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  1. DNA from mammoth remains reveals the history of the last surviving population The mammoths of Wrangel Island purged a lot of harmful mutations before dying off. Jeannete Timmons, Ars Technica, June 29, 2024 Did inbreeding cause the woolly mammoth’s extinction? Our research suggests it was more sudden than that Marianne Dehasque and Love Dalen, The Conversation, June 27, 2024 The open access paper is: Dehasque, M., Morales, H.E., Díez-del-Molino, D., Pečnerová, P., Chacón-Duque, J.C., Kanellidou, F., Muller, H., Plotnikov, V., Protopopov, A., Tikhonov, A. and Nikolskiy, P., 2023. Temporal dynamics of woolly mammoth genome erosion prior to extinction. Cell. Yours, Paul H.
  2. Sebassie

    Small phalanx found - ID help

    I found some sort of phalanx at a lake in the Netherlands. At this location fossils can be found from the pleistocene, but most of the finds are from the (early) holocene. I'm hoping someone can tell me whether this is a bird or mammal phalanx. Any additional information is most welcome, but I don't think it will be identified online. The matrix in the background is in centimeters, so the length is about 2 cm. Let me know what you think!
  3. Reconstruction Image of an Array of Mediterranean Otters by artist Sanciusart, 2020. Image Source: https://www.deviantart.com/sanciusart/art/An-Array-of-Mediterranean-Otters-862517185 As one of a most well-known groups of the mammalian Mustelidae family, Otters (Lutrinae) are relatives of minks found primarily in salt and freshwater. Emerging in the Middle Miocene 12.5-8.8 Million Years ago, there are 13 currently known species alive today, of which 2 are entirely adapted to life exclusively in saltwater. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2276185/ https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7271888/ However, Lutrinae diversity was far higher globally during the Pliocene-Early Holocene than in the present. This diversity peaked during the late Pleistocene, with at least 5 species found only in Mediterranean. Even species still alive today were not only around by this time but coexisted with these unique Pleistocene-Holocene otter species. For others, these Pleistocene-Holocene unique otters were the direct ancestors of several modern otter species. By the beginning of the Holocene, this diversity dropped dramatically due to Human overexploitation and climate change that occurred between the Pleistocene and Holocene. Modern Otter diversity has also declined in more recent times due to continued overhunting which especially plagued North American Otters during the California “Fur” Rush of the 1700s-early 1900s and the effects of Human induced Climate Change since the Industrial Revolution. Both still plague many Otter species today. It is only because of global Conservation efforts that some of the most endangered Otter species today have a fighting chance at survival. Here's a list of all the currently known unique Otter (Lutrinae) genera and species of the late Pleistocene-Early (to part late) Holocene (2.58-0.012 Million Years ago) which can hopefully demonstrate the diversity of these magnificent animals during this time. Let me know if I forgot any examples. Europe Sardinia-Corsica Megalenhydris barbaricina (Lutrinae) (late Pleistocene-early Holocene, 2.588-0.0117 Million Years ago) (grew up to 2.5 meters (8.2 feet) in length) Sardolutra ichnusae (Lutrinae) (late Pleistocene-early Holocene, 2.588-0.0117 Million Years ago) (grew up to 1 meter (3.3 feet) in length) Algarolutra majori (Lutrinae) (late Pleistocene-early Holocene, 2.588-0.0117 Million Years ago) (grew up to 1 meter (3.3 feet) in length) Lutra castiglionis (Lutrinae) (Pleistocene, 0.774-0.129 Million Years ago) (grew up to 1 meter (3.3 feet) in length) Sicily Lutraeximia trinacriae (Lutrinae) (late Pleistocene-early Holocene, 2.588-0.0117 Million Years ago) (grew up to 1 meter (3.3 feet) in length) Malta Nesolutra euxena (Lutrinae) (late Pleistocene-early Holocene, 2.588-0.0117 Million Years ago) (grew up to 1 meter (3.3 feet) in length) Crete Lutrogale cretensis (Lutrinae) (late Pleistocene-early Holocene, 0.129-0.0117 Million Years ago) (grew up to 1 meter (3.3 feet) in length) Mainland Europe Lutra simplicidens (Lutrinae) (Pleistocene, 0.774 - 0.129 Million Years ago) (grew up to 1 meter (3.3 feet) in length) https://paleobiodb.org/classic/basicCollectionSearch?collection_no=36206&is_real_user=1 Lutra bressana (Lutrinae) (late Pleistocene-early Holocene, 2.588-0.0117 Million Years ago) (grew up to 1 meter (3.3 feet) in length) Cyrnaonyx antiqua (Lutrinae) (Pleistocene, 0.774 - 0.129 Million Years ago) (grew up to 1 meter (3.3 feet) in length) Great Britain Enhydra reevei (Lutrinae) (late Pliocene-early Holocene, 3.6-0.781 Million Years ago) (grew up to 1.2-1.5 meters (3.93-4.92 feet) in length) https://paleobiodb.org/classic/basicCollectionSearch?collection_no=166097&is_real_user=1 Asia Indonesia Lutrogale palaeoleptonyx (Lutrinae) (late Pleistocene-early Holocene, 2.588-0.781 Million Years ago) (grew up to 1 meter (3.3 feet) in length) https://paleobiodb.org/classic/basicCollectionSearch?collection_no=93522&is_real_user=1 https://www.science.smith.edu/departments/Biology/VHAYSSEN/msi/pdf/i1545-1410-786-1-1.pdf North America Mainland North America Satherium piscinarium (Lutrinae) (late Pliocene-early Holocene, 5.3-0.3 Million Years ago) (grew up to 1.8 meters (5.90 feet) in length) https://paleobiodb.org/classic/basicCollectionSearch?collection_no=20308&is_real_user=1 Enhydra macrodonta (Lutrinae) (late Pleistocene-early Holocene, 1.8-0.012 Million Years ago) (grew up to 1.2-1.5 meters (3.93-4.92 feet) in length) https://paleobiodb.org/classic/basicCollectionSearch?collection_no=84881&is_real_user=1 South America Mainland South America Unnamed Pteronura sp. (Lutrinae) (late Pleistocene-early Holocene, 0.129-0.0117 Million Years ago) (grew up to 1.8 meters (5.90 feet) in length) (Note: The report describing the Unnamed Argentina Pteronura sp. fossil specimens describes them as belonging to the Pleistocene individual of the still extant species Pteronura brasiliensis, but the reports details about the larger size of the remains compared to the current known size range of Pteronura brasiliensis and unique features in the Argentina specimens skull points to the likely possibility that the Argentina specimen is from a new unnamed Pteronura sp.) https://ri.conicet.gov.ar/bitstream/handle/11336/80190/CONICET_Digital_Nro.c78ed830-e93e-4ecc-b379-84e1d32b96ac_A.pdf?sequence=2&isAllowed=y Hope you all find this helpful!!!
  4. I just found this earlier today. It's so hard for me to judge age on mammal material in Big Brook because it stains so quickly...
  5. A short post today, just wanted to upload this interesting Rhizocorallium (?) I found on my most recent fossil hunting trip! It’s still the dead of winter here in Saskatoon, but we had a warm snap recently and I was able to hike out to a local glacial silt exposure and found it. Hoping to return to this site soon and hopefully find more!
  6. austinswamp

    Mid-Holocene Fossil Oyster TX

    Good afternoon, just finished reading about how the Colorado river in Austin was essentially the beach during the mid-Holocene. I’ve attached the image from the article showing this sea level rise. This article reminded me of all the oyster shells I find in select spots along the Tavis/Bastrop county line. There are also archaeological sites in the area where marine diatoms are documented dating to the mid Holocene. Curious if anyone has heard of this. The article is from July of this year.
  7. Study of mud cores from Lake Victoria suggests diversification of cichlid fish led to their success by Bob Yirka , PhysOrg, October 6, 2023 The open access paper is: Ngoepe, N., Muschick, M., Kishe, M.A., Mwaiko, S., Temoltzin-Loranca, Y., King, L., Courtney Mustaphi, C., Heiri, O., Wienhues, G., Vogel, H. and Cuenca-Cambronero, M., 2023. A continuous fish fossil record reveals key insights into adaptive radiation. Nature, pp.1-6. Published Oct. 4, 2023 Yours, Paul H.
  8. Earth Temperature Timeline for Last 20,000 Years by xkcd Remember, don't "boop" the trilobites. Yours, Paul H.
  9. Another day of great finds in Saskatoon! This time, some trace fossils. With my wonderful collaboration with the University of Saskatchewan's Museum of Natural Sciences still continuing, recently I have been very lucky to make multiple trips out to a beautiful site just outside the city of Saskatoon where massive deposits of glacial lake silt are exposed. This silt produces pristine grass and other plant fossils in abundance (I'd like to make a post about them soon as well), but also seems to be teeming with various invertebrate trace fossils. All are very small (under 1 centimetre wide). I've attached some of my best pictures below. 1 - 6: Overlapping Planolites sp. closeups 7 - 11: Edaphichnium sp. 12 - 14: Taenidium sp. closeups 15 - 16: Taenidium sp. wide shots 17: Taenidium sp. closeup
  10. Ancient cat fossils, paw prints recovered from beneath Texas Hill Country by: Eric Henrikson, KXAN News, Nexstar Media Inc., Texas, January 13, 2023 https://www.kxan.com/news/science/ancient-cat-fossils-paw-prints-recovered-from-beneath-texas-hill-country/ Yours, Paul H.
  11. Many Newly Discovered Species Are Already Gone Scientists are uncovering previously unknown species preserved in museum and botanical garden collections, only to find that they no longer exist in the wild. Katarina Zimmer, Wired, June 10, 2023 Undark version of above article. The paywalled paper is: Solórzano-Kraemer, M.M., Kunz, R., Hammel, J.U., Peñalver, E., Delclòs, X. and Engel, M.S., 2022. Stingless bees (Hymenoptera: Apidae) in Holocene copal and Defaunation resin from Eastern Africa indicate Recent biodiversity change. The Holocene, 32(5), pp.414-432. PDF of preprint of Solórzano-Kraemer et al. (2022) Yours, Paul H.
  12. aek


    Any ideas on this micro tooth? Sand grain-sized. Holocene sediments ancestral Lake michigan.
  13. aek

    Holocene micro fish parts

    Wondering if these tiny fish fragments can be identified? These are about the size of a grain of sand about 8-10,000 years old ancestral Lake michigan.
  14. Today, I went fossil hunting in my area (in the Selzerbeek). I found early Maastrichtian, late Cretaceous fossils (around 70-67 million years old) and one Pleistocene or Holocene tooth (anyone who knows what kind of animal? I suspect a predator). Kind regards, Fossilsforever
  15. Heteromorph

    Fossilized Arizona Human Footprint (?)

    Let me start this off with two disclaimers: 1- I am sorry if this post would be more appropriate on an archeology forum. I would think that it would be fine here, however, because the "footprint" impression does appear to be fossilized. And because I have yet to join any archeology forums. I anyone has a recommendation for a good archeology forum let me know. 2- Being almost entirely engulfed in learning about just the Cretaceous of my local area, paleoanthropology is a bit out of my purview. So bear with me if I sound like I don't know what I am talking about. Because I don't. I feel more comfortable with ammonites and Ptychodus. On Wednesday night my mother brought to my attention a post by a Facebook friend of her's, Kevin, who was recently out leading a group of 4-wheeler enthusiasts along some extremely remote Arizona desert trails when he happened upon what appears to be a fossilized human footprint. He really enjoys the rugged beauty of the deserts of the southwest and has been leading groups on such 4-wheeler outings for many years. Because he doesn't have a TFF account and because his Facebook page is private, I am posting this for him. I don't know if this is a real print or, even if it is, that it would be a significant find. I just thought that it wold be appropriate to check with TFF now before it eventually erodes away, just incase it is important. My mother has been friends with Kevin on Facebook for years, and his association with our family goes back to him knowing my great-grandparents at their church in Parryton, Texas decades ago. From that long association, he seems to be the type of person that has neither the inclination or time to be faking tracks. His interest is in exploring the desert, not perpetrating weird hoaxes. My concern is not that he faked it, but that perhaps some other unscrupulous person, apparently with a lot of talent, came along the trail and did it. When this fossil piqued my interest I asked him if I could post this to a fossil forum that I belong to and he gladly allowed me to, saying that he hopes to learn as much about it as he can himself. During our conversation, he also said that he found it, "out in the middle of nowhere near Quartzite, AZ." Along with the pictures of the impression he wrote, "While I've seen several dinosaur footprints this is the first human one I've seen preserved in sedimentary rock. I'm always amazed when I think of all of the circumstances that had to come together for this to occur. Of course, I have no idea how old it is. I have been under the impression that Native American tribesman that might have roamed these area were small people, partially based on the size of the doorways in dwelling I've been to in Utah. This print is an adult and looked to be about a size 10 [about 25 to 28 cm long]. Perhaps this is older or more recent. No telling. But still impressive." To my untrained eye I don't see any obvious signs that this is faked, but I would like to know what you think about it. His didn't indicate the presence of any other tracks in the area, so either he missed them, the others are already weathered away, or more are still buried. Again, my knowledge of paleoanthropology is still wanting, but from reading theses articles (here, here, here, and here), I gather that human tracks in North America are rare but, as I see from the first article, they are not unheard of in Arizona. The first article is on a multi-track site just north of Tucson. And from the pictures in the articles, Kevin's would seem to be a very well preserved specimen if it is real. Interestingly, Mancos shows that the geology around Quartzite is very similar to that just north of Tucson, even though Quartzite is about 200 miles to the northwest of Tucson. The geology around Quartzite and Tucson is mapped as Quaternary surficial, with the age range listed as from the Gelasian (1.8 Ma) to modern holocene. Here are the only two pictures of the impression that he posted, along with his pictures of the surrounding scenery of the area. I am also including pictures of the Mancos map of the areas around Quartzite and Tucson. Hopefully the pictures are enough to at least say whether or not it is worth further investigation or an obvious fake. Thank you for your time. Fig. 1 Fig. 2
  16. After doing some research a few weeks back on the distribution of the extinct Haast's eagle (Hieraaetus moorei), I discovered there was a much larger array of large Accipitridae on island environments than I previously realized (the result of island gigantism) during the Pleistocene-Early Holocene. Sadly, many of these animals are now extinct asa result of direct human hunting or hunting of their food sources by the early-late Holocene. I've decided to make a quick list of all those I've identified, which hopefully can demonstrate the diversity these magnificent animals had during the Pleistocene-Early Holocene. Let me know if I forget any examples. New Zealand - Haast's eagle (Hieraaetus moorei) (Pleistocene-late Holocene (At least 1450 A.D.)) Eyles's Harrier (Circus teauteensis) (Pleistocene-Holocene) Crete - Cretan subspecies of the Golden Eagle (Aquila chrysaetos simurgh) (late Pleistocene) Cuba - Gigantohierax suarezi (Holocene) (0.012-0.005 years ago) Gigantohierax itchei (Holocene) (0.012-0.005 years ago) Borras's eagle-hawk (Buteogallus borrasi) (Pleistocene-early Holocene) Bahamas - Bahamian Titan Hawk (Titanohierax gloveralleni) (Pleistocene-Holocene) Hispaniolan Titan Hawk (Titanohierax sp.) (Pleistocene-Holocene) New Caledonia - Powerful goshawk (Accipiter efficax) Madagascar - Malagasy crowned eagle (Stephanoaetus mahery) (Pleistocene-late Holocene (at least 1500 A.D.)) Hawaii - Haliaeetus sp. (either new Haliaeetus species or a subspecies of the extant White-tailed Eagle (Haliaeetus albicilla)) (Pleistocene-Holocene) What do you guys think?
  17. The Crocodilians (Crocodilia) are a resilient group of reptiles, with the order originating around the Late Cretaceous 95 million years ago and still very prevalent globally in many aquatic ecosystems. But it was not too long ago that this group was even more diverse. Though way more diverse between the Paleocene-Pilocene eras between 64-2 Million years ago, the Crocodylomorpha (mainly Crocodillians) were still fairly diverse during the Pleistocene-Early Holocene eras - more diverse than they are today. This lack of diversity today is mainly due to the climate change that occurred between the Pleistocene and Holocene and (Unfortunately) overexploitation by Humans. Human induced Climate change since the Industrial Revolution and direct overexploitation by people still plagues many crocodilians today. It is only because of global Conservation efforts that some of the most endangered crocodilians today have a fighting chance at survival. I've decided to make a quick list of the unique crocodilians of the Pleistocene-Early(to part late) Holocene which can hopefully demonstrate the diversity of these magnificent animals during this time. Let me know if I forgot any examples. Australia - Quinkana fortirostrum (Pliocene-Pleistocene) Possible Unnamed Quinkana sp. (Possibly Q.fortirostrum) (Queensland Museum Specimen QM F57032) (Note: Quinkana could have grown to between 10-20 feet in length) Paludirex vincenti (Pliocene-Pleistocene 5.3-0.012 years ago) (Note: Plaudirex species could grow up to 4 meters (13 feet) in length) Paludirex gracilis (Pliocene-Pleistocene 5.3-0.012 years ago) (Note: Plaudirex species could grow up to 4 meters (13 feet) in length) Gunggamarandu manunala (Pliocene-Pleistocene 5-2 Million years ago) (Note: Gunggamarandu manunala could have grown up to 7 meters (23 feet) in length) Japan - Toyotamaphimeia machikanensis (Pleistocene 0.8-0.1 years ago) (Note: Toyotamaphimeia machikanensis could have grown up to 7.7 meters (25 feet) in length) Taiwan - Unnamed Toyotamaphimeia sp. (Pleistocene 0.8-0.1 years ago) China - Hanyusuchus sinensis (Early-Late Holocene (up to the 1400s A.D. around 600 years ago)) (Note: Hanyusuchus sinensis could grow up to 6 meters (19 feet) in length) Africa - Euthecodon brumpti (Pilocene-Early Pleistocene 3.5-0.781 Thousand years ago) (Note: Euthecodon brumpti could grow up to 10 meters (33 feet) in length) Crocodylus thorbjarnarsoni (Pliocene to Pleistocene 5.3-1.8 Million years ago) (Note: Crocodylus thorbjarnarsoni could grow up to 7.6 meters (25 feet) in length) Crocodylus anthropophagus (Pleistocene 1.845-1.839 Million years ago) (Note: Crocodylus anthropophagus could grow up to 7.5 meters (25 feet) in length) Madagascar - Voay robustus (Late Pleistocene-Holocene 0.1-0.01 years ago) (Note: Voay robust could grow up to 5 meters (16.4 feet) in length) Thailand - Gavialis bengawanicus (Early-Middle Pleistocene) Indonesia - Gavialis bengawanicus (Early-Middle Pleistocene) New Caleodonia - Mekosuchus inexpectatus (Holocene 0.012-0.004 years ago) (Note: Mekosuchus species could grow up to 2 meters (6 feet) in length) Fiji - Volia athollandersoni (Late Pleistocene-Early Holocene) (Note: Volia athollandersoni could grow up to 3 meters (10 feet) in length) Vanuatu - Mekosuchus kalpokasi (Holocene 0.012-0.003 years ago) (Note: Mekosuchus species could grow up to 2 meters (6 feet) in length) New Guinea - Murua gharial (Ikanogavialis papuensis) (Late Pleistocene-Early Holocene) What do you guys think?
  18. Greetings everyone, Found this bone on the Maasvlakte beach in the Netherlands. Based on the location, probably Pleistocene, but could also be Holocene or Pliocene. It looks like a metapodial, and based on size and shape I was thinking maybe carnivore. An expert was able to tell me that it could be carnivore (or maybe beaver), and that it probably belonged to a young animal (since the outer layer of compact bone is really thin). I've been spending hours comparing this fossil to metapodials of all kinds of carnivores (and Castor fiber) matching this location, but I still can't figure it out. Does anyone have any suggestions?
  19. JakubArmatys

    Pleistocene (?) bone ID

    I found this bone in the river, possibly from Pleistocene (bone color + some kind of subfossil procceses) and what is that? I made a research, and this is smillair to nothing, maybe somebody knows what is that possibly.
  20. Hi there, My wife and I are currently honeymooning in Hawaii on the south shore of the island on Kauai over in the town Poipu. There’s limestone cliffs there and I read about Holocene aged fossils, such as bird fossils, found a few miles away at the Makauwahi Cave Reserve. I wasn’t fossil hunting, but we were walking along a public beach and there appeared to be a couple of bones eroding out of a peat deposit, near a limestone cliff. I’m not so good with distinguishing more modern fossils such as Holocene or Pleistocene. Any idea if this bone is modern or fossilized? looking at an old post in the Hawaii section, it does somewhat look like the fossil bird bones @Auspex posted from this area. Thanks for taking a look!
  21. Hi! I’m still trying to identify one fossil from a particular unit of Pleistocene/Early Holocene lacustrine silt from my hometown of Saskatoon, but I figured I would look away from it for a bit to try and identify another fossil from the same unit I’ve been unable to classify. I have two specimens, both apparently of the same species. They are both approximately 0.5 millimetres across. They are perfectly circular, with lines radiating from the centre and rings of alternating colours (possibly representing growth lines). One specimen is photographed dorsally, showing its circular shape, the other in profile, showing its umbrella-like, protruding outline. All photos are taken through a microscope with my best camera currently available, an iPhone! My main areas of middling expertise are arthropod and vertebrate fossils, so I have no idea what this is! I have briefly studied fossil foraminifera and diatoms in the past, but it looks like nothing I’ve seen in those areas as well. It reminded me of a small limpet, some type of seed or spore, or perhaps even a strange fish scale, but I have no formal suggestions. I’d highly appreciate any help! I will try to supply any additional information you may need. Thank you!
  22. Trying to figure out what this is a fragment of? It appears to have an enamel coating but I’m not familiar with mammal teeth….possible tapir tooth fragment? Found on Amelia island!
  23. I found this maxilla piece on the Kansas River today. I'm thinking it's some sort of pig ancestor, and hoping it's not just an old domestic pig's. But it seems mineralized to me. Also, the teeth are pretty worn so it's hard for me to ID them. I saw this topic And thought it's too difficult for me to ID based on the worn teeth. But maybe someone else here can help? Please let me know if more photos would be of use as well. Thanks in advance.
  24. I think I already know the answer here but what are your thoughts on this humerus. Found in a creek bank in southern Minnesota. Sediments in the area range from cretaceous to holocoen with a good amount of Wisconsin lobe glacial till. Previously we have found bison, mammoth, and ancient horse...
  25. I found this large bone at the Kansas river today. I believe it's permineralized phalanx and it is about 4 inches long. If anyone can help me out I'd be very appreciative. If you need more photos let me know. Thanks in advance (Apologies for not using centimeters, I couldn't find my tape measure so I used a yard stick. )
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