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Missourian

Crinoid Stem Blemishes

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Missourian

Crinoid stems with pits, welts, and what not....

 

2710-crinoid-stem-blemishes.jpg

 

Pit with swelling:

 

2695-crinoid-stem-pit.jpg

 

Pit & swelling again. The remains of something can be seen inside:

 

2688-crinoid-stem-pit.jpg

 

Multiple pits. This seems to be different than the first two:

 

2699-crinoid-stem-pits.jpg

 

The encrusting bryozoans may be related to whatever caused the pits and welts:

 

2693-crinoid-stem-activity.jpg

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fossilized6s

Cool pieces.

These look like feeding traces of parasites.

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fossilized6s

https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Crinoid_worm

I'm not sure if you knew what these were....?

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Auspex

Cool pieces.

These look like feeding traces of parasites.

https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Crinoid_worm

I'm not sure if you knew what these were....?

Here is a study on another crinoid parasite: LINK

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Fossildude19

Awesome specimens, Mitch!

Thanks for showing them.

Regards,

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fossilized6s

Here is a study on another crinoid parasite: LINK

Thanks, Chas.

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Missourian

Hmmm.... I just noticed this:

 

2703-disk.jpg

 

I'll have to take a closer look when I can get to my collection.

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piranha
Brett, C.E. (1985)
Tremichnus: a new ichnogenus of circular-parabolic pits in fossil echinoderms.
Journal of Paleontology, 59(3):625-635
 
ABSTRACT
 
The new ichnogenus Tremichnus is proposed to include simple circular-parabolic pits, with or without associated stereom swellings, on fossil echinoderms, primarily crinoids. Tremichnus is a common trace fossil that is largely confined to columns and calyces of Paleozoic crinoids; the ichnogenus ranges at least from Middle Ordovician to Permian, and perhaps into the Mesozoic. Four new ichnospecies are also defined: T. paraboloides, the type species, comprising deep circularparabolic pits, 0.15-3.5 mm, without associated gall-like swellings; T. cysticus, similar, though smaller pits surrounded by cystose masses of stereomatic secretion; T. minutus, uniformly small, non-overlapping pits commonly surrounded by raised rims; and T. puteolus, very large, shallow pits generally with a concentric inner ring-like groove. A similarly large pit, T. sp. aff. T. puteolus occurs on diploporitan cystoids. Review of mode of occurrence of these pits suggests that Tremichnus was the work of a sessile, host-selective epibiont, probably a parasite or a commensalistic filter feeder. The pits were apparently produced by a combination of embedment (i.e., inhibition of stereom growth) and sometrue boring (i.e., removal of stereom).
 
 
 

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abyssunder

"Nice" symbiotic relationship...

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piranha
Here is a recent update I discovered: According to this paper, Tremichnus is now classified as Sedilichnus.
 
 
Zonneveld, J.P., & Gingras, M.K. (2014)
Sedilichnus, Oichnus, Fossichnus, and Tremichnus: ‘small round holes in shells’ revisited.
Journal of Paleontology, 88(5):895-905
 
Tremichnus is a junior synonym of Oichnus, and Oichnus also happens to be a junior synonym of Sedilichnus.
Additionally, Brett's four proposed Tremichnus ichnospecies have been lumped into: Sedilichnus spongiophilus
 
 
 

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kwilson

A possibly useful reference: Host-specific pit-forming epizoans on Silurian crinoids. Brett, C. E. In: Lethaia, July 15, 1978, Vol. 11, Issue 3, pp.217-232

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G_M

Pit & swelling again. The remains of something can be seen inside:

attachicon.gif2688-crinoid-stem-pit.jpg

Nice crinoid stems!
The following pits and swellings are from Phosphannulus Müller, Nogami & Lenz, 1974 (Order Hyolithelminthes) - a problematic organism with phosphatic tubes (you can see its incomplete shell in the hole). It was an epizoan and all these swellings was a crinoid reaction to the Phosphannulus settlement.
I hope these literature will help you:
Welch, J. R. (1976). Phosphannulus on Paleozoic crinoid stems. Journal of Paleontology, 218-225.
Werle, N. G., Frest, T. J., & Mapes, R. H. (1984). The epizoan Phosphannulus on a Pennsylvanian crinoid stem from Texas. Journal of Paleontology, 1163-1166.
I attach a picture of similar specimen with more complete Phospahnnulus specimen from the Pennsylvanian deposits of the Moscow Region (scale bar - 4mm).

post-4472-0-87768100-1462488415_thumb.jpg

Edited by G_M

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doushantuo

Yakowska's article in the 1922 issue of the Zoologische Anzeiger comes to mind.

Common parasites:Myzostomids(vide Lanterbecq/ Rouse in MpE,sept. 2009) ,cirripeds.Parasitism by copepods leads to the formation of Galls(vide Ohtsuka/Boxall,2010 and the link below)

also,Berkowski and Gluchowski have written several articles on crinoid epibionts,and Jan Bohaty in JOP,somewhere in 2012 ,I think

Klompmaker/Boxhall:

https://www.researchgate.net/publication/280025238_Fossil_Crustaceans_as_Parasites_and_Hosts

and there's:

GALLE, A. AND R. J. PROKOP. 2000. Complex parasitism and symbiosis of
crinoid, subepidermal parasite and tablulate coral. Lower Devonian
(Pragian), Barrandian, Czech Republic. Bulletin of the Czech Geolog.surv
and:
and:
If anyone is interested in paleozoic epibionts:
I have the eponymous HiBi issue** and highly recommend it,it's a classic
**on paper, that is
Edited by doushantuo

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FossilDudeCO

Awesome thread! thanks for sharing everyone!

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lissa318

Those are super cool crinoid specimens Missourian!!! :D. Pretty fascinating really... Great info given on this thread too! :)

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Fossildude19

I'm learning allot from this thread!

Thanks for posting it, Mitch.

Regards,

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