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  1. I recently came across a few scientific papers about a little known Coelurosaur theropod dinosaur from South America I would like some help in understanding its place in Coelurosauria. Image Reconstruction of the Early Cretaceous Coelurosaur Aniksosarus from what is now Southern Argentina. Image Credit: Deviantart artist oroti0, 2023. Image Source: https://www.deviantart.com/oroti0/art/Aniksosaurus-950583918 The name of the Coelurosaur is Aniksosaurus and it lived during the Early Cretaceous period (100.5-89.8 Million Years ago) in what is now Chubut Province of Argentina. It was discovered in early cretaceous deposits at the Lower member of the Bajo Barreal Formation, formally described only in 2006, and is known from several fossilized specimens. https://paleobiodb.org/classic/checkTaxonInfo?taxon_no=97082&is_real_user=1 Image of the femora specimens of Aniksosaurus darwini with measurements (in mm) of the femora specimens. Image Credit: Ibiricu, L. M., Martínez, R. D., Casal, G. A., and Cerda, I. A. (2013). The Behavioral Implications of a Multi-Individual Bonebed of a Small Theropod Dinosaur. PLoS ONE. 8(5): e64253. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0064253 Image Source: https://journals.plos.org/plosone/article/figures?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0064253 From what I've read in some of the few papers about this coelurosaur, it was 2-3 meters (7-10 feet) in length fully grown and has been categorized as a member of everything from Compsognathidae, a maniraptoromorph outside compsognathids and maniraptorans, and even a member of Pantyrannosauria. https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/02724634.2010.520779 https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6626525/ https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6626525/ I'm personally leaning a bit towards placing it in Pantyrannosauria based on the presence of other Pantyrannosauria in South America at this time including Santanaraptor and the currently unnamed Pantyrannosauria sp. (based on Specimen MN 4451/1-V) from the early cretaceous Salvador Formation (dating 143.1-121.4 Million Years ago) alongside the somewhat advanced Coelurosaur features the specimens have. https://www.semanticscholar.org/paper/Aniksosaurus-darwini-gen.-et-sp.-nov.%2C-a-new-from-Martínez-Novas/04565788edd6321fa6e6daf8fb1d438766e52af9 But I really would like your guys thoughts on where this genus belongs in Coelurosauria?
  2. Reconstruction Image of an Array of Mediterranean Otters by artist Sanciusart, 2020. Image Source: https://www.deviantart.com/sanciusart/art/An-Array-of-Mediterranean-Otters-862517185 As one of a most well-known groups of the mammalian Mustelidae family, Otters (Lutrinae) are relatives of minks found primarily in salt and freshwater. Emerging in the Middle Miocene 12.5-8.8 Million Years ago, there are 13 currently known species alive today, of which 2 are entirely adapted to life exclusively in saltwater. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2276185/ https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7271888/ However, Lutrinae diversity was far higher globally during the Pliocene-Early Holocene than in the present. This diversity peaked during the late Pleistocene, with at least 5 species found only in Mediterranean. Even species still alive today were not only around by this time but coexisted with these unique Pleistocene-Holocene otter species. For others, these Pleistocene-Holocene unique otters were the direct ancestors of several modern otter species. By the beginning of the Holocene, this diversity dropped dramatically due to Human overexploitation and climate change that occurred between the Pleistocene and Holocene. Modern Otter diversity has also declined in more recent times due to continued overhunting which especially plagued North American Otters during the California “Fur” Rush of the 1700s-early 1900s and the effects of Human induced Climate Change since the Industrial Revolution. Both still plague many Otter species today. It is only because of global Conservation efforts that some of the most endangered Otter species today have a fighting chance at survival. Here's a list of all the currently known unique Otter (Lutrinae) genera and species of the late Pleistocene-Early (to part late) Holocene (2.58-0.012 Million Years ago) which can hopefully demonstrate the diversity of these magnificent animals during this time. Let me know if I forgot any examples. Europe Sardinia-Corsica Megalenhydris barbaricina (Lutrinae) (late Pleistocene-early Holocene, 2.588-0.0117 Million Years ago) (grew up to 2.5 meters (8.2 feet) in length) Sardolutra ichnusae (Lutrinae) (late Pleistocene-early Holocene, 2.588-0.0117 Million Years ago) (grew up to 1 meter (3.3 feet) in length) Algarolutra majori (Lutrinae) (late Pleistocene-early Holocene, 2.588-0.0117 Million Years ago) (grew up to 1 meter (3.3 feet) in length) Lutra castiglionis (Lutrinae) (Pleistocene, 0.774-0.129 Million Years ago) (grew up to 1 meter (3.3 feet) in length) Sicily Lutraeximia trinacriae (Lutrinae) (late Pleistocene-early Holocene, 2.588-0.0117 Million Years ago) (grew up to 1 meter (3.3 feet) in length) Malta Nesolutra euxena (Lutrinae) (late Pleistocene-early Holocene, 2.588-0.0117 Million Years ago) (grew up to 1 meter (3.3 feet) in length) Crete Lutrogale cretensis (Lutrinae) (late Pleistocene-early Holocene, 0.129-0.0117 Million Years ago) (grew up to 1 meter (3.3 feet) in length) Mainland Europe Lutra simplicidens (Lutrinae) (Pleistocene, 0.774 - 0.129 Million Years ago) (grew up to 1 meter (3.3 feet) in length) https://paleobiodb.org/classic/basicCollectionSearch?collection_no=36206&is_real_user=1 Lutra bressana (Lutrinae) (late Pleistocene-early Holocene, 2.588-0.0117 Million Years ago) (grew up to 1 meter (3.3 feet) in length) Cyrnaonyx antiqua (Lutrinae) (Pleistocene, 0.774 - 0.129 Million Years ago) (grew up to 1 meter (3.3 feet) in length) Great Britain Enhydra reevei (Lutrinae) (late Pliocene-early Holocene, 3.6-0.781 Million Years ago) (grew up to 1.2-1.5 meters (3.93-4.92 feet) in length) https://paleobiodb.org/classic/basicCollectionSearch?collection_no=166097&is_real_user=1 Asia Indonesia Lutrogale palaeoleptonyx (Lutrinae) (late Pleistocene-early Holocene, 2.588-0.781 Million Years ago) (grew up to 1 meter (3.3 feet) in length) https://paleobiodb.org/classic/basicCollectionSearch?collection_no=93522&is_real_user=1 https://www.science.smith.edu/departments/Biology/VHAYSSEN/msi/pdf/i1545-1410-786-1-1.pdf North America Mainland North America Satherium piscinarium (Lutrinae) (late Pliocene-early Holocene, 5.3-0.3 Million Years ago) (grew up to 1.8 meters (5.90 feet) in length) https://paleobiodb.org/classic/basicCollectionSearch?collection_no=20308&is_real_user=1 Enhydra macrodonta (Lutrinae) (late Pleistocene-early Holocene, 1.8-0.012 Million Years ago) (grew up to 1.2-1.5 meters (3.93-4.92 feet) in length) https://paleobiodb.org/classic/basicCollectionSearch?collection_no=84881&is_real_user=1 South America Mainland South America Unnamed Pteronura sp. (Lutrinae) (late Pleistocene-early Holocene, 0.129-0.0117 Million Years ago) (grew up to 1.8 meters (5.90 feet) in length) (Note: The report describing the Unnamed Argentina Pteronura sp. fossil specimens describes them as belonging to the Pleistocene individual of the still extant species Pteronura brasiliensis, but the reports details about the larger size of the remains compared to the current known size range of Pteronura brasiliensis and unique features in the Argentina specimens skull points to the likely possibility that the Argentina specimen is from a new unnamed Pteronura sp.) https://ri.conicet.gov.ar/bitstream/handle/11336/80190/CONICET_Digital_Nro.c78ed830-e93e-4ecc-b379-84e1d32b96ac_A.pdf?sequence=2&isAllowed=y Hope you all find this helpful!!!
  3. As a freshmen in College, I did a little extra credit report for my geology class about a controversial topic - Tyrannosauroidea diversity in the Southern Hemisphere during the Jurassic-Early Late Cretaceous periods. I was quite surprised at the amount of specimens I found. This diversity likely was the result of an early spread of the early tyrannosaur group Pantyrannosauria into Africa, Eurasia, and North America during the Jurassic and diversified once the land connecting these continents spread out more. Most of these species lived during the Early Cretaceous, though one or two exceptions might have lasted into the Early Late Cretaceous. I've created a list of known of the species and specimens which I would like to share on the forum (let me if there are any examples I'm missing or should add): South America Santanaraptor (Romualdo Member of the Santana Formation) (Early Albian, Cretaceous period 112.6-109.0 million years ago) Specimen: MN 4802-V (partial skeleton) http://www.fossilworks.org/cgi-bin/bridge.pl?a=collectionSearch&collection_no=67712 Tyrannosauroidea indet. (Rio do Peixe Group of the Sousa Formation) (Berriasian to the Berriasian, Cretaceous period 145.5-130.0 million years ago) Specimen: NA http://www.fossilworks.org/cgi-bin/bridge.pl?a=collectionSearch&collection_no=58791 https://www.researchgate.net/publication/309717524_As_localidades_com_rastros_fosseis_de_Tetrapodes_na_America_Latina Tyrannosauroidea indet. (Serra da Galga Member of Marília Formation) (Late Maastrichtian, Cretaceous Period, 70.0-66.0 million years ago) Specimen: CPP 449 (partial tooth) https://www.researchgate.net/publication/270524259_Theropod_teeth_from_the_Marilia_Formation_late_Maastrichtian_at_the_paleontological_site_of_Peiropolis_in_Minas_Gerais_State_Brazil (above paper initially described specimen, identification as possible Tyrannosauroidea in science direct paper) https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0031018220303151 Africa (Madagascar) Tyrannosauroidea indet. (Isalo Illb Formation) (Bathonian, Jurassic period 167.7-164.7 million years ago) Specimen: MSNM V5819 (partial tooth) http://www.fossilworks.org/cgi-bin/bridge.pl?a=collectionSearch&collection_no=55391 https://www.researchgate.net/publication/257651210_First_description_of_theropod_remains_from_the_Middle_Jurassic_Bathonian_of_Madagascar Australia Timimus hermani (Otway Group of Eumeralla Formation) (Late Aptian, Cretaceous period 122.5-109.0 million years ago) Specimens: NMV P186303 (limb: left femur), NMV P186323 (limb: left femur of juvenile individual), QM F34621 (Pedal phalanx III-1) http://www.paleofile.com/Dinosaurs/Theropods/Timimus.asp http://www.fossilworks.org/cgi-bin/bridge.pl?a=taxonInfo&taxon_no=57099 Tyrannosauroidea indet. (Otway Group of Eumeralla Formation) (Late Aptian, Cretaceous period 110.0 million years ago) Specimen: NMV P186069 (Pubis bone) Possible Specimen: ?NMV P186046 (Pubis bone) https://www.researchgate.net/publication/42589187_A_Southern_Tyrant_Reptile https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2010/03/100325143045.htm
  4. Hi everyone, I recently stumbled across this and have been discussing the details with the seller. He called them Mastodon Molars, which they certainly appear to be, but the weird part is where he says they were found. Apparently they were found on the border of Columbia and Ecuador. I googled South American Mastodon and it came up with a lot of stuff on Gomphotheres and now I'm really excited but know next to nothing about Gomphotheres outside of them being a subgroup of Mastodons with funny faces. Here's the pics he sent me, can anyone give me some insight on these?
  5. Here I begin on this journey of identification! Thank you all for the kind welcomes! After looking through some of the resources on this site, I've come to wonder if this might be a Crustacean of some kind. This comes from my great-grandfather's collection, collected somewhere along the coast of South America in the 1940's. There is a dried (animal?) inside. All photos where taken in natural light.
  6. Hello to all guys!!!, I would like to ask again for help in the ID of some teeth. I´ve been searching in a local university's museum for teeth of the original strata (Upper Paleocene), and I have found a very interesting set of boxes containing a bunch of different teeth, all labeled as "Scapanorhynchus sp.", maybe existing a missidentification. The question would be if any of you guys can ID the pieces and how to differentiate the Scapanorhynchus sp. from Striatolamia striata or Sylvestrilamia teretidens, the options I´m leaning for the ID of the teeth. I would also like to check if you guys @will stevenson , @MarcoSr or @bthemoose have any info about it. You guys are awesome!! The ruler is a 1mm step grid, and I'll try to order them from anterior to posterior (I am aware that each one can be of different taxa), all of them have a stronger or weaker folded surface in lingual side. Any help or info is welcome, thanks guys!!! and greetings from Chile. 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) 10) 11) 12) Finally, this one has the weakest folding:
  7. paleoflor

    Araucaria mirabilis

    Old collection specimen. See this Wikipedia page for more information on Araucaria mirabilis from the Jurassic of the Cerro Cuadrado Petrified Forest, Argentina.
  8. Hello to all of you guys, a couple of weeks before i asked for help in relation with some shark teeth, and the help indeed was very nice! A couple days before i was back in field trip and found some more teeth from the same strata, and would need your help for the correct ID (hopefully at species or genus level), you guys are awesome!!! Here´s the list of the fossils (each step of the ruler is 2mm): 1) A tiny tooth with very small roots and 3 denticles, the central and main one is triangular and very oblicuous 2) A tooth with very triangular cusplets and with small and shorts ridges in the base of the main denticle (wich is slightly curved), the roots are slightly asymmetrical 3) A half of tooth with triangular cusplets and with a slight triangular depression in the base of the main denticle (wich is slightly curved) 4) A (i think so) stingray tail fossill 5) A tooth that i dont know what could be (the tip is very smooth and the roots have a wood-like texture) 6) A tooth that i think is from Premontreia subulidens, but im not 100% sure 7) Something that i dont know what it is, looks like some kind of skin or membrane 8) A tooth similar in color and root texture that number 5, but with only 1 denticle 9) A tooth with very triangular cusplets and low developed roots 10) A tooth with maybe similar look about Carcharias teretidens? but with slightly longer lateral denticles 11) A tooth with aparently only one denticle, and asymmetrical roots (the rightest part of the right root is easly confused with the sandstone matrix) 12) A tooth with two denticles, striae in the lingual face, triangular depression in the base of the main denticle and the base of the crown is much more prominent that the diameter of the main denticle, might be reworked because is from a level stratigraphically higher. Finally, as a bonus track, here it is a vert. that i found in the same field trip:
  9. Hello again to all of you guys , I´m in a huge need oh help to ID some mollusks of south central Chile. Currently these are storaged in the vault of a local university. I know taht the fossils in the images are not in the best conditions, but the outcrop itself sadly has been seriously reworked by a bulldozer machinery (they may be a little bit flattened). At least to a family or genus level ID should be nice considering how they actually are. The beds should be of the Miocene to Pliocene. But also theres a very minor chance of being from the middle to upper Eocene. The larger axis of each cabinet is around the size of a fist. Here the photos: Thanks again and greetings from Chile!!!
  10. Hello to all of you guys, I´m a newbie to the forum, so i would like to before anything, say hi to everyone here And with that already said, i would need some help with the identification of some fossils of Elasmobranchii, that I have seen near the coast of south central Chile. The fossils are 2 teeth and something else that I´m unable to ID correctly (I think maybe a vertebra? or some weird gastropod). The age of the sandstone that contains these should be around the Upper Paleocene. The fisrt tooth I think is from some (I think) sand tiger shark (something near Carcharias), and correspond to an upper lateral or near upper posterior position. My best shots right now around this are some sp. of Carcharias, Brachycarcharias, and even Striatolamia but for me it would not be weird if its something else. Here the photos (each segment of the scale is a milimeter): And the second one is, for me, some lateral tooth of a Paraorthocodus, but not sure about the sp. of it. Should be somewhere near P. eocaenus or P. clarkii?. Here the images: Finally, the misterious one. Here the photo: thanks for reading, and help would be very nice (sorry if my english is not the best)
  11. Hi all, some of you may remember a while back I took a trip to Villa de Leyva to see the Kronosaurus and have a little go at finding some fossils myself. The town is renowned for its ammonites and other fossils, and you can find them in the streets and walls all over. I've included some pictures of these 'load bearing' ammonites here and the main square. The first time around I was close, finding a tiny imprint of an ammonite in a round nodule. This got me excited but I was ultimately left disappointed. This second trip was a total departure and more successful than I could have hoped for. After four hours of searching in the blazing sun, I finally found the spot i'd been looking for. More details below.
  12. Troodon

    New Abelisaurid from Argentina

    Looks like Abelisaurid week in south america A new Abelisaurid is described here from the late Cretaceous of Argentina : Niebla antiqua For those collectors that have abelisaurid teeth from Argentina this species just adds to the complexity in trying to identify isolated teeth unfortunately its paywalled https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0895981120304582 Got some better photos
  13. Oxytropidoceras

    South America’s Missing Megafauna

    What Happened to South America’s Missing Mega-Mammals, Trilobites, New York Times. Related papers Marshall, L.G., 1988. Land mammals and the Great American interchange. American Scientist, 76(4), pp.380-388. MacFadden, B.J., Hulbert, R.C. and Baskin, J.A., 2007. Revised age of the late Neogene terror bird (Titanis) in North America during the Great American Interchange. Geology, 35(2), pp.123-126. Dr. Richard C. Hulbert - More papers Bruce J. MacFadden - More papers Baskin, J.A. and Thomas, R.G., 2007. South Texas and the Great American interchange. Gulf Coast Association of Geological Socities. 57, pp. 37-45. Yours, Paul H.
  14. Dear Experts and Collectors- I am new to your group and I have limited experience with fossils. I have a large number of fossils I have inherited recently and am trying to get identification of the fossils- I have been advised that most of these are from South America. Can someone help with identification and other relevant information? I can also send additional photos if needed. The coin in the photos measures 1.5cm in diameter for scale. This is just a small sampling of the larger collection and I thought I could start with these. Thanks, Scott fossil 1.jfif fossil 2.jfif fossil 3.jfif fossil 4.jfif fossil 5.jfif fossil 6a & 6b.jfif
  15. Hello, Folks, New to the Forum. I am currently going through the collection in an attempt to systematise it and catalogue it properly before I pop my clogs. I came across this ammonite which I purchased online some time ago. All it had with it was South America Cretaceous, which is a start, I guess. Can anyone please help with possible provenance and id? It appears to be preserved in some sort of black and white calcite, and it occurred to me that it might be from Peru, but I could not find anything like it in any searches. I will attempt to describe it - apologies for any poor use of nomenclature. It has a series of well-defined ribs which bifurcate before they cross the venter. There is no keel and there appear to be four maybe five constrictions per whorl. There are occasional secondary ribs which fade out about a third of the way down the flank. I hope the photos are of more help. Any help much appreciated. Regards, Hamish
  16. DirtyHarry

    Fossil? Please help

    Hi everyone, this is another find from south america. Does it look like a fossil? In one of the pictures there is a protuberance which makes me think so but I am no expert. Thank you all for your insights,
  17. Interesting discovery of a new theropod in South America: Overoraptor Chimentoi. Thought to be closely related to 'Rahonavis' from Madagascar; “...........would indicate that Overoraptor chimentoi and Rahonavis could form a new group of paravian runners, which would be closer to the birds than known raptor families.” http://www.sci-news.com/paleontology/overoraptor-chimentoi-08517.html
  18. Looks like scientists from Buenos Aires have discovered the remains of a new species of megaraptor from the late Cretaceous. Discovered in the southwest province of Santa Cruz. http://www.ctys.com.ar/index.php?idPage=20&idArticulo=4011
  19. DPS Ammonite

    Monkeys arrived to S America by Raft

    Here is an interesting article that suggests that monkeys arrived to the New World via raft from Africa. A very ironic photo occurs right below the article title. Either the editor was not paying attention or they were having some fun. https://www.cnn.com/2020/04/09/world/prehistoric-monkeys-crossed-atlantic-scn/index.html
  20. Hello, this was from my grandfather, and I was never able to figure out what it really is. It was found in São Gabriel, Rio Grande do Sul, to the extreme south of Brazil. I particularly think this has an organic appearance, which is why I came to ask for help identifying what might be (I apologize for the quality of the photos and the macro) Size: 15cm x 9,5 cm
  21. These are among the first comma shrimp fossils from 97 million years ago. I didn't even know comma shrimp were a thing. They also found some crabs in this Northern South America site. https://m.phys.org/news/2019-11-world-oldest-comma-shrimp.html
  22. Macrophyseter

    DKNC-002 Carcharodon carcharias (Sacaco)

    From the album: Elasmobranchs

    TFF DKNC-002 Tooth height is ≈1-3/8 inches (3.5 cm)

    © David Kn.

  23. alexhofstetter

    Fish from Brazil

    Hi. Brand new here. Over 20 years ago I had a Chinese business colleague who traveled regularly to Brazil. He showed me a beautiful piece once when I was visiting him. A while later he brought me this fossil as a gift. I’ve always loved it but know very little about it. I’m sure this is familiar to you guys. Anything you can tell me about it would be deeply appreciated
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