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Found 883 results

  1. Updated 11/7/17 Although a lot of this has already been posted on a number of topics, I thought consolidation it might prove useful with some additional information. If you're planning to purchase theropod teeth from Morocco's Kem Kem Beds or already have some in your collection check this out. Moroccan theropods are poorly understood and not a lot has been published. Very few articulated skeletons have been found and most are partial and without a skull. There is also lots of mis-information, mostly unintentional, from some dealers but especially online auction sites. Unfortunately these are the most misidentified commercially sold dinosaur fossil around. Please post your interest here on the forum before you buy. Background: The Kem Kem Beds also known as the ‘‘Continental Intercalaire’’ or "Continental Red Beds" is composed of three formations: Akrabou, Aoufous and Ifezouane Formation. The latter two are the dinosaur producing sediments with the Ifezouane being the principal one. They are Cenomanian in age. The attached drawing gives a representation how they lay. The distribution of the different groups of fossils in the Ifezouane Formation can been see in the pie chart below. Dinosaurs make up a small percentage of what is collected. So first lets identify what is known to the best of my knowledge. Theropods that have been described across North Africa (focus on large bodied theropods) Theropods that have been described in Kem Kem: (family level) Spinosaurus aegyptiacus * (Spinosaurid) *Some paleontologist believe this species is unique to Egypt and Kem Kem material should be identified as Spinosauid indet. Lots of questions exist over Ibrahim (2014) diagnosis which validated this species. Carcharodontosaurus saharicus (Carcharodontosaurid) Deltadromeus agilis (Neovenatorid) Sigilmassasaurus brevicollis (Spinosaurid) Sauroniops pachytholus (Carcharodontosaurid) Theropods that have not been described from the Kem Kem but isolated teeth exist and have been reflected in scientific papers: Dromaeosaurid sp.? Hendrickx suggested these are actually Noasaurid indet. Abelisaurid indet. Theropod teeth that are sold commercially but no scientific evidence yet to link them to the Kem Kem: Abelisaurus sp. (Not described from North Africa) Rugops sp. (Only described from Niger) Bahariasaurus sp. (Only described from Egypt) Elaphrosaurus sp. (From Jurassic of Tanzania) So what is being sold and what are the issues? Spinosaurid Teeth are well understood by both collector and dealers, see photo. Issues are typically associated with restoration and compositing a larger tooth from multiple teeth. Teeth with matrix attached to them are suspect for restoration so be careful. At least two species of Spinosaurids exits and it's currently impossible to determine if they are Spinosaurus or Sigilmassasaurus or Undescribed taxon. Conflicting taxonomic hypotheses have been proposed. Ibrahim at al (2014) suggest that all specimens found belong to Spinosaurus aegyptiacus. Evers et al (2015) regard Spinosaurus maroccanus and Sigiilmassaurus brevicollis as belonging to the same taxon Sigiilmassaurus brevicollis which is also supported by Hendrickx et al (2016). Ever at al (2015) also described additional specimens from a second unnamed Spinosaurid. Bottom line we do not have enough specimens to eliminate ontogenetic or sexual dimorphism differences and accurately describe Spinosaurids in the Kem Kem. So these teeth are best identified as: Spinosaurid indet. Carcharodontosaurid Teeth, those that are compressed and blade like, first photo. Wrinkles by the distal carina are diagnostic to this species. Mesial teeth are fat, slender and look very different (D shaped) (next three photos). Two species currently are described Carcharodontosaurus saharicus and Sauroniops pachytholus and its impossible to differentiate teeth between these taxons. Similiar to the Spinosaurid debate one exists with these two species and if Sauroniops is valid. Similiar to Spinosaurids the big issue is having enough specimens to make a proper determination in what exists.. For these reasons best identified as : Carcharodontosaurid indet. Theropod indet. There are also intermediate size teeth (1 1/2") that are being sold as Deltadromeus or another theropod. I believe these could be Deltadromeus teeth but until we see scientific evidence this morphology of tooth should be identified as Theropod indet. No skull was found with the holotype or in any other discoveries so we do not know what they look like. Carcharodontosaurid serrations Theropod indet. Dromaeosaurid: Teeth being sold as Dromaeosaurus are most likely misidentified, so here is what to look for. There are a few morphologies floating around but nothing as been formally described. Teeth are typically small around 1/2" (1.2cm) to over 1" (2.5cm) One morphology of these teeth are suggested by Hendrickx to be from a Noasaurid dinosaur. Although you see many sellers using the word Raptor next to what they are offering it's unknown if there is a true raptor in the Kem Kem. Abelisaurids are not raptors This figure identifies a study of isolated teeth by Richter (2015) and identifies two morphologies (A to D) and (E to G) as Dromaeosaurid. Mesial and distal carinae show a distinct density difference in serrations. The tip of the tooth extends past the base. On morph E/F a faint but visible constriction between crown and root is visible. The later form suggested by some paleontologists is most similiar to troodontids. Morph variant 3 that I have in my collection but not seen in any papers Mesial and distal carinae range show a distinct difference. A distinct twist to the mesial carina. Abelisaurid indet. With new discoveries we can put a real species name to these teeth but currently they are indeterminate. These are easily identifiable but can easily be misidentified with certain morphologies of Dromaeosaurid teeth. The teeth are very compressed, the cross-section is oval at the base, the mesial side is strongly curved and the distal side is almost straight to the base of the tooth, see red lines in the photo. Mesial and distal carinae range from only a slight to a distinct difference. The only morphological feature that discriminates a tooth of a dromaeosaurid from that of an abelisaurid is the unique mesial and distal curvature profile of the abelisaurid crown. These teeth could belong to Rugops since it's an Abelisaurid but we have no scientific information to support that claim and should be identified as Abelisaurid indet. Premaxillary Bottom Line: There are NO theropod teeth in the Kem Kem Beds that you can currently definitively assign to a Genus to, no less a Species all should be identified to a family level..
  2. Moroccan trilobite identification

    Recently picked up some un-prepared trilobites while in morocco there is some Cambrian trilobites pictured here which have not had the full prep done yet so I understand some might not be fully identifiable. Thanks Matt
  3. A recent interpretation of the fossil remains Spinosaurus aegyptiacus proposed that it was specially adapted for a semi-aquatic mode of life—a first for any predatory dinosaur. To test some aspects of this suggestion this study developed a three-dimensional, digital model of the animal that incorporates regional density variations, lungs and air sacs, and the flotation potential of the model was investigated using specially written software. It was found that Spinosaurus would have been able to float with its head clear of the water surface, although it was laterally unstable and would tend to roll onto its side. The conclusion is that Spinosaurus was not highly specialized for a semi-aquatic mode of life. Furthermore, the floating characteristics of the Spinosaurus model were similar to those of models of other predatory dinosaurs, indicating that there was nothing special about the buoyant characteristics of this animal, and that other theropods could have successfully taken to water to the same degree as well. So Spinosaurus may have been specialized for a shoreline or shallow water mode of life, but would still have been a competent terrestrial animal. Interesting paper, very reputable and a big deal considering the source, The Royal Tyrrell Museum. Newspaper Article: Royal Tyrrell Research Blows Swimming Dinosaur out of the water https://calgaryherald.com/news/local-news/royal-tyrrell-research-blows-swimming-dinosaur-theory-out-of-the-water https://peerj.com/articles/5409/ Henderson DM. (2018) A buoyancy, balance and stability challenge to the hypothesis of a semi-aquatic Spinosaurus Stromer, 1915 (Dinosauria: Theropoda)PeerJ 6:e5409 https://doi.org/10.7717/peerj.5409
  4. I've been offered this partial jaw. It's not the best example in the whole world, but it does have some in-situ teeth. Does anyone have any thoughts on it? I believe that is actually Plesi and not some obscure Moroccan crocodile, but let me know if it's something else! I assume Elasmosaurus of some kind? The teeth look OK to me, I can't see any obvious sign of tampering, although I am always suspicious that one or two could have been added. No actual signs of it though. Any thoughts would be welcomed. My understanding is that these are extremely rare. But still, rarity's not everything. Apologies for the less-than-great pictures.
  5. Mosasaur skull/jaw elements question

    I have been offered this mosasaur jaw section, and am looking for some information on what parts may actually be here. There are two sections of jaw (the one on top very thin, which makes me wonder if it may be a pterygoid jaw?), although the bones on the right confuse me - are they part of the back of the skull? I'm not sure quite what to make of it, since it's not what you normally see. Based on this picture (the only one I have) I would say that the teeth have been butchered, but this blurry photo is all I have to go on. Any comments on the piece would be welcomes. I shall tag @LordTrilobite since he is very good at these things!
  6. Morocco fossil

    Anyone know about this fossil? It's from Khouribga, morocco marine formation Size: 2.5cm
  7. Some more Moroccan fossil listings. Wondering if any are worth looking into. Trying to properly ID. #1 Partial unidentified dino limb bone or Croc?
  8. Marrakech Morocco last week

    I went last week to visit this stunning city of Morocco,and of course I had a look in the fossils shops J At first an official shop,with something extremely rare,prices!but looks only fakes sorry(perhaps the Mamites was good)
  9. Hi, are these two fossils from Morocco genuine? Thanks.
  10. Picked this up at a show over the weekend and was wondering exactly what it is and if its real. Is it an Endochus jaw? The host rock is about 7 inches long and the logest jaw piece is about 4 inches long. Thanks! Eric
  11. Abelisaurid Premax Tooth

    A premaxillary tooth of an Abelisaurid.
  12. Identifying a Pterosaur claw?

    Hi, This one has me stumped with the id, is this a Pterosaur claw or something else like a possible theropod claw? It is from the kem kem and is 2cm long. Since i am clueless when it comes to identifying claws from different animals, which diagnostic features can help determine if it is pterosaur or not. Thanks.
  13. IDs please on Moroccan teeth

    Hi I got a small box of fossil off a lady dog walker in the village last year. I did try and get some IDs before but I was new and did not know anybody on the forum . They was her late husbands . She said he got them in the 1990s on holiday in Africa and the box was labelled Morocco . Please if I could have an ID to label them and what the maybe from. Thank you so much Bobby.
  14. Hey all, I recently picked up a mosasaur tooth, relatively large (2 inches) at a local rock and minerals store. It was for a great price, but from my standpoint it seems too good to be true. Some help here would be much appreciated
  15. This weeks round of red flags Recent listings offers a number of very long Spinosaur teeth at very low prices. Most of these have fake roots and more. Avoid and post here before you buy. A member just got taken last week so please be careful. Large rooted teeth are expensive. A finger bone is offered described from a Spinosaurus. I think its a carpal but we have no scientific evidence that this morphology is from a Spinosaur. Its a very nice indeterminate Theropod carpal. This bone is listed coming from a Carcharodontosaurus. We have no idea who is the owner of this bone, no associated foot material has been published for any large Kem Kem Theropod. Best identified as indeterminate Theropod. Lots of fake Dinosaur eggs continue to be listed. Please post interest before you buy. A pair of Aublysodon Premaxillary teeth offered for sale. Reminder this is no longer considered a valid species, they are best identified as Tyrannosaurid indet. Most likely Nanotyrannus.
  16. Moroccan Eocene shark teeth

    Hiya I got a bunch of Eocene shark teeth from Khouribga, Morocco and I've tried a tentative ID using the highly scientific tool of Google, but I'd like your opinions. The scale is in centimeters. First photo: Odontaspis sp. (substriata?), anterior to the left, lateral to the right Second photo: Striatolamna sp. (macrota?) Thanks in advance
  17. Mosasaur prep, jaw section

    PART 1, acquisition This piece was acquired via the "for sale" section of the Forum. The seller, @Fitch1979, Dries offered several jaw specimens, which were clearly superior to the mostly spurious Internet auction site examples. Dries provided some provenance on the fossil. It had resided in his family's private collection for over 26 years. It had been purchased at a gem and mineral show in Ghent from a collector who acquired the specimen in 1978. After a pleasant exchange with Dries, a bargain was struck and the specimen shipped on December 9, 2017. Since the piece was located in Belgium, arrival involved a seemingly interminable wait. Finally, the tracking indicated arrival at US Customs on December 29th. Then the real wait ensued. The tracking was not updated until January 22, 2018. At that time notice was given that the package had been turned over to the "postal operator." Curiously, it arrived on my SC doorstep that very day! It was a surprise to open the door and find the huge (shipping weight 28 lbs.) shipping box resting there. Here is the image posted to the Forum offering the fossil for sale. ...to be continued
  18. A very large Moroccan centrum is being offered for sale. Seller identifies it as a Carcharodontosaurus. In my opinion this looks more like a Sauropod with that very large pleurocoel in the lateral view. Not sure what is going on with that purplish looking material if its been added. Spinosaurus tail, caudal vertebra being offered for sale no mention of any repairs. The centrum does look like its from a Spinosaurid but the processes look composited. You can see the typical Moroccan matrix mix between those processss and centrum. Seller is advertising this as a Carcharodontosaurus toe bone. Identifying isolated toe bones to a species in the Kem Kem is very difficult not much is published that describes them. Its a nice bone buy it as an indeterminate Theropod. Lots of eggs are showing up for sale. Most are fake....this is just a reminder of that, please post interests here before you buy. I still see some dealers offering Rugops teeth for sale from the Kem Kem. Just a reminder that this species is only described from the Echkar Fm of Niger. Most of the teeth offered are Abelisaurid but are indeterminate from the Kem Kem until something is published. For fun saw this 4 figure listing, seller describes it as a petrified baby dinosaur skull with teeth, skin and brain matter coming out of the side of its mouth looks like an alien head to me.
  19. Hello everybody, as I mentioned in my Welcome Topic, I'm new to this whole topic but would like to start my own little fossile collection. In Europe (I live in Germany) there are a lot of sellers with teeth and bones from KemKem / Morocco since it's just over the mediterranean sea. So i thought that it would be the easiest way to start with the most generic fossils out there. Here are some teeth and a vertebra from Carchaodontosaurus and Spinosaurus that look interessting to me. Every item is described as not repaired or fabricated. With some of them I'm really not sure. They are from different sellers. I can't provide any more or better pictures. These are the only pictures available. Pictures are all from the different sellers. I cut away their names. Thank you so much for any information and help you can give me. Carcharodontosaurus Tooth #1, length 2.44 in Carcharodontosaurus Tooth #2, length 1.85 in Carcharodontosaurus Tooth #3, length 1.67 in Carcharodontosaurus Tooth #4, length 1.77 in Spinosaurus Tooth #1, length 3.10 in Spinosaurus Tooth #2, length 3.94 in Spinosaurid Vertebra, length 2.83 in I'm really not sure what to think about this one. Can anyone really tell if this is from a Spinosaurid or is it just some unidentified bone?
  20. Abelisauroid Vertebra

    5.5
  21. Moroccan small mystery

    Here is a link to an entry of a post in the "fossil preparation" topic. I was hoping to get some opinions as to the ID of the mystery fragment cited; and reasoned this may be a more productive placement. Thanks for any help.
  22. A cool tail vertebra is being sold as the Diplodocoid Rebbachisaurus is the ID correct? Kem Kem Beds. Any resto or repair evident. Thank you
  23. A 3" Carcharodontosaurus Foot Claw is being offered for sale from the Kem Kem of Morocco by a pretty respected dealer. It looks pretty nice but is it identified correctly and repairs or restoration visible? Thank you.
  24. Hi, Here is the photos of a "Stromatolite Fossil from Morocco" that I just going to get from a seller, but after I read a post from another member, I am confused. A member named Ebo mentioned that this is not a real Stromatolite. How is the real Stromatolite Fossil looks like? I googled "Stromatolite Fossil from Morocco" and most of the photos looks similar to my photos.
  25. Hey everyone. i’m currently looking to buy some nice specimins that will be put on display. I know very little about triobites, other than that they look really good. I’m looking for a nice affordable specimin that will display nice. So if you have any other suggestions i’ll be happy to hear them! i found this online, and it states that it has had some repair work being hairline crack repair in the matrix, which i know is very common and i’m perfectly fine with it, but has the repairs been over done? It’s a Paralejuras trilobite, thanks!
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