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Fruitbat's Pdf Library - Invertebrate Chordates

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These are a few of the pdf files (and a few Microsoft Word documents) that I've accumulated in my web browsing.

MOST of these are hyperlinked to their source.

If you want one that is not hyperlinked or if the link isn't working, e-mail me at joegallo1954@gmail.com and I'll be happy to send it to you.


Please note that this list will be updated continuously as I find more available resources. All of these files are freely available on the Internet so there should be no copyright issues.



Articles with author names in RED are new additions since October 1, 2017.



Invertebrate Chordates

Subphylum Cephalochordata 


Class Uncertain


Family Pikaiidae


Lacalli, T. (2012). The Middle Cambrian fossil Pikaia and the evolution of chordate swimming. EvoDevo, 3:12.

Mallatt, J. and N. Holland (2013). Pikaia gracilens Walcott: Stem Chordate, or Already Specialized in the Cambrian? Journal of Experimental Zoology, 320B.

Morris, S.C. and J.-B. Caron (2012). Pikaia gracilens Walcott, a stem-group chordate from the Middle Cambrian of British Columbia. Biol.Rev., 2012.


Class Leptocardii - Lancelets and Their Relatives


Luo, H., S. Hu and L. Chen (2001). New Early Cambrian Chordates from Haikou, Kunming. Acta Geologica Sinica, Vol.75, Number 4.


Order Amphioxiformes


Garcia-Fernàndez, J. and È. Benito-Gutiérrez (2009). It's a long way from amphioxus: descendants of the earliest chordate. BioEssays, Vol.31, Number 6.

Meulmans, D. and M. Bonner-Fraser (2007). Insights from Amphioxus into the Evolution of Vertebrate Cartilage. PLoS ONE, Issue 8: e787.

Schubert, M., et al. (2006). Amphioxus and tunicates as evolutionary model systems. Trends in Ecology and Evolution, Vol.21, Number 5.


Subphylum Tunicata - Sea Squirts and Their Relatives


Chen, J.-Y., et al. (2003). The first tunicate from the Early Cambrian of South China. PNAS, Vol.100, Number 14.

Delsuc, F., et al. (2006). Tunicates and not cephalochordates are the oldest living relatives of vertebrates. Nature, Vol.439.

Dominguez, P., A.G. Jacobson and R.P.S. Jefferies (2002). Paired gill slits in a fossil with a calcite skeleton. Nature, Vol.417.

Shu, D.-G., et al. (2001). An Early Cambrian tunicate from China. Nature, Vol.411.

Schubert, M., et al. (2006). Amphioxus and tunicates as evolutionary model systems. Trends in Ecology and Evolution, Vol.21, Number 5.

Subphylum or Affinity Uncertain


Family (?) Myllokunmingiidae


Shu, D.-G., et al. (2003). Head and backbone of the Early Cambrian vertebrate Haikouichthys. Nature, Vol.421.

Shu, D.-G., et al. (1999). Lower Cambrian vertebrates from south China. Nature, Vol.402.

Zhang, X.-G. and X.-G. Hou (2004). Evidence for a single median fin-fold and tail in the Lower Cambrian vertebrate, Haikouichthys ercaicunensis. J.Evol.Biol., 17.


Order indeterminate


Genus Tullimonstrum


Clements, T., et al. (2016). Eyes of Tullimonstrum gregarium (Mazon Creek, Carboniferous) reveal a vertebrate affinity.

Johnson, R.G. and E.S. Richardson (1969). The Morphology and Affinities of Tullimonstrum. Fieldiana: Geology, Vol.12, Numbers 8-11.

McCoy, V.E., et al. (2016). The 'Tully monster' is a vertebrate. Nature, 532(7600).

Richardson, E.S. (1966). Wormlike Fossil from the Pennsylvanian of Illinois. Science, Vol.151.

Sallan, L, et al. (2017). The 'Tully Monster' Is Not a Vertebrate: Characters, Convergence and Taphonomy of Palaeoic Problematic Animals. Palaeontology, 2017. (Thanks to oilshale for finding this one!)



Chang, K.-j. (1965). New Antiarchs from the Middle Devonian of Yunnan. Vertebrata PalAsiatica, Vol.9, Number 1.

Hou, X.-g., et al. (2002). New evidence on the anatomy and phylogeny of the earliest vertebrates. Proc.Roy.Soc.Lond. B, 269.

Janvier, P. (2003). Vertebrate characters and the Cambrian vertebrates. C.R. Palevol, 2.

Morris, S.C. and J.-B. Caron (2014). A primitive fish from the Cambrian of North America. Nature, Vol.000.
Wang, S. (1987). A New Antiarch from the Early Devonian of Guangxi. Vertebrata PalAsiatica, 25(2).

Xian-guang, H., et al. (2002). New evidence on the anatomy and phylogeny of the earliest vertebrates. Proc.R.Soc.B., 269.


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