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Fruitbat's Pdf Library - Family Hyracodontidae - 'running Rhinoceroses'


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These are a few of the pdf files (and a few Microsoft Word documents) that I've accumulated in my web browsing.

MOST of these are hyperlinked to their source.

If you want one that is not hyperlinked or if the link isn't working, e-mail me at joegallo1954@gmail.com and I'll be happy to send it to you.


Please note that this list will be updated continuously as I find more available resources. All of these files are freely available on the Internet so there should be no copyright issues.


Articles with author names in RED are new additions since June 14, 2018.



Order Perissodactyla


Family Hyracodontidae (†) - The Running Rhinoceroses


Subfamily Eggysodontinae


Borsuk-Bialynicka, M. (1968). Allacerops minor Belayeva, 1954 (Rhinocerotidae) from the Oligocene of Ulan Ganga, Western Gobi Desert. Palaeontologia Polonica, Number 19.

Qiu, Z.-X. and B.-Y. Wang (1999). Allacerops (Rhinocerotoidea, Perissodactyla), Its Discovery in China and its Systematic Position. Vertebrata PalAsiatica, 37(1).

Reshetov, V., N. Spassov and B. Baishashov (1993). Tenisia Gen.Nov.: Taxonomic Reevaluation of the Asian Oligocene Rhinocerotoid Eggysodon turgacum (Borissiak, 1915) (Mammalia, Perissodactyla, Hyracodontidae). Geobios, 26(6).

Wang, H.-B., et al. (2013). New eggysodontid (Mammalia, Perissodactyla) from the Paleogene of the Guangnan Basin, Yunnan Province, China. Vertebrata PalAsiatica, 51(4).

Zhan-Xiang, Q. and W. Ban-Yue (1999). Allacerops (Rhinocerotoidea, Perissodactyla), its Discovery in China and its Systematic Position. Vertebrata PalAsiatica, 37.


Subfamily Forstercooperiinae


Wang, H.-B., et al. (2018). A New Species of Forstercooperia (Perissodactyla: Paraceratheriidae) from Northern China with a Systematic Revision of Forestercooperiines. American Museum Novitates, Number 3897.

Wood, H.E. (1938). Cooperia totadentata, a Remarkable Rhinoceros from the Eocene of Mongolia. American Museum Novitates, Number 1012.


Subfamily Hyracodontinae


Bai, B., Y.-Q. Wang and Z.-Q. Zhang (2017). The late Eocene hyracodontid perissodactyl Ardynia from Saint Jacques, Inner Mongolia, China and its implications for the potential Eocene-Oligocene boundary. Palaeoworld, xxx. (Article in press)

Dashzeveg, D. (1996). A New Hyracodontid (Perissodactyla, Rhinocerotoidea) from the Ergilin Dzo Formation (Oligocene, Quarry 1) in Dzamyn Ude, Eastern Gobi Desert, Mongolia. American Museum Novitates, Number 3178.

Huang, X.-S. (2010). Primitive Rhinocerotid Fossil from the Middle Eocene of Yuanqu Basin, Shanxi. Vertebrata PalAsiatica, 48(1).

Wood, H.E. (1929). Prohyracodon orientale Koch, the Oldest Known True Rhinoceros. American Museum Novitates, Number 395.

Wood, H.E. (1926). Hyracodon petersoni, a New Cursorial Rhinoceros from the Lower Oligocene. Annals of the Carnegie Museum, 16(7).


Subfamily incertae sedis


Qi, T. (1990). A New Genus, Ulania, of Hyracodontidae (Perissodactyla, Mammalia). Vertebrata PalAsiatica, 28(3).

Wang, J.-W. (1988). A New Genus of Ceratomorphs (Mammalia) from Middle Eocene of China. Vertebrata PalAsiatica, 26(1).


Subfamily Paraceratheriinae (Indricotheriinae)


Antoine, P-O, et al. (2004). New remains of the baluchithere Paraceratherium bugtiense (Pilgrim,1910) from the Late/latest Oligocene of the Bugti Hills, Balochistan, Pakistan. Journal of Asian Earth Sciences, 24.

Borissiak, A.A. (1924). New materials of the subfamily Indricotheriinae Boriss. (Baluchitheriinae Osb.). Bulletin of the Academy of Sciences of St. Petersburg, 18(6).

Cooper, C.F. (1923). II. - Baluchitherium osborni (?syn. Indricotherium turgaicum Borissiyak).

Granger, W. and W.K. Gregory(1936). Further Notes on the Gigantic Extinct Rhinoceros, Baluchitherium, from the Oligocene of Mongolia.Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History, Vol. LXXII, Article I.
Granger, W. and W.K. Gregory (1935). A Revised Restoration of the Skeleton of Baluchitherium, Gigantic Fossil Rhinoceros of Central Asia. American Museum Novitates, Number 787.

Li, Y.-X., et al. (2017). New fossils of paraceratheres (Perissodactyla, Mammalia) from the Early Oligocene of the Lanzhou Basin, Gansu Province, China. Vertebrata PalAsiatica, 56(4).

Lucas, S.G. and R.J. Emry (1996). Early record of indricothere (Mammalia: Perissodactyla: Hyracodontidae) from the Aral Sea region of western Kazakhstan. Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington, 109(2).

Osborn, H.F. (1923). Baluchitherium grangeri, a Giant Hornless Rhinoceros from Mongolia.American Museum Novitates, Number 78.

Qi, T. (1989). A New Species of Dzungariotherium (Perissodactyla, Mammalia). Vertebrata PalAsiatica, 27(4).
Qiu, Z.-X., B.-Y. Wang and T. Deng (2004). Indricotheres (Perissodactyla, Mammalia) from Oligocene in Linxia Basin, Gansu, China. Vertebrata PalAsiatica, 42(3).

Tiwari, B.N. (2003). A Late Eocene Juxia (Perissodactyla, Hyracodontidae) from Liyan Molasse, Eastern Ladakh, India. Journal of the Palaeontological Society of India, Vol.48.

Wang, H.-B., et al. (2017). Reconstruction of the cranial musculature of the paraceratheriid rhinocerotoid Pappaceras meiomenus and inferences of its feeding and chewing habits. Acta Palaeontologica Polonica, 62(2).

Ye, J., J. Meng and W.Y. Wu (2003). Discovery of Paraceratherium in the Northern Junggar Basin of Xinjiang. Vertebrata PalAsiatica, 41(3).


General Hyracodontidae


Bales, G.S. (1996). Skull Evolution in the Rhinocerotidae (Mammalia,Perissodactyla): Cartesian Transformations and Functional Interpretations. Journal of Mammalian Evolution, Vol.3, Number 3.

Becker, D. (2009). Earliest records of rhinocerotoids (Mammalia: Perissodactyla) from Switzerland: systematics and biostratigraphy. Swiss J.Geosci., 102(3).

Cerdeno, E. (1992). Spanish Neogene Rhinoceroses. Palaeontology, Vol. 35, Part 2.

Dashzeveg, D. (1991). Hyracodontids and Rhinocerotids (Mammalia, Perissodactyla, Rhinocerotoidea) from the Paleogene of Mongolia. Palaeovertebrata, Montpellier, 21(1-2).

andolfi, L. (2015). New insights into the Oligocene Rhinocerotoidea (Mammalia, Perissodactyla) from Northwestern Italy. Annales de Paléontologie, xx-xxx. (Article in Press)

Prothero, D.R. (1998). Hyracodontidae. In: Evolution of Tertiary Mammals of North America - Volume 1: Terrestrial Carnivores, Ungulates and Ungulatelike Mammals . (Janis, C., K.M.Scott, and L.L.Jacobs, eds.).

Radinsky, L.B. (1967). A Review of the Rhinocerotoid Family Hyracodontidae (Perissodactyla).Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History, Vol.136-Article 1.

Tanner, L.G. and L.D. Martin (1972). Notes on the Deciduous and Permanent Dentition of the Hyracodonts. Transactions of the Nebraska Academy of Sciences and Affiliated Societies, Paper 362.

Uhlig, U. (1999). Paleobiogeography of Some Paleogene Rhinocerotoids (Mammalia) in Europe.  Acta Palaeontologica Romaniae, Vol.2.

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  • 4 weeks later...

Updated August 27, 2011.


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  • 7 months later...

Updated April 7, 2012.


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  • 2 years later...

Updated June 30, 2014.


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  • 1 year later...

Reorganized and updated - August 3, 2015.


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Updated June 14, 2018.



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