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Fruitbat's PDF Library - Trilobites - General

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These are a few of the pdf files (and a few Microsoft Word documents) that I've accumulated in my web browsing.

MOST of these are hyperlinked to their source.

If you want one that is not hyperlinked or if the link isn't working, e-mail me at joegallo1954@gmail.com and I'll be happy to send it to you.


Please note that this list will be updated continuously as I find more available resources. All of these files are freely available on the Internet so there should be no copyright issues.




Articles with author names in RED are new additions since April 9, 2018.



Phylum Arthropoda

Subphylum Trilobitomorpha


General Trilobites

General Trilobites - Asia/Malaysia/Pacific Islands


Kobayashi, T. (1987). On the Damesellidae (Trilobita) in Eastern Asia. Proc. Japan Acad., Series B., Vol.63, Number 3.

Kobayashi, T. (1985). The Taihungshaniidae and Birmanitidae, Trilobita. Proc. Japan Acad., Series B., Vol.61, Number 1.

Kobayashi, T. (1985). On the Dikelokephaliniidae (Trilobita). Proc. Japan Acad., Series B., Vol.61, Number 1.


General Trilobites - Australia/New Zealand


Adrain, J.M. and B.D.E. Chatterton (1995). The Otarionine Trilobites Harpidella and Maurotarion, With Species from Northwestern Canada, the United States, and Australia. J.Paleont., 69(2).

Wright, A.J. and R.A. Cooper (2011). Chapter 5. Phylum arthropoda, subphylum trilobitomorpha: trilobites. In: New Zealand Inventory of Biodiversity - Volume Two: Kingdom Animalia. Gordon, D.P. (ed.), Canterbury University Press, Christchurch, New Zealand.


General Trilobites - Europe (including Greenland)


Crônier, C. (2003). Systematic relationships of the blind phacopine trilobite Trimerocephalus, with a new species from Causses-et-Veyran, Montagne Noire. Acta Palaeontologica Polonica, 48(1).

Owens, R.M. (1974). The Affinities of the Trilobite Genus Scharyia, With a Description of Two New Species. Palaeontology, Vol.17, Part 3.

Schoenemann, B. and E.N.K. Clarkson (2011). The Eyes of Bohemian Trilobites. Geol.Výzk.Mor.Slez., Brno, 2011/1.

Shergold, J.H. (1966). A Revision of Acaste downinigae (Murchison) and Related Trilobites. Palaeontology, Vol.9, Part 2.


General Trilobites - North America


Adrain, J.M. and B.D.E. Chatterton (1995). The Otarionine Trilobites Harpidella and Maurotarion, With Species from Northwestern Canada, the United States, and Australia. J.Paleont., 69(2).

Palmer, A.R. (1962). Glyptagnostus and Associated Trilobites in the United States. U.S. Geological Survey, Professional Paper 374-F.

Ross, R.J. (1951). Stratigraphy of the Garden City Formation in Northeastern Utah, and its Trilobite Faunas. Peabody Museum of Natural History, Bulletin 4.

Shrake, D.L. (2005). Ohio Trilobites. Ohio Department of Natural Resources, GeoFacts Number 5.

Vogdes, A.W. (1892). On the North American Species of the Genus Agnostus. The American Geologist, Vol.IV.

Walter, O.T.  Trilobites of Iowa and Some Related Paleozoic Forms.  Iowa Geological Survey. (Thanks to doushantuo for locating this one!)

Weller, S. (1900). The Paleontology of the Niagaran Limestone in the Chicago Area. The Trilobita. The Natural History Survey, Bulletin Number 4, Part II. (178 pages, 26.6MB download)


General Trilobites


Adrain, J.W. and S.R. Westrop (1999). Trilobite Paleobiology: Past, Present and Future. J.Paleont., 73(2).

Alles, D.L. (ed.) (2006). Trilobites. PDF version of on-line paper. Numerous pictures.

Bonino, E. (2006). Systematic Relationships and Chronological Extent of the nine Trilobite Orders. (POSTER in .pdf format)

Brezinski, D.K. (2003). Evolutionary and Biogeographical Implications of Phylogenetic Analysis of the Late Palaeozoic Trilobite Paladin. Special Papers in Palaeontology, Number, 70.

Chlupáč, I. (1975). The distribution of phacopid trilobites in space and time. Fossils and Strata, Number 4.

Clarkson, E.N.K. (1973). The Eyes of Asaphus raniceps Dalman (Trilobita). Palaeontology, Vol.16, Part 3.
Clarkson, E.N.K. (1967). Fine Structure of the Eye in Two Species of Phacops (Trilobita). Palaeontology, Vol.10, Part 4.
Clarkson, E., et al. (2006). The Eyes of Trilobites: The oldest preserved visual system. Arthropod Structure & Development, 35.
Congreve, C.R. and B.S. Lieberman (2011). Phylogenetic and Biogeographic Analysis of Sphaerexochine Trilobites. PLoS ONE, 6(6). (Read on-line or download a copy.)
Congreve, C.R. and B.S. Lieberman (2010). Phylogenetic and Biogeographic Analysis of Deiphonine Trilobites. Journal of Paleontology, 84(1).

Crônier, C. (2013). Morphological Disparity and Developmental Patterning: Contribution of Phacopid Trilobites. Palaeontology, 2013.

Daley, A.C. and H.B. Drage (2015). The fossil record of ecdysis, and trends in the moulting behaviour of trilobites. Arthropod Structure & Development, xxx. (Article in Press).

Dalingwater, J.E. and J. Miller (1977). The Laminae and Cuticular Organization of the Trilobite Asaphus raniceps. Palaeontology, Vol.20, Part 1.

Drage, H.B. and A.C. Daley (2016). Recognising moulting behaviour in trilobites by examining morphology, development and preservation: Comment on Blazejowski et al. 2015. BioEssays, 38.

Foote, M. (1991). Morphologic Patterns of Diversification: Examples from Trilobites. Palaeontology, Vol.34, Part 2.

Fortey, R.A. (2004). The Lifestyles of Trilobites. American Scientist, Vol.92.

Fortey, R.A. (2000). Olenid trilobites: The oldest known chemoautotrophic symbionts? PNAS, Vol.97, Number 12.
Fortey, R.A. (1990). Ontogeny, Hypostome Attachment, and Trilobite Classification. Palaeontology, Vol.33, Part 3.

Fortey, R.A. and R.M. Owens (1999). Feeding Habits in Trilobites. Palaeontology, Vol.42, Part 3.
Fortey, R.A. and R.M. Owens (1997). Bubble-headed Trilobites, and a new Olenid Example. Palaeontology, Vol.40, Part 2.

Fortey, R.A. and R.M. Owens (1975). Proetida - a new order of trilobites. Fossils and Strata, Number 4.
Fortey, R.A. and B.D.E. Chatterton (1988). Classification of the Trilobite Suborder Asaphina. Palaeontology, Vol.31, Part 1.
Fortey, R.A. and S.F. Morris (1978). Discovery of Nauplius-Like Trilobite Larvae. Palaeontology, Vol.21, Part 4.

Fusco, G., et al. (2011). Developmental Trait Evolution in Trilobites. Evolution, 66-2.
Fusco, G., et al. (2004). Exploring Developmental Modes in a Fossil Arthropod: Growth and Trunk Segmentation of the Trilobite Aulacopleura konincki. The American Naturalist, Vol.163, Number 2.

Gon, S.M. (2009). A Pictorial Guide to the Orders of Trilobites.

Hegna, T.A. (2010). The function of forks: Isotelus-type hypostomes and trilobite feeding. Lethaia, Vol.43.

Henningsmoen, G. (1975). Moulting in trilobites. Fossils and Strata, Number 4.

Henningsmoen, G. (1951). Remarks on the Classification of Trilobites. Norsk Geologisk Tidsskrift, 29.
Hughes, C.P. (1970). Statistical Analysis and Presentation of Trinucleid (Trilobita) Fringe Data. Palaeontology, Vol.13, Part 1.

Hughes, C.P. and A.J. Wright (1970). The Trilobites Incaia Whittard, 1955 and Anebolithus Gen. Nov. Palaeontology, Vol.13, Part 4.

Hughes, N.C. (2007). The Evolution of Trilobite Body Patterning. Ann.Rev. Earth Planet.Sci., 35.

Hughes, N.C. (2003). Trilobite Tagmosis and Body Patterning from Morphological and Developmental Perspectives. Integr. Comp. Biol., 43.
Hughes, N.C. (2003). Trilobite body patterning and the evolution of arthropod tagmosis. Bioessays, 25.4.
Hughes, N.C., A. Minelli and G. Fusco (2006). The ontogeny of trilobite segmentation: a comparative approach. Paleobiology, 32(4).
Hughes, N.C., R.E. Chapman and J.M. Adrain (1999). The stability of thoracic segmentation in trilobites: a case study in developmental and ecological constraints. Evolution & Development, 1:1.

Lerosey-Aubril, R., T.A. Hegna and S. Olive (2011). Interring internal anatomy from the trilobite exoskeleton: the relationship between frontal auxiliary impressions and the digestive system. Lethaia, Vol.44.

Lieberman, B.S. and T.S. Karim (2010). Tracing the trilobite tree from the root to the tips: A model marriage of fossils and phylogeny. Arthropod Structure and Development, 39.

McCormick, T. (1995). Patterns and Implications of Stasis in Trilobites. Ph.D. Thesis - Glasgow University.

Miller, J. (1975). Structure and function of trilobite terrace lines. Fossils and Strata, Number 4.

Minelli, A., G. Fusco and N.C. Hughes (2003). Tagmata and Segment Specification in Trilobites. Special Papers in Palaeontology, 70.
Opik, A.A. (1961). Alimentary Caeca of Agnostids and Other Trilobites. Palaeontology, Vol.3, Part 4.

Osmolska, H. (1975). Fine morphological characters of some Upper Palaeozoic trilobites. Fossils and Strata, Number 4.

Peteya, J.A. (2013). Resolving Details of the Nonbiomineralized Anatomy of Trilobites Using Computed Tomographic Imaging Techniques. Masters Thesis - The Ohio State University. 

Rabano, I., R. Gozalo and D. Garcia-Bellido (2008). Advances in Trilobite Research. Institito Geologico y Minero Espana, Madrid. (entire 449 page book)

Ramsköld, L. and G.D. Edgecombe  (1991). Trilobite Monophyly Revisited. Historical Biology, Vol.4.

Raymond, P.E. (1920). The Appendages, Anatomy, and Relationships of Trilobites. Memoirs of the Connecticut Academy of Arts and Sciences, Vol.VII. (227 pages)

Rudkin, D.M. (1985). Exoskeletal abnormalities in four trilobites. Can.J. Earth Sci., 22.

Rutana, M.A. (2015). New Information About the Internal Anatomy and Taphonomic History of Trilobites Revealed Through CT Scanning. Senior Thesis - The Ohio State University. 

Schoenemann, B., E.N.K. Clarkson and G. Horvath (2015). Why did the UV-A-induced photoluminescent blue-green glow in trilobite eyes and exoskeletons not cause problems for trilobites? PeerJ, 3:e1492.

St. John, J. (2007). The Earliest Trilobite Research (Antiquity to the 1820s). In: Fabulous Fossils - 300 Years of Worldwide Research on Trilobites. Mikulic, D.G. (ed.), Illinois State Geological Survey.

Shergold, J.H. (1977). Classification of the Trilobite Pseudagnostus. Palaeontology, Vol.20, Part 1.

Shergold, J.H. (1967). A Revision of Acastella spinosa (Salter 1864) With Notes on Related Trilobites. Palaeontology, Vol.10, Part 2.

Slavickova, J. and P. Kraft (2001). Remarks on the palaeoecology of agnostid trilobites. Journal of the Czech Geological Society, 46/3-4.

Størmer, L. Studies on Trilobite Morphology. Part III. The Ventral Cephalic Structures With Remarks on the Zoological Position of the Trilobites. Norsk Geologisk Tidsskrift, 29.

Størmer, L. Studies on Trilobite Morphology, Part II. The Larval Development, the Segmentation and the Sutures, and Their Bearing on Trilobite Classification. Norsk Geologisk Tidsskrift, 21.

Størmer, L. Studies on Trilobite Morphology. Part I. The Thoracic Appendages and Their Phylogenetic Significance. Norsk Geologisk Tidsskrift, 19.

Størmer, L. (1980). Sculpture and Microstructure of the Exoskeleton in Chasmopinid and Phacopid Trilobites.Palaeontology, Vol.23, Part 2.
Thomas, A.T. (1977). Classification and Phylogeny of Homalonotid Trilobites. Palaeontology, Vol.20, Part 1.
Thomas, A.T. and R.M. Owens (1978). A Review of the Trilobite Family Aulacopleuridae. Palaeontology, Vol.21, Part 1.

Walcott, C.D. (1881). The Trilobite: New and Old Evidence Relating to Its Organization. Bulletin of the Museum of Comparative Zoology at Harvard College, Vol.VIII, Number 10. 

Webster, M. and M.L. Zelditch (2008). Integration and Regulation of Developmental Systems in Trilobites. In: Advances in trilobite research. Rabano, I., R. Gozalo, and D. Garcia-Bellido (eds.).

Whittington, H.B. (1996). Sphaeroidal Enrolment and Thoracic Characters in Beltella depressa and Other Olenid Trilobites. Palaeontology, Vol.39, Part 2.
Wilmot, N.V. (1990). Biomechanics of Trilobite Exoskeletons. Palaeontology, Vol. 33, Part 4.
Wilmot, N.V. and A.E. Fallick (1989). Original Mineralogy of Trilobite Exoskeleton. Palaeontology, Vol.32, Part 2.

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thanks man this is a good list of articles

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Always a pleasure! I just had to reorganize the PDF Library because the topic on trilobites was too long and the forum software wouldn't let me add any new entries so I just split the topic. Now I can add new updates! :)


Edited by Fruitbat

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Updated July 25, 2012.


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Updated June 7, 2015.


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Updated September 10, 2016.



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Updated April 9, 2018.



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