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Donetsk's fossil sites

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RomanK

The Best Personal Finds From 2013

Lepidodendrons

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Lepidophloios laricinus

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Seed ferns (Cyclopteris, Neuropteris, Macroneuropteris, Mariopteris, Mixoneura, seed fern rachis impression, seed fern male fructification)

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Bothrodendrons

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Sigillaria

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Calamites (Calamostachys, Macrostachya, Asterophyllites)

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Cordaicarpus (Cordaites seed)

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Dicranophyllum

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Jurassic (Bothonian) petwood

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Euproops danae

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Trigonia Myophorella

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to be continued...

RomanK

Lepidodendrids

Asolanus camptotaenia

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Lepidophloios acerosus – new species in my collection.

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Halonia tortuosa - specific Lepidophloios stem area where halonial shoots are placed.

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Lepidostrobus - Lepidodendron cone

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Lepidodendron dichotomum - rare species.

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Lepidodendron aculeatum – leaf cushion mix (released at the appropriate time).

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Old (matured) bark of Lepidodendron aculeatum.

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Sigillariostrobus - Sigillaria spore cone - new in my collection.

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Bothrodendron minutifolium stem fragment with two attached branches. You can see the leaf scars at the transition area from stem to the branch (base of the branch).

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Cordaites

Compressed leaf print

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Coated by Azurite and Malachite (Permian).

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Coniferous

Dicranophyllum gallicum - new in my collection

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RomanK

I wouldn't say last year was failed. I have found some new species and several exapmles of quite good preservartion to add in my collection. And some of that finds forced me to learn books deeply. All last year finds I systemized according to their genus and all are Carboniferous except coated Cordaites leaves.

Calamites

Calamostachys - spore cones.

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Calamites (Crucicalamites) multiramis - quite rare find.

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Calamites Goepperti - the best Calamites bark I've found (Calamophyllites)

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Palaeostachya

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Calamites root

Pinnularia columnaris (Artis )

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Ferns

Alloiopteris erosa - from Pecopterids (thanks Juan Carlos from Madrid who helped me to ID).

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Palmatopteris furcata - from Sphenopterids.

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Psaronius – arborescent fern with Pecopteris type leaves.

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Seed ferns

Alethopteris lonchitica

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Macroneuropteris Scheuchzeri – you can see the same petternation on the central vien of the pinnae as at the rachis.

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Mariopteris muricata

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Mixoneura – from Odontopterids, ID help from Jeanphilippe Dudziak, French forum.

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Neuropteris (rachis) – very unusual pettern.

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RomanK

Lepidophloios Bark Understanding

All paleobotany amateur know that Lepidophloios leaf cushion is broader then long . That is the main distinguishing feature of Lepidophloios comparing with Lepidodendron which has longer then broad leaf cusion, i.e. vice versa.

Tangential cross scheme to distinguish Lepidodendron from Lepidoploios.

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If you look at any paleobotany book you can see the Lepidophloios leaf cushion scheme consist of two nominal area - leaf scar (at the bottom) and remaining part of the leaf cushion above the leaf scar. For instanse, illustration from Taylor and Taylor Paleobotany-The Biology and Evolution of Fossil Plants 2nd ed. Because I found time to time specimens which is different from that leaf cushion morphology I started to search any explanation in different Internet publications and discovered very interesting article by B.A. Thomas - Epidermal studies in the interpretation of Lepidophloios species.

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Thomas distinguished 5 types (species) of Lepidophloios leaf cushions as you can see at the pictures below which are a bit converted in computer Thomas' schemes in real.

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As could be seen above there were in Carboniferous not only L. laricinus but some others as well. It's difficult sometimes to distinguish Lepidoploios from Lepidodendron. Especially bearing in mind that "Lepidophloios may also have vertically elongate or equidimensional cushions at some developmental stages" (quote from DiMishele).

I have got some specimens which can be ID as Lepidophloios acerosus with three nominal area (above, beneath and leaf scar as it).

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But this one you can make a mush easily, because it is a Lepidodendron.

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It could be noted the infrafoliar parichnos under the leaf scar at that picture.

Next specimen is from the Kidston collection and positioned there as a Lepidophloios, but in the fact that is a Lepidodendron, probably L. mannebachense like at my specimen next to that one.

Kidston

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RK specimen

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Lepidophloios acerosus bigger picture

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RomanK

Seed Fern Leaves In My Collection

To start I quote some brief information from the Wiki about pteridosperms.

The term Pteridospermatophyta (or "seed ferns") refers to several distinct groups of extinct seed-bearing plants. The oldest fossil evidence of plants of this type is of late Devonian age, and they flourished particularly during the Carboniferous and Permian periods. Pteridosperms declined during the Mesozoic Era and had mostly disappeared by the end of the Cretaceous Period.

Nowadays, four orders of Palaeozoic seed plants tend to be referred to as pteridosperms: Medullosales, Lyginopteridales, Callistophytales and Peltaspermales.

I have the specimens for first two ones only.

So, go ahead. First group

Medullosales - Neuropteris, Alethopteris, Odontopteris, Reticulopteris, Cyclopteris.

Most medullosaleans were small to medium sized trees. The largest were probably the trees with Alethopteris fronds - these fronds could be at least 7 metres long and the trees were perhaps up to 10 metres tall. Especially in Moscovian times, many medullosaleans were rather smaller trees with fronds only about 2 metres long, and apparently growing in dense, mutually supporting stands. During Kasimovian and Gzhelian times there were also non-arboreal forms with smaller fronds (e.g. Odontopteris) that were probably scrambling or possibly climbing plants.

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Neuropteris and Cyclopteris

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Alethopteris

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Odontopteris

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Reticulopteris

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Second group

Lyginopteridales - includ Lyginopteris, Eusphenopteris, Diplothmema, Palmatopteris, Karinopteris, Mariopteris.

In most cases the amount of secondary wood was limited suggesting they were stems of scrambling or climbing plants. The stele is surrounded by a zone of cortex, which in many genera contains bands of fibrous tissue. This fibrous tissue often results in distinctive markings on the surface of the stems even when preserved as adpressions and can help with their generic identification: Lyginopteris for instance shows a mesh-shaped patterning on the surface of the stems.

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Mariopteris

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RomanK

Donetsk's Fossil Sites

I have posted lot of material main part of which I found on the city's coal heaps. We've got some 150 heaps just inside city. We have nevertheless quite beautiful city's sites with ponds and green areas.

View from on of the city's heap toward the Donbass Arena (new soccer stadium)

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Views on the city from the heaps

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Here is some heap views

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More Donetsk coal heaps from my Facebook entry

A couple of burning heap tops

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All heaps placement you can see at the website http://donmaps.org.ua/ (to get the coal heaps layer press 1 then 2 button from the pic)

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Our heaps (or fossil sites if you want) have not only great view but contained lot of plant fossils. Some examples below:

Site No1

View and fossil hunted there

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1. Alethopteris lonchitica, 2. Calamites suckovii, 3. Calamites Goepperti, 4. Calamostachys, 5. Cordaicladus, 6. Cordaicarpus, 7. Lepidodebdron on Cordaites leaves background, 8. Lepidodendron lycopodioides, 9. Trigonocarpuses on the matrix, 10. Sigillaria davreuxi, 11. Sigillaria mamillaris, 12. Siryngodendron, 13. Stigmaria, 14. Trigonocarpus close-up, 15. Lycopsid stem.

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Site No2

Views

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Fossils from this site: 1.Calamites suckovii node, 2. Calamostachys, 3. Cyclopteris, 4. Halonia tortuosa, 5. Lepidodendron sp., 6. Lepidodendron volkmannianum, 7. Lepidodendron sp., 8. Sigillaria sp., 9. Sigillaria walchi, 10. Halonia, 11. Sigillaria principis, 12. Sigillaria scutellata, 13. Sigillaria+Lepidodendron.

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Site No3

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1. Calamites pith cast in matrix, 2. Annularia, 3. Asolanus camtotaenia, 4. Stigmaria ficoides, 5. Lepidodendron veltheimi, 6. Neuropteris branches, 7. Stem (club moss?), 8. Calamites node, 9. Annularia, 10. Mariopteris, 11. Annularia branch.

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Site No4

Views

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Fossils

1. Demetria amadoca(?), 2. Bothrodendron leaf scar, 3. Neuropteris, 4-5. Lepidodendron, 6. Bothrodendron stem fragment, 7-10. Neuropteris. 11. Asolanus.

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Site No5

View

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Fossils

1. Alethopteris, 2. Sphenophyllum, 3. Lepidodendron aculeatum, 4. Halonia, 5-7. Lepidodendron, 8. Mariopteris, 9. Ulodendron majus, 10. Bothrodendron minutifolium.

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Site No6

View

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Fossils

1-3. Odontopteris, 4-5. Reticulopteris munsteri.

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Site No7

View

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Burning top

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Fossils

1-3. Alethopteris, 4-6. Lepidodendron, 7. Siryngodendron, 8. Calamites.

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Site No8

View

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Fossils

1-3. Alethopteris, 4-7 Calamites, 8-9 Calamostachys, 10 Lepidodendron, 11 Herbal plant, 12 Cyclopteris, 13 Siillaria, 14-15 Mariopteris, 16 Mixoneura, 17 Palmatopteris furcata, 18 Palaeostachya 19 Calamites (Crucicalamites) multiramis 20 Calamites goepperti

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More fossil photos from Donbass you can see at the link1and link2

My TFF gallery link

You can also look at my fossil plant posters here

So, welcome to Donetsk for fossil hunting trip!

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