiatica, Vol.35, Number 4.

Chen, G.-F. (1997). Gazella blacki Teilhard and Young, 1931 (Bovidae, Artiodactyla, Mammalia) from the Late Pliocene of Hefeng, Jingle District, Shanxi Province. Vertebrata PalAsiatica, 35(3).

Khan, M.A., et al. (2013). Gazella lydekkeri (Cetartiodactyla: Ruminantia: Bovidae) from the Middle Siwaliks of Hasnot (Late Miocene), Pakistan. Pakistan J.Zool., 45(4).

Kumar, S. and R. Gaur (2013). First Record of Gazella lydekkeri from the Tatrot Formation of Upper Siwalik of the Indian Subcontinent. Journal of the Palaeontological Society of India, Vol.58(2).

Samiullah, K., et al. (2015). Gazella lydekkeri from dhok bun ameer khatoon, lower siwaliks of Pakistan: evolution, taxonomy and biogeography. Int.J.Biosci., Vol.6, Number 5.

Zhang, Z.-Q. and R. Yang (2016). Morphology and taxonomy of Gazella (Bovidae, Artiodactyla) from the Late Miocene Bahe Formation, Lantian, Shanxii Province, China. Vertebrata PalAsiatica, 54(1).


Antilopini - Europe (including Greenland and Siberia)


Athanassiou, A. (2002). A New Gazelle Species (Artiodactyla, Bovidae) from the Late Pliocene of Greece. Annales Geologiques Des Pays Hellinques, 39.

Athanassiou, A. (2001). Gazellospira torticornis (Aymard, 1854) from the Late Pliocene Locality of Sesklo (Thessaly, Greece). Les Ongules Holarctiques.

De Wilde, B. (2006). Caprovis savinii (Bovidae, Mammalia) rediscovered: horn core finds of an Early Pleistocene antelope from the North Sea floor. Netherlands Journal of Geosciences, 85-3.

Hooijer, D.A. (1945). A Fossil Gazelle (Gazella schreuderae nov.sp.) from The Netherlands. Zoologische Mededlingen.


General Antilopini

Barmann, E.V. (2014). The evolution of body size, horn shape and social behaviour in crown Antilopini - an ancestral character state analysis. Zitelliana B, 32.


Tribe Neotragini - Dik-diks, Klipspringers and their relatives


Watson, V. and I. Plug (1995). Oreotragus major Wells and Oreotragus oreotragus (Zimmerman) (Mammalia: Bovidae): Two Species? Annals of the Transvaal Museum, 36(13).


Tribe Saigini - Saiga


Aaris-Sørensen, K., K.S. Petersen and M.B. Henricksen (1999). Late Weichselian Record of Saiga (Saiga tatarica (L.)) from Denmark and its Indications of Glacial History and Environment.

Baryshnikov, G. and A. Tikhonov (1994). Notes on Skulls of Pleistocene Saiga of Northern Eurasia. Historical Biology, Vol.8.

Currant, A.P. (1987). Late Pleistocene Saiga Antelope Saiga tatarica on Mendip. Proc.Univ. Bristol Spelaeol.Soc., 18(1).

Harington, C.R. and J. Cinq-Mars (1995). Radiocarbon Dates on Saiga Antelope (Saiga tatarica) Fossils from Yukon and Northwest Territories. Arctic, Vol.48, Number 1.

Jurgensen, J., et al. (2017). Diet and habitat of the saiga antelope during the late Quaternary using stable carbon and oxygen isotope ratios. Quaternary Science Reviews, 160.

Nadachowski, A., et al. (2015). Dispersal events of the saiga antelope (Saiga tatarica) in Central Europe in response to the climatic fluctuations in MIS 2 and the early part of MIS 1. Quaternary International, xxx. (Article in press)

Vladimirovich, G.M., et al. (2014). Saiga fossils in the Southern-Lower Volga of Astrakhan, Russia. Songklanakarin Journal of Science and Technology, 36(1).


General Antilopinae


Alcala, L. and J. Morales (2006). Antilopinae (Bovidae, Mammalia) from the Lower Pliocene of Teruel Basin (Spain). Estudios Geologicos, 62(1).

Kostopoulos, D.S. (2014). Taxonomic re-assessment and phylogenetic relationships of Miocene homonymously spiral-horned antelopes. Acta Palaeontologica Polonica, 59(1).


Subfamily Bovinae - Cattle, Aurochs, Bison, Buffalo and Spiral-Horned Antelopes


Tribe Boselaphini - Four-horned Antelope, Nilgai and Their Relatives


Ali, M., M.A. Khan and M. Akhtar (2012). New Fossils of Elachistoceras (Bovidae: Mammalia) from Chinji Formation (Middle Miocene) of Pakistan. Pakistan J.Zool., 44(4).

Aslam, S., et al. (2010). Some New Remains of Pachyportax (Bovidae, Artiodactyla) from the Middle Siwaliks of Pakistan. Punjab Univ.Jour.Zool., Vol.25(1-2).

Bhatti, Z.H., et al. (2006). Middle Siwalik Pachyportax from District Jhelum, Punjab, Pakistan. Punjab Univ.J.Zool., Vol.21(1-2).

Fuss, J., J. Prieto and M. Bohme (2015). Revision of the boselaphin bovid Miotragocerus monacensis Stromer, 1928 (Mammalia, Bovidae) at the Middle to Late Miocene transition in Central Europe. N.Jb.Geol.Palaont. Abh., 276/3.

Ikram, T., et al. (2017). Fossil molars of Pachyportax (Boselaphini, Bovidae) from Middle Siwalik Subgroup of Pakistan. Biologia (Pakistan), 63(2).

Ikram, T., et al. (2016). New Boselaphini (Mammalia) Remains from the Middle Siwaliks of Pakistan. Biologia (Pakistan), 62(1).

Khan, M.A., G. Iliopoulos and M. Akhtar (2009). Boselaphines (Artiodactyla, Ruminantia, Bovidae) from the Middle Siwaliks of Hasnot, Pakistan. Geobios, 42.

Khan, M.A., et al. (2014). New Remains of Tragoportax (Boselaphini: Bovidae: Mammalia) from Middle Siwaliks of Dhok Patahan, Northern Pakistan. Pakistan J.Zool., 46(2).

Khan, M.A., et al. (2011). Sivaceros gradiens Pilgrim 1937 (Mammalia, Bovidae, Boselaphini) from the Lower Siwaliks of Dhok Bun Amir Khatoon, Chakwal, Pakistan: systematics and biostratigraphy. Turk.J.Zool., 35(2).

Khan, M.A., et al. (2008). Collection of Selenoportax from the Kundi Wala Kas, Hasnot, Pakistan. Pakistan J.Zool., Vol.40(4).

Khan, M.A., et al. (2007). New Fossil Remains of Selenoportax vexillarius from the Late Miocene of Hasnot. Pakistan J.Zool., Vol.39(5).

Khan, M.A., et al. (2005). Fossil Molars of Selenoportax vexillarius. Geol.Bull. Punjab Univ., Vol.40-41.

Samiullah, K., et al. (2015). Selenoportax vexillarius from Dhok Pathan, Chakwal District, the Punjab, Pakistan. J.Bio. & Envi.Sci., Vol.6, Number 5.

Spassov, N. and D. Geraads (2004). Tragoportax Pilgrim, 1937 and Miotragoceras Stomer, 1928 (Mammalia, Bovidae) from the Turolian of Hadjidimovo, Bulgaria, and a revision of the late Miocene Mediterranean Boselaphini.Geodiversitas, 26(2).

Suraprasit, Y., et al. (2015). Middle Miocene bovids from Mae Noh Basin, Northern Thailand: The first record of the genus Eotragus from Southeast Asia. Acta Palaeontologica Polonica, 60(1).

Waseem, M.T., et al. (2016). Newly discovered fossil remains of Selenoportax vexillarius from Hasnot, locality of Siwaliks of Pakistan. Punjab Univ.J.Zool., Vol.31(1).

Zhang, Z.-Q. (2005). Late Miocene Boselaphini (Bovidae, Artiodactyla) from Fugu, Shaanxi Province, China. Vertebrata PalAsiatica, 43(3).


Tribe Bovini - Catttle, Buffalo, Bison and Their Relatives


Bovini - Africa/Middle East


Chaix, L. (2007). Contribution to the knowledge of domestic cattle in Africa: The osteometry of fossil Bos taurus L. from Kerma, Sudan (2050-1750 BC).

Martinez-Navarro, B., et al. (2007). The Olduvai buffalo Pelorovis and the origin of Bos. Quaternary Research, 68.


Bovini - Asia/Malaysia/Pacific Islands


Akhtar, M. (2002). A New Species of Buffalo from the Upper Siwaliks of Jarikas, District Mirpur, Azad Jammu and Kashmir, Pakistan. Punjab Univ.J.Zool., Vol.17.

Badam, G.L. and S.L. Jain (1988). First Record of Bos namadicus from Middle-Late Pleistocene Deposits of Lower Godavari, Near Servaipet in Karimnagar Dist., Andhra Pradesh. Journal of the Palaeontological Society of India, Vol.33.

Croft, D.A., et al. (2006). Fossil Remains of a New, Diminutive Bubalus (Artiodactyla: Bovidae: Bovini) from Cebu Island, Phillipines. Journal of Mammalogy, 87(5).

Khan, M.A. and M. Akhtar (2011). Proamphibos kashmiricus (Bovini: Bovidae: Mammalia) from the Pinjor Formation of Pakistan. Pakistan J.Zool., 43(4). (MS Word document)

Khan, M.A., M. Iqbal and M. Akhtar (2009). Hemibos (Bovini, Bovidae, Mammalia) from the Pinjor Formation of Pakistan. The Journal of Animal & Plant Sciences, 19(2).

Khan, M.A., et al. (2013). Some new remains of Bovini from the Pinjor Formation Khural Sharif (Pleistocene) of the Upper Siwaliks, Pakistan. Biologia (Pakistan), 59(2).

Khan, M.A., et al. (2011). Dental Remains of Early Bison from the Tatrot Formation of the Upper Siwaliks, Pakistan. The Journal of Animal & Plant Sciences, 21(4).

Khan, M.A., et al. (2010). Bison remains from the Upper Siwaliks of Pakistan. N.Jb.Geol.Palaont.Abh., 258/1.

Khan, M.A., et al. (2009). Proamphibos (Bovini, Bovidae, Mammalia) from the Tatrot Formation in the Upper Siwaliks of Pakistan. The Journal of Animal & Plant Sciences, 19(2).

Kumar, S. and R. Gaur (2015). Leptobos (Bovidae, Artiodactyla) from the Tatrot Formation of the Upper Siwaliks of the Indian Subcontinent. Ind.J.Phys.Anthrop. & Hum.Genet., Vol.34, Number 1.

Li, Y.-K. (2015). A mandible of Leptobos (Bovidae, Artiodactyla) from the Lower Pleistocene of Longdan, Gansu, China, and evidence of feline predatory strategy. Vertebrata PalAsiatica, 53(3).

Mead, J.I., et al. (2014). New data on Leptobos crassus (Artiodactyla, Bovidae) from Renzidong Cave, Early Pleistocene (Nihewanian) of Anhui, China, and an overview of the genus. Quaternary International, 354.

Siddiq, M.K., M.A. Khan and M. Akhtar (2014). Proamphibos (Bovini: Bovidae: Ruminantia) from Sardhok Pleistocene of Pakistan. Pakistan J.Zool., Vol.46(4).

Xue, X.-X. and X.-C. Li (2000). Fossil Bubalus from Shaanxi, Distribution and Phylogeny of Fossil Bubalus in China. Vertebrata PalAsiatica, 38(3).

Zong, G. (1984). A record of Bos primigenius from the Quaternary of the Aba Tibetan Autonomous Region.Vertebrata PalAsiatica, Vol.XXII, Number 3.


Bovini - Europe (including Greenland and Siberia)


Boeskorov, G.G., et al. (2015). The Yukagir Bison: The exterior morphology of a complete frozen mummy of the extinct steppe bison, Bison priscus from the early Holocene of northern Yakutia, Russia. Quaternary International, xxx. (Article in Press)

Boeskorov, G.G., et al. (2014). Preliminary analyses of the frozen mummies of mammoth (Mammuthus primigenius), bison (Bison priscus) and horse (Equus sp.) from the Yana-Indigirka Lowland, Yakutia, Russia. Integrative Zoology, 9.

Drees, M. (2005). Sexual dimorphism in Pleistocene Bison priscus (Mammalia, Bovidae) with a discussion on the position of Bison schoetensacki. Senckenbergiana lethaea, 85(1).

Drees, M. and K. Post (2007). Bison bonasus from the North Sea, the Netherlands. Cranium, 24,2.

Julien, M.-A., et al. (2012). Were European steppe bison migratory? 18O, 13C and Sr intra-tooth isotopic variations applied to a palaeoethological reconstruction. Quaternary International, 271.

Kirillova, I.V., et al. (2015). An ancient bison from the mouth of the Rauchua River (Chukotka, Russia). Quaternary Research, 84.

Kitchener, A.C. and J. Doune (2012). A record of the aurochs, Bos primigenius, from Morayshire. The Glasgow Naturalist, Vol.25, Part 4.

Kowalski, K. (1967). The Evolution and Fossil Remains of the European Bison. Acta Theriologica, Vol.XII, 21.

Marsolier-Kergoat, M.-C., et al. (2015). Hunting the Extinct Steppe Bison (Bison priscus) Mitochondrial Genome in the Trois-Feres Paleolithic Painted Cave. PLoS ONE, 10(6).

Martinez-Navarro, B. and M.R. Palombo (2007). The Horn-Core of Hemibos galerianus from Ponte Milvio, Rome (Italy). Revista Italiana di Paleontologia e Stratigrafia, Vol.113, Number 3.

Martinez-Navarro, B., et al. (2011). Presence of Asian origin Bovini, Hemibos sp.aff. Hemibos gracilis and Bison sp., at the early Pleistocene site of Venta Micena (Orce, Spain). Quaternary International, 243.

Mona, S., et al. (2010). Population dynamic of the extinct European aurochs: genetic evidence of a north-south differentiation pattern and no evidence of post-glacial expansion. BMC Evolutionary Biology 10:83.

Pandolfini, L., C. Patronio and L. Salari (2011). Bos primigenius Bojanus, 1827 from the Early Late Pleistocene Deposit of Avetrana (Southern Italy) and the Variation in Size of the Species in Southern Europe: Preliminary Report. Hindawi Journal of Geological Research, Vol.2011.

Van Geel, B., et al. (2014). Multiproxy diet analysis of the last meal of an early Holocene Yakutian bison. Journal of Quaternary Science, 29(3).

Velivetskaya, T.A., et al. (2014). Resolution-enhanced stable isotope profiles within the complete tooth rows of Late Pleistocene bisons (Middle Urals, Russia) as a record of their individual development and environmental changes. Quaternary International, xxx. (Article in Press)

Wright, E. (2013). The history of the European aurochs (Bos primigenius) from the Middle Pleistocene to its extinction: an archaeological investigation of its evolution, morphological variability and response to human exploitation. Ph.D. Thesis - University of Sheffield.


Bovini - North America


Apland, B. and C.R. Harington (1994). Pleistocene Bison Skeleton (Bison bison cf. occendentalis) from Clayhurst Crossing, British Columbia.Geographie physique et Quaternaire, Vol.48, Number 2.

Cannon, K.P. (2004). The Analysis of a Late Holocene Bison Skull from the Ashley National Forest, Utah. Ashley National Forest Report Number AS-04-1010.

Cook, H.J. (1928). A New Fossil Bison from Texas. Proceedings Colorado Museum of Natural History, Vol.8, Issue 3.

Drakos, P.G., S.L. Reneau and G.S. Morgan (2007). Bison antiquus Occurrence and Pleistocene-Holocene Stratigraphy, Canada Del Buey, Pajarito Plateau, New Mexico. In: New Mexico Geological Society Guidebook, 58th Field Conference, Geology of the Jemez Mountains Region II.

Dundas, R.G., et al. (2009). Bison cf. B. latifrons from the Late-Pleistocene Broach Locality, Fresno, California. Paleoenvironments: Vertebrates and Invertebrates.

Feranec, R.S., E.A. Hadly and A. Paytan (2009). Stable isotopes reveal season competition between late Pleistocene bison (Bison) and horse (Equus) from Rancho La Brea, southern California. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 271.

Gordon, B.C. Bison antiquus from the Northwest Territories. Short Papers and Notes.

Harington, C.R. and R.E. Morlan (2002). Evidence for Human Modification of a Late Pleistocene Bison (Bison sp.) Bone from the Klondike District, Yukon Territory, Canada. Arctic, Vol.55, Number 2.
Hay, O.P. (1913). The Extinct Bisons of North America; With Descriptions of One New Species, Bison regius. Proceedings U.S. National Museum, Vol.46, Number 2021.

Heintzman, P.D., et al. (2016). Bison phylogeography constrains dispersal and viability of the Ice Free Corridor in western Canada. PNAS Early Edition.

Hill, M.E., M.G. Hill and C.C. Widga (2008). Late Quaternary Bison diminution on the Great Plains of North America: evaluating the role of human hunting versus climate change. Quaternary Science Reviews, 27.

Hoganson, J.W. Occurrence of the Giant Ice Age Bison, Bison latifrons, in North Dakota. North Dakota Geological Society Newsletter, Vol. 29, Number 2.

Kenady, S.M., et al. (2010). Late Pleistocene butchered Bison antiquus from Ayer Pond, Orcas Island, Pacific Northwest: Age confirmation and taphonomy. Quaternary International.

Leidy, J. (1852). Memoir on the Extinct Species of American Ox. Smithsonian Contributions to Knowledge, Vol.V, Article 3.

Lucas, F.A. The Fossil Bison of North America. Proceedings U.S. National Museum, Volume XXI, Number 1172.
Lyman, R.L. (2004). Late-Quaternary diminution and abundance of prehistoric bison (Bison sp.) in eastern Washington state, USA. Quaternary Research, 62.

Lyman, R.L. and K. Bassett (2004). Late-Pleistocene Female Bison antiquus from Central Missouri. CRP, 21.

Martin, J.M., R.A. Martin and J.I. Mead (2017). Late Pleistocene and Holocene Bison of the Colorado Plateau. The Southwestern Naturalist, 62(1).

McClung, C.E. (1903). The Fossil Bison of Kansas. Transactions of the Kansas Academy of Science, Vol.19.

Meltzer, D.J., et al. (2004). A Bison antiquus from Archuleta Creek, Folsom, New Mexico. Paleoenvironments - Vertebrates.

Miller, W.E. (1968). Occurrence of a Giant Bison, Bison latifrons, and a Slender-Limbed Camel, Tanupolama, at Rancho La Brea. Contributions in Science, Los Angeles County Museum, Number 147.

Miller, W.E. and J.D. Brotherson (1979). Size Variation in Foot Elements of Bison from Rancho La Brea. Contributions in Science, Natural History Museum of Los Angeles County, Number 323.

Morrow, W. (2006). Holocene coccidiomycosis: Valley Fever in early Holocene bison (Bison antiquus). Mycologia, 98(5).

Pope, P.H. A Fossil Bison Skull from Prescott, Washington.

Rhoads, S.N. (1897). Notes on Living and Extinct Species of North American Bovidae. Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia, Vol.49.

Robertson, J.S. (1969). Fossil Bison from Florida. The Plaster Jacket, Number 12. (Thanks to Nimravus for pointing this one out!)

Schultz, C.B. and J.M. Hillerud (1977).  The Antiquity of Bison latifrons (Harlan) in the Great Plains of North America. Transactions of the Nebraska Academy of Science and Affiliated Societies, Paper 450.

Skinner, M.F. and O.C. Kaisen (1947). The Fossil Bison of Alaska and Preliminary Revision of the Genus. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History, Vol.89, Article 3.

Stewart, A. (1897). Notes on the Osteology of Bison antiquus Leidy. Kansas University Quarterly, Vol.VI, Number 3.

Wilson, M.C., L.V. Hills, and B. Shapiro (2008). Late Pleistocene northward-dispersing Bison antiquus from the Bighill Creek Formation, Gallelli Gravel Pit, Alberta, Canada, and the fate of Bison occidentalis. Can.J.Earth Sci., 45.

Wolff, S.E. (2013). Home on the Range: Biogeographic Distribution of Bison in Arizona. PalArch's Journal of Vertebrate Palaeontology, 10(4).

Zazula, G.D., et al. (2009). A late Pleistocene steppe bison (Bison priscus) carcass from Tsiigehtchic, Northwest Territories, Canada. Quaternary Science Reviews, 28.


Bovini - South America/Central America/Caribbean


Jimenez-Hidalgo, E., et al. (2013). First record of Bison antiquus from the Late Pleistocene of southern Mexico. Journal of South American Earth Sciences, 42.


General Bovini


Bernard, A., et al. (2009). Pleistocene seasonal temperature variations recorded in the δ18O of Bison priscus teeth. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 283.

Douglas, K.C. (2006). Comparing the Diversity of Late Pleistocene Bison with Modern Bison bison Using Ancient DNA Techniques and the Mitochondrial DNA Control Region. (Masters thesis)

Geraads, D. (1992). Phylogenetic analysis of the tribe Bovini (Mammalia: Artiodactyla). Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society, 104.

Olsen, S.J. (1960). Post-Cranial Skeletal Characters of Bison and Bos. Papers of the Peabody Museum of Archaeology and Ethnology, Harvard University, Vol.XXXV, Number 4.

Prusak, B., et al. (2004). Taxonomic position of Bison bison (Linnaeus, 1758) and Bison bonasus (Linnaeus, 1758) as determined by the means of cytb gene.. Animal Science Papers and Reports, Vol. 22, Number 1.

Raymond, K.R. and D.R. Prothero (2011). Did Climate Changes Affect Size in Late Pleistocene Bison? In: Fossil Record 3. Sullivan, et al. (eds.), New Mexico Museum of Natural History and Science, Bulletin 53.

Shapiro, B., et al. (2004). Rise and fall of the Beringian steppe bison. Science, 306.

van Vuure, T. History, Morphology and Ecology of the Aurochs (Bos primigenius).


Tribe Strepsicerotini - Spiral-horned Antelopes


Chen, G.-F. (1988). Remarks on the Oioceros Species (Bovidae, Artiodactyla, Mammalia) from the Neogene of China. Vertebrata PalAsiatica, 26(3).

Geraads, D. and E. Gulec (1999). On Some Spiral-Horned Antelopes (Mammalia: Artiodactyla: Bovidae) from the Late Miocene of Turkey, With Remarks on Their Distribution. Palaontologische Zeitschrift, 73,3-4.

Kostopoulos, D.S. (2009). Contribution to the systematics and phylogeny of Prostrepsiceros vallesiensis Bouvrain, 1982 (Mammalia, Bovidae). Geodiversitas, 31(4).

Kostopoulos, D.S. (1998). Parastrepsiceros koufosi n.sp. (Mammalia: Bovidae); note on the possible presence of a Prostrepsiceros descendant in the latest Pliocene of northern Greece. Acta zool., cracov., 41(1).

Pilgrim, G.E. (1934). Two New Species of Sheep-Like Antelope from the Miocene of Mongolia. American Museum Novitates, Number 716.

Roussiakis, S.J. (2009). Prostrepsiceros and Protragelaphus (Artiodactyla, Mammalia) from the Late Miocene locality of Chomateri (Attica, Greece). Annales de Paléontologie, 95.

Roussiakis, S.J. (2003). Oioceros rothii (Wagner, 1857) from the late Miocene of Pikermi (Greece): cranial and dental morphology, comparison with related forms. Geodiversitas, 25(4).

Vekua, A. (2012). New Spiral-Horned Antelope in Dmanisi Fauna. Bulletin of the Georgian National Academy of Sciences, Vol.6, Number 3.


Tribe Tragelaphini - Elands


Gentry, A.W., A. Gentry and H. Mayr (1995). Rediscovery of fossil antelope holotypes (Mammalia, Bovidae) collected from Olduvai Gorge, Tanzania, in 1913. Mitt.Bayer.Staatslg.Palaont.hist.Geol., 35.

Kostopoulos, D.S. and G.D. Koufos (2006). Pheraios chryssomalos, gen. et sp.nov. (Mammalia, Bovidae, Tragelaphini), from the Late Miocene of Thessaly (Greece): Implications for Tragelaphin Biogeography. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology, 26(2).


Subfamily Caprinae - Sheep, Goats, Muskox and Relatives


Tribe Caprini - Sheep, Goats, Ibex and their Relatives


Caprini - Africa/Middle East


Geraads, D., S. El Boughabi and S. Zourhi (2012). A new caprin bovid (Mammalia) from the late Miocene of Morocco. Palaeont.afr., 47.


Caprini - Asia/Malaysia/Pacific Islands


Li, X.-C. (2006). Early Pleistocene Takin Fossil from China. Vertebrata PalAsiatica, 44(3).


Caprini - Europe (including Greenland and Siberia)


Alcover, J.A., et al. (1999). The diet of Myotragus balearicus Bate, 1909 (Artiodactyla: Caprinae), an extinct bovid from the Balearic Islands: evidence from coprolites. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society, 66.

Bover, P., J. Quintana and J.A. Alcover (2010). A new species of Myotragus Bate, 1909 (Artiodactyla, Caprinae) from the Early Pliocene of Mallorca (Balearic Islands, western Mediterranean). Geol.Mag., 147(6).

Bukhsianidze, M. and A. Vekua (2006). Capra dalii  nov.sp. (Caprinae, Bovidae, Mammalia) at the limit of Plio-Pleistocene from Damanisi (Georgia). Cour.Forsch.-Inst. Senckenberg, 256.

Geraads, D., N. Spassov and D. Kovachev (2006). A New Sporadotragus (Bovidae, Mammalia) from the Late Miocene of Bulgaria. Revista Italiana di Paleontologia e Stratigrafia, Vol.112, Number 3.

Gliozzi, E. and A. Malatesta (1980). The Quaternary Goat of Capo Figari (Northeastern Sardinia). Geologica Rom., 19.

Kohler, M. and S. Moya-Sola (2004). Reduction of Brain and Sense Organs in the Fossil Insular Bovid Myotragus. Brain, Behavior and Evolution, 63.

Lalueza-Fox, C., et al. (2002). Molecular phylogeny and evolution of the extinct bovid Myotragus balearicus. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, 25.

Palombo, M.R., et al. (2006). A New Bovid, Asoletragus gentryi N.Gen. et Sp., from Monte Tuttavista (Orosei, Eastern Sardinia, Italy). Revista Italiana di Paleontologia e Stratigrafia, Vol.112, Number 3.

Palombo, M.R., et al.  The Plio-Pleistocene endemic bovids from the Western Mediterranean islands: knowledge, problems and perspectives. Hellenic Journal of Geosciences, Vol.41. 

Spoor, C.F. (1988). The body proportions in Myotragus balearicus Bate, 1909. Palaeontology, Series B, 91(3).

Welker, F., et al. (2014). Analysis of coprolites from the extinct mountain goat Myotragus balearicus. Quaternary Research, 81.


Caprini - North America


Hibbard, C.W. and B.A. Wright (1956). A New Pleistocene Bighorn Sheep from Arizona. Journal of Mammalogy, Vol.37, Number 1.

Mead, J.I. and L.H. Taylor (2005). New Species of Sinocapra (Bovidae, Caprinae) from the Lower Pliocene Panaca Formation, Nevada, USA.Palaeontologia Electronica, Vol. 8, Issue 1.

Wang, X. (1988). Systematics and Population Ecology of Late Pleistocene Bighorn Sheep (Ovis canadensis) of Natural Trap Cave, Wyoming.Transactions of the Nebraska Academy of Sciences, XVI.

Wang, X. and J.F. Neas (1987). A Large Bighorn Sheep, Ovis canadensis (Artiodactyla: Bovidae) from the Late Pleistocene of Colorado. Southwestern Naturalist, Vol.32, Number 2.


General Caprini


Bunch, T.D., et al. (2006). Phylogenetic Analysis of Snow Sheep (Ovis nivicola) and Closely Related Taxa. Journal of Heredity, 97(1).
Ropiquet, A. and A. Hassanin (2005). Molecular phylogeny of caprines (Bovidae, Antilopinae): the question of their origin and diversification during the Miocene. Journal of Zoological Systematics, 43(1).

Tribe Naemorhedini - Mountain Goats, Chamois and Their Relatives


Campos, P.F., et al. (2010). Molecular identification of the extinct mountain goat, Oreamnos harringtoni (Bovidae). Boreas, Vol.39.

Gliozzi, E. and A. Malatesta (1980). The Quaternary Goat of Capo Figari (Northeastern Sardinia). Geologica Rom., 19.

Nagorsen, D.W. and G. Keddie (2000). Late Pleistocene Mountain Goats (Oreamnos americanus) from Vancouver Island: Biogeographic Implications. Journal of Mammalogy, 81(3).


Tribe Ovibovini - Musk Ox and Their Relatives


Ovibovini - Africa/Middle East


Gentry, A.W. (1970). Revised Classification for Makapania broomi  Wells and Cooke (Bovidae, Mammalia). Palaeont.afr., 13.


Ovibovini - Asia/Malaysia/Pacific Islands


Qiu, Z.-X., B.-Y. Wang and G.-P. Xie (2000). Preliminary Report on a New Genus of Ovibovinae from Hezheng District, Gansu, China. Vertebrata PalAsiatica, 38(2).


Ovibovini - Europe (including Greenland and Siberia)


Cregut-Bonnoure, E. and V. Dimitrijevic (2006). Megalovis balcanicus sp.nov. and Soergelia intermedia sp.nov. (Mammalia, Bovidae, Caprinae), new Ovibovini from the Early Pleistocene of Europe. Revue de Paleobiologie, Vol.25, Number 2.

Geraads, D. and N. Spassov. A new species of Criotherium (Bovidae, Mammalia) from the late Miocene of Bulgaria. Hellenic Journal of Geosciences, Vol.43.

Gentry, A.W. (2001). An Ovibovine (Mammalia, Bovidae) from the Neogene of Stratzing, Austria. Ann.Naturhist.Mus. Wien, 102A.

Martinez-Navarro, B., et al. (2012). First occurrence of Soergelia (Ovibovini, Bovidae, Mammalia) in the Early Pleistocene of Italy. Quaternary International, 267.


Ovibovini - North America


Guthrie, R.D. (1992). New paleoecological and paleoethological information on the extinct helmeted muskoxen from Alaska. Acta. Zool. Fennici, 28.

Hills, L.V. and M.C. Wilson (2003). Helmeted Muskox (Bootherium bombifrons) from near Fort Saskatchewan, Alberta: Dating Evidence for Redeposition in Late Pleistocene Alluvium.Geographie physique et Quaternaire, Vol.57, numbers 2-3.

Kitts, D.B. (1953). A Pleistocene Musk Ox from New York and the Distribution of the Musk-Oxen. American Museum Novitates, Number 1607.

Kropf, M., et al. (2007). Dung, diet, and the paleoenvironment of the extinct shrub-ox (Euceratherium collinum) on the Colorado Plateau, USA. Quaternary Research, 67.
Liggett, G.A. and M.E. Nelson New Records of Late Pleistocene (Rancholabrean) Muskox (Artiodactyla: Bovidae: Ovibos) from Alaska.

Maher, W.J. Muskox Bone of Possible Wisconsin Age from Banks Island, Northwest Territories. Arctic, 21(4).

McDonald, H.G. and R.A. Davis (1989). Fossil muskoxen of Ohio. Can.J.Zool., 67.

McDonald, J.N. (1985). Symbos cavifrons (Artiodactyla: Bovidae) from Delta County, Colorado. Great Basin Naturalist, Vol.45, Number 3.

McDonald, J.N. and C.E. Ray (1989). The Autochthonous North American Musk Oxen Bootherium, Symbos, and Gidleya (Mammalia:Artiodactyla:Bovidae).Smithsonian Contributions to Paleobiology, Number 46.

Ray, C.E., D.L. Wills and J.C. Palquist (1968). Fossil Musk Oxen of Illinois. Transactions Illinois Academy of Sciences.

Semken, H.A., et al. (1964). Late Wisconsin Woodland Musk Oxen in Association With Pollen and Invertebrates from Michigan. Journal of Paleontology, Vol.38, Number 5.


General Ovibovini
Allen, J.A. (1913). Ontogenetic and Other Variations in Muskoxen, with a Systematic Review of the Muskox Group, Recent and Extinct.Memoirs of the American Museum of Natural History, New Series, Vol.I,Part IV. (166 pages)Campos, P.F., et al. (2010). Clarification of the taxonomic relationship of the extant and extinct ovibovids, Ovibos, Praeovibos, Euceratherium and Bootherium. Quaternary Science Reviews, 29.Campos, P.F., et al. (2010). Ancient DNA analyses exclude humans as the driving force behind late Pleistocene musk ox (Ovibos moschatus) population dynamics. PNAS, Vol.107, Number 12.
Harington, R. (1961). History, Distribution and Ecology of the Muskoxen. Masters Thesis - McGill University.


General Caprinae


Chen, G.-F. and Z.-Q. Zhang (2007). Restudy of Chinese Fossil Bovids Referred to Protoryx (Bovidae, Artiodactyla). Vertebrata PalAsiatica, 45(2).

Geraads, D., N. Spassov and D. Kovachev (2003). Palaeoreas lindermayeri (Wagner, 1848) (Mammalia, Bovidae) from the upper Miocene of Bulgaria, and a revision of the species. Geodiversitas, 25(2).

Vrba, E.S. (1997). New Fossils of Alcelaphini and Caprinae (Bovidae, Mammalia) from Awash, Ethiopia, and Phylogenetic Analysis of Alcelaphini. Palaeont.afr., 34. (29.6MB)


Subfamily Cephalophinae - Duikers


Johnston, A.R. (2011). Evolutionary Relationships Among Duiker Antelope (Bovidae: Cephalophinae). Masters Thesis - University of New Orleans.


Subfamily Hippotraginae - Grazing Antelopes


Faith, J.T. and J.C. Thompson (2013). Fossil evidence for seasonal calving and migration of extinct blue antelope (Hippotragus leucophaeus) in southern Africa. Journal of Biogeography, 40.

Khan, M.A., et al. (2008). Reduncine Fossils from the Upper Siwaliks of Tatrot. J.Anim.Pl.Sci., 18(1).

Geraads, D., et al. (2008). New Hippotragini (Bovidae, Mammalia) from the Late Miocene of Toros-Menalla (Chad). Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology, 28(1).

Vrba, E.S. (1987). New Species and New Genus of Hippotragini (Bovidae) from Makapansgat Limeworks. Palaeont.afr., Vol.26, Number 5.

Vrba, E.S. and J. Gatesy (1994). New Antelope Fossils from Awash, Ethiopia and Phylogenetic Analysis of Hippotragini (Bovidae, Mammalia). Palaeont.afr., 31.


Subfamily incertae sedis


Athanassiou, A. (2002). Euthyceros thessalicus, a new bovid from the Late Pliocene of Sesklo (Thessaly, Greece). N.Jb.Geol.Palaont.Mh.,2002(2).

Chen, G.-F. (2004). Lantiantragus Gen.Nov. (Urmiatheriinae, Bovidae, Artiodactyla) from the Bahe Formation, Lantian, China. Vertebrata PalAsiatica, 42(3).

Geraads, D., E. Gulec and T. Kaya (2002). Sinotragus (Bovidae, Mammalia) from Turkey and the Late Middle Miocene Middle Asiatic Province. N.Jb.Geol.Palaont.Mh., 2002(8).

Jafarzadeh, R., D.S. Kostopoulos and J. Daneshian (2012). Skull reconstruction and ecology of Urmiatherium polaki (Bovidae, Mammalia) from the upper Miocene deposits of Maragheh, Iran. Palaontol.Z., 86.

Metais, G., et al. (2003). New artiodactyl ruminant mammal from the late Oligocene of Pakistan. Acta Palaeontologica Polonica, 48(3).

Palombo, M.R., et al. (2006). A New Bovid, Asoletragus gentryi N.Gen et Sp., from Monte Tuttavista (Orosei, Eastern Sardinia, Italy). Revista Italiana di Paleontologia e Stratigrafia, Vol.112, Number 3.

Shi, Q.-Q., et al. (2016). The first discovery of Urmiatherium (Bovidae, Artiodactyla) from Liushu Formation, Linxia Basin. Vertebrata PalAsiatica, 54(4).

Zhang, Z.-Q. (2003). A New Species of Shaanxispira (Bovidae, Artiodactyla, Mammalia) from the Bahe Formation, Lantian, China. Vertebrata PalAsiatica, 41(3).


Subfamily Reduncinae - Waterbucks, Reedbucks and Their Relatives


Iqbal, A., A.M. Khan and M. Akhtar (2015). Kobus porrecticonus (Reduncini) from the Upper Siwaliks of Tatrot, Pakistan. The Journal of Animal & Plant Sciences, 25(3 Suppl.2)

Khan, M.A., et al. (2008). Reduncine Fossils from the Upper Siwaliks of Tatrot. J.Anim.Pl.Sci., 18(1).


General Bovidae


General Bovidae - Africa/Middle East




Bibi, F. (2011). Mio-Pliocene Faunal Exchanges and African Biogeography: The Record of Fossil Bovids. PLoS ONE, 6(2).

Blondel, C., et al. (2010). Dental mesowear analysis of the late Miocene Bovidae from Toros-Menalla (Chad) and early hominid habitats in Central Africa. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, xxx (Article in press)

Brophy, J.K., et al. (2016). Pleistocene Bovidae (Mammalia) from Malapa, Gauteng Province, South Africa. Palaeontologia Electronica, 19.2.16A.

Brophy, J.K., et al. (2014). Quantitative morphological analysis of bovid teeth and and implications for paleoenvironmental reconstruction of Plovers Lake, Gauteng Province, South Africa. Journal of Archaeological Science, 41.

Geraads, D., R. Bobe and K. Reed (2012). Pliocene Bovidae (Mammalia) from the Hadar Formation of Hadar and Ledi-Geraru, Lower Awash, Ethiopia. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology, 32(1).

Geraads, D., S. Melillo and Y. Haile-Selassie (2009). Middle Pliocene Bovidae from Hominid-bearing sites in the Woranso-Mille area, Afar region, Ethiopia. Palaeont.afr., 44.

Geraads, D., et al. (2009). Bovidae (Mammalia) from the Lower Pliocene of Chad. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology, 29(3).
Geraads, D., et al. (2001). Pliocene Bovidae (Mammalia) from the Koro Toro Australopithecine Sites, Chad. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology, 21,2.

Hlusko, L.J., Y. Haile-Selassie and D. Degusta (2007). Late Miocene Bovidae (Mammalia: Artiodactyla) from Lemugong'o, Narok District, Kenya. Kirtlandia, Number 56.

Kappelman, J., et al. (1997). Bovids as indicators of Plio-Pleistocene paleoenvironments in East Africa. Journal of Human Evolution, 32.

Kovarovic, K.M. (2004). Bovids as Palaeoenvironmental Indicators: An Ecomorphological Analysis of Bovid Post-Cranial Remains from Laetoli, Kenya. Ph.D. Dissertation - University College London.

Rowan, J., et al. (2015). Taxonomy and paleoecology of fossil Bovidae (Mammalia, Artiodactyla) from the Kibish Formation, southern Ethiopia: Implications for dietary change, biogeography, and the structure of the living bovid faunas of East Africa. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 420.

Steininger, C.M. (2011). The Dietary Behaviour of Early Pleistocene Bovids from Cooper's Cave and Swartkrans, South Africa. Ph.D. Thesis - University of the Witwatersrand. (257 pages)

Ungar, P.S., G. Merceron and R.S. Scott (2007). Dental Microwear Texture Analysis of Varswater Bovids and Early Pliocene Paleoenvironments of Langebaanweg, Western Cape Province, South Africa. J.Mammal.Evol., 14.

van Zyl, W., S. Badenhorst and J.S. Brink (2016). Pleistocene Bovidae from X Cave on Bolt's Farm in the Cradle of Humankind in South Africa. Annals of the Ditsong National Museum of Natural History, 6.

Vrba, E.S. (1974). The Fossil Bovidae of Sterkfontein, Swartkrans and Kromdraai. Ph.D. Thesis - University of Cape Town. (191 pages)

Wells, L.H. (1965). Antelopes in the Pleistocene of Southern Africa. Zoologica Africana, 1(1).


Middle East


Kostopoulos, D.S. (2005). The Bovidae (Mammalia, Artiodactyla) from the late Miocene of Akkasdagi, Turkey.Geodiversitas, 27(4).

Kostopoulos, D.S. and S. Keraütük (2015). Late Miocene bovids from Şerefkoy-2 (SW Turkey) and their position within the sub-Paratethyan biogeographic province. Acta Palaeontologica Polonica, 60(1).

Kostopoulos, D.S. and R.L. Bernor (2011). The Maragheh bovids (Mammalia, Artiodactyla): systematic revision and biostratigraphic-zoogeographic interpretation. Geodiversitas, 33(4).
Martinez-Navarro, B. and R. Rabinovich (2010). The fossil Bovidae (Artiodactyla, Mammalia) from Gesher Benot Ya'aqov, Israel: Out of Africa during the Early-Middle Pleistocene transition. Journal of Human Evolution, xxx. (Article in press)

Martinez-Navarro, B., M. Belmaker and O. Bar-Yosef (2012). The Bovid assemblage (Bovidae, Mammalia) from the Early Pleistocene site of 'Ubeidiya, Israel: Biochronological and paleoecological implications for the fossil and lithic bearing strata. Quaternary International, xxx. (Article in press)

Tekkaya, I. Preliminary Report on the Bovidae Fauna from Kayadibi, Konya. Mineral Research and Exploration Institute of Turkey.

Tekkaya, I. (1974). The Bovidae Fauna of Middle Sinap of Turkey. Turkiye Jeologi Kurumu Bulteni.

General Bovidae - Asia/Malaysia/Pacific Islands


Chandel, R.S. and S. Nath (2015). Record of Bovidean Fossils from the Pinjor Formation of the Siwalik Group, Solan District, Himachal Pradesh. Journal of the Palaeontological Society of India, Vol.60(2).

Chen, G.-F. and Z.-Q. Zhang (2009). Taxonomy and Evolutionary Process of Neogene Bovidae from China. Vertebrata PalAsiatica, 47(4).

Czyzewska, T. (1969). Remains of the Lower Pliocene Bovidae from Altan Teli, Western Mongolia. Palaeontologica Polonica, Number 21.

Gentry, A.W., N. Solounias and J.C. Barry (2014). Stability in higher level taxonomy of Miocene bovid faunas of the Siwaliks. Ann.Zool. Fennici, 51.

Hooijer, D.A. (1958). Fossil Bovidae from the Malay Archipelago and the Punjab. Zoologische Verhandelingen, 38.

Khan, M.A. (2008). Fossil Bovids from the Late Miocene of Padri, Jhelum, Pakistan. Pakistan Jour.Zool., 40(1).

Trofimov, B.A. (1958). New Bovidae from the Oligocene of Central Asia. Vertebrata PalAsiatica, 2(4).

Zaheer, M., et al (2017). New Fossils of Bovids (Bovidae, Mammalia) from Dhok Pathan Formation of Siwaliks. Biologia(Pakistan), 63(2).


General Bovidae - Europe (including Greenland and Siberia)


Gentry, A.W. and T.M. Kaiser (2009). The Bovidae of Dorn-Durkheim 1, Germany (Turolian Age). Palaontol.Z., 83.

Kostopoulos, D.S. Greek bovids through time. Hellenic Journal of Geosciences, Vol.41.

Merceron, G., et al. (2005). Dental microwear of fossil bovids from northern Greece: paleoenvironmental conditions in the eastern Mediterranean during the Messinian. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 217.

Palombo M.R., et al. The Plio-Pleistocene endemic bovids from the Western Mediterranean islands: knowledge, problems and perspectives. Hellenic Journal of Geosciences, Vol.41.


General Bovidae


Bibi, F., et al. (2009). The Fossil Record and Evolution of the Bovidae: State of the Field. Palaeontologia Electronica, Vol.12, Issue 3.

DeGusta, D. and E. Vrba (2003). A method for inferring paleohabitat from the functional morphology of bovid astragali. Journal of Archaeological Science, 30.

Hassanin, A. and E.J.P. Douzery (1999). The Tribal Radiation of the Family Bovidae (Artiodactyla) and the Evolution of the Mitochondrial Cytochrome b Gene. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, Vol.13, Number 2.
Klein, R.G., R.G. Franciscus and T.E. Steele (2010). Morphometric identification of bovid metapodials to genus and implications for taxon-free habitat reconstruction. Journal of Archaeological Science, 37.

Lundrigan, B. (1996). Morphology of Horns and Fighting Behavior in the Family Bovidae. Journal of Mammalogy, 77(2). 

Rozzi, R. and M.R. Palombo (2013). The morphology of femur as a palaeohabitat predictor in insular bovids. Bollettino della Societa Paleontologica Italiana, 52(3).
Spencer, L.M. (1997). Dietary adaptations of Plio-Pleistocene Bovidae: implications for hominid habitat use. Journal of Human Evolution, 32.

Scott, K.M. (1985). Allometric Trends and Locomotor Adaptations in the Bovidae. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History, Vol.179, Article 2.

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