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Found 125 results

  1. A mooooving picture

    Fabulous find this site AND this tooth in a present day Minnesota cow pasture on a receded and much eroded creek bank\bed. Love these unexpected treasures but am clueless as to possible identity or age. It's about an inch high and wide. Pics are taken on only option I have, a tablet so I apologize for quality but sure appreciate any thoughts or opinions.
  2. Texas Creekbed Finds

    Hi all, New to the forum. I'm a contemporary artist with a research based interest in Archaeology, fossils, geology, and the sort. Thought I'd introduce myself with a couple of recent finds I found pretty exciting. What really got my attention was this fossilized Bison tooth. I'm not sure how old, but judging from the petrification I'd say it's very old. There's also signs of a stylid, so I'm thinking M2 or M3 Bison tooth. I also cracked open a stone slab and found the faint plant impressions. I thought those were pretty beautiful. On the top left there's what appears to be a worked stone, possibly involved in arrow head making? Nice too meet you guys. L
  3. Horn Core and "Horn"

    From the album BONES

    "Horns" (sensu lato) are what bovids have on their heads; "horn" (sensu stricto) is the outer covering or sheath of keratinized skin on bovid horns. Keratin horn does not preserve as a fossil, except perhaps in permafrost. In bovids, horn cores are living bones (that is, they are vascularized and they grow). Horn (keratin) is not vascularized, though new keratin is laid down to keep up with bone growth. Bovid horns are not shed seasonally as with cervid antlers, nor is the keratin sheath shed annually as with the antilocaprid pronghorn antelope. Bone horn cores have internal channels and buttresses, and have no distinct margin between core and bone of the skull. The keratinized skin covering of the horn core is without interior channels or buttresses. The keratin wall tapers to a feather edge and usually shows growth rings on the exterior. (This image is best viewed by clicking on the "options" button on the upper right of this page => "view all sizes" => "large".)

    © &copyHarry Pristis 2015

  4. Sacrum - Animal Unknown

    My family has been recently exploring construction sites along with creeks and small rivers in Southwest Ohio and Northern Kentucky searching for interesting fossils, rocks, and anything else that catches our eye. My 5 year old son has sworn for almost 2 years now that he will grow up to be a paleontologist. While many other kids his age want to play with toys he wants to fossil hunt and metal detect. I am a scientist at heart so I love helping him and once I found this forum I promised him that I would ask some experts if they could help identify the amazing items we have found. The first is this sacrum we discovered in a Northern Kentucky creek. My initial research leads me to believe it could be from a bison, but I welcome any and all opinions so that we can learn more. Thank you!!!
  5. Need Help Id'ing Bones

    My son and I were at a creek nearby our home in Allen Co (NE Indiana) yesterday doing some rockhounding and panning, and I came across the big bone in the front of the picture just laying on the creek bank about 95% exposed. I suspected right off the bat that it wasn't anything wild of recent, given whitetail deer is the largest thing in this area and I've field dressed enough of those to know. I wanted to see if there was anything else and started digging behind the spot where it was laying and we found about 30 more bone fragments/pieces, including the almost full intact vertebrae pictured. This was all in a 1'x2' dig. Now, we had a record spring rainfall and this creek was out of its banks for more than a month this year, but we were finding bone fragments a foot into the bank and this was about 7' down from the top of the creek bank. If you're not familiar, this area was the Black Swamp area after the Wisconsin glacier, just until as recent as a few hundred years ago when they drained it off for farmland, and the original Great Lakes once had southern shoreline just about a mile from here. Boy, did the Native Americans love leaving their field points all along it. Anyways, I researched bones for comparison some last night and the closest that I could come up with was bison, or a stretch as Cervalces, the stag-moose. And I all but eliminated domestic cow and horse, but I could be wrong. Mastodon have been found in this county, but this seems way too small for that. No dinosaurs have ever been discovered in Indiana, to my knowledge. I'm hoping to get some answers to this, as we're planning on going back to dig more in the site this weekend. But I don't want to spend the time digging if it's some farmers missing cow from a hundred years ago. I can post additional pics/angles, if needed. Thanks!
  6. Found in the Cimarron River in Kingfisher County, OK. 25" tip to tip on his horns, 26.5" from top of skull to tip of nose. I would like more info on what he is, Antiquus, Occidentalis, or B.Bison.
  7. Astragalus

    I posted this a long time ago ( I think before TFF crashed, because I can't find the original post). The id came back as bison, but I just started looking at it again. I have been comparing it to Harry Pristis' gallery and I think it looks more like pleistocene camel. It measures about 60mm max length and 40mm max width. Found in the Brazos River. Just wanted to run it by the pros for a second opinion.
  8. Old Bison Skull 4

    From the album Craniate's Collection

  9. Old Bison Skull 3

    From the album Craniate's Collection

  10. Old Bison Skull 2

    From the album Craniate's Collection

  11. Old Bison Skull 1

    From the album Craniate's Collection

    Horn spread is 29". Big old bull!
  12. I recently acquired this nice old bison skull, but I'm not sure if he is of the modern or ancient variety (or somewhere in between). The skull was found at the bottom of the Missouri River in northern South Dakota. It measures 29 inches from horn tip to horn tip and it's pretty heavy, too--about 30 pounds. As much as I'd like for it to be antiquus, I'm leaning towards big old Bison bison due to its size (quite large for B. bison but relatively small for B. antiquus) and because the horn cores aren't as long and robust as the ones in most pictures of Bison antiquus fossils I've seen. What do you think? Thanks in advance for your input!
  13. Bison m3 Molars

    From the album TEETH & JAWS

    Two Bison sp. third lower molars of different age. This is the last tooth to emerge at maturity. The younger individual had not worn its teeth much . . . tooth wear has not reached the diagnostic isolated stylid. The older individual has worn its teeth enough to engage the isolated stylid. Note that the tooth of the older individual retains some cementum. In life, all the bison cheek teeth were wrapped in cementum. Being the softest of the three types of tooth components (enamel, dentin, and cementum), this exterior 'wrapper' is often lost on a fossil. (This image is best viewed by clicking on the button on the upper right of this page => "other sizes" => "large".)

    © Harry Pristis 2014

  14. Help With An Ongoing Research.

    Hi, there. I am seeking for help on an ongoing research. You see, there is two fossil sites in wich I work as a graduate student. We are developing a new method to identify isolated Bison teeth using multivariate statistics. Until now we beign able to differentiate between two ecotypes, a large form and a small form. These are not sexual differences (we alrealy test them and find the sexual difference does not correspond with our findings). The help I need now is if you know someone or directly posess skulls of fossil North American fossil bisons with attached teeth. I only need to identify your skulls and to measure all individual teeth. I currently use 5 variables and all I need is to measure them. Of course, I don't need you to send me the fossils or something like that, I just need you to measure them and send me close up pictures with a scale bar. The species I look for are Bison latifrons (giant bison) and Bison antiquus (ancient bison). I'm already seeking for museum's collections but they have few skulls with teeth on them. If know museums wich have a large number of them I appreciate you give me some info. This are the teeth I need to measure in the upper jaw. I'm also looking for some jaws that are associated with skulls in order to identify the species. This are the teeth I need to measure in the lower jaw. I will be very very thankfull if you can help me people. Thank you very much for reading. HAVE A NICE DAY.
  15. Who's Tooth... I Thought Bison,

    ... I thought Bison Molar, but, it doesn't seem to look like the other Bison molars in the gallery. .... and yes, I cleaned and polished part of this one too.... it's my twisted Lapidary part that does it to me every time.... Sorry I'll take a better pic if need be. Found near Yuma CO.... the same day of the "Maybe Turtle Egg" find. What do you think?
  16. Possible Record Fossil Found

    Hello, when I was very young I was out on a hike on some our land in alberta. On the hike we descovered a skull which had been washed down a hill by the recent rain falls. The skull was of interest so we decided to take it home. After some reasherch we descovered that it was in fact the skull of a bison antiquus. The skull is complete with only a few missing peices. After reviewing some information on the web it appeared that the largest one found to date had a horn tip to horn tip span of 31 inches , the skull I found has a span of 38 inches. If it is a record size who should I contact? Thanks
  17. Just went out for a quick kayaking trip to scope out the END of the English river. River Junction to be exact, ran up on the sand due to low water levels. As I was walking over the sandbar I notcied several fossilized corals, that I'm sure of. However, I also found this tooth and it seems to have started my newly found hobby of fossil hunting. I love this site just from browsing for a few mins and I would appreciate all the help I can get on this tooth. My curiosity is driving me nuts! Bison? Cow? Horse? Sasquatch? Thanks again!
  18. IMG 1947

    From the album Bones

    Bison jaw from river deposits
  19. IMG 1946

    From the album Bones

    Bison jaw from river deposits
  20. Bos Os Coxae

    Can someone provide a clear dorsal and lateral picture of the os coxae (complete structure) of Bison bison and of an American domestic dairy cattle (say Jersey or equivalent)? Just want to see a good comparison. Many thanks!
  21. Buffalo Bones

    Went to Oklahoma and the Red River Saturday July 13, 2013. Found an island sand bank in the river on google earth and ventured to it. I found the Buffalo bones you see in the photos - most were buried in mud. I only had the one day to look, but was happy with what I found.
  22. Adult Bovine Teeth

    Recently I found a diagnostic tool that has been helpful to me. Being new at and unsure of myself during ID, I figure on using all of the help I can get. Nothing beats hands on for me. While searching a fossil site a few months ago I found a skull from a common adult bovine. All of the upper jaw teeth were there with typical adult wear. There were no lower jaw bones. I tossed it in the back of the truck. I figured to paint it and hang it on the wall or something. Recently I've found myself using ole bossy to compare and ID teeth I've collected through the years. I've picked up bison teeth and thought they belonged to bossy and of course the more common, I've picked up old cow teeth thinking they might be from a bison. I get a little confused in the field and not wanting to pick up teeth from a common moo cow I've been known to throw them back. With that method I am now certain that I've left some bison material behind. Teeth with a lot of mineralization are such a problem, it's the ones that show some age with little or no mineralization that I tend to have trouble with. There are a lot of cattle living now, just think how many there must have been since the Spaniards brought them here in the 1500's. We all find a lot of teeth that once belonged to barnyard bovines during our hunts. There were many more...really countless multitudes of bison. As recently as 160 years ago there were still a few in the wild around in North Tx. There must still be a lot of teeth to find out there. Having ole bossy sure helps me when it comes to ID. Before long I suspect I'll have gained enough experience to know the difference on my own in most cases. If unsure I can always refer back to ole bossy. Until I find my very own bison noggin she'll have to do. Yesterday while hunting for fossils I picked up a rt lower jaw belonging to an adult bovine with all of the jaw teeth intact with typical wear. Fits the skull very closely. Guess I'll have to mosey on over, empty out that jar of teeth and compare the new jaw teeth with I have in there. It's progress.
  23. Bison?

    Ive been told that this is bison, but figured i would post it on here for opinions. I don't know alot about what particular types of bones are what except for obvious structure i suppose. I found this in east fort worth in a portion of the trinity river just laying in river deposits. A hundred people walked over it probably.
  24. Post Oak Creek Bone Id?

    found this bone in post oak creek in sherman a couple days ago ....any ideas what it might be?
  25. These are a few of the pdf files (and a few Microsoft Word documents) that I've accumulated in my web browsing. MOST of these are hyperlinked to their source. If you want one that is not hyperlinked or if the link isn't working, e-mail me at joegallo1954@gmail.com and I'll be happy to send it to you. Please note that this list will be updated continuously as I find more available resources. All of these files are freely available on the Internet so there should be no copyright issues. Articles with author names in RED are new additions since November 14, 2017. Family Bovidae Subfamily Alcelaphinae - Wildebeest and Topi Brink, J.S., et al. (1995). A New Find of Megalotragus priscus (Alcelaphini, Bovidae) from the Central Karoo, South Africa. Palaeont.afr., 32. Dmitrieva, E.L. (1977). Tajikistan's and India's Fossil Alcelaphinae. Journal of the Palaeontological Society of India, Vol.20. Faith, J.T., et al. (2011). Taxonomic status and paleoecology of Rusingoryx atopocranion (Mammalia, Artiodactyla), an extinct Pleistocene bovid from Rusinga Island, Kenya. Quaternary Research, 75. Gentry, A.W., A. Gentry and H. Mayr (1995). Rediscovery of fossil antelope holotypes (Mammalia, Bovidae) collected from Olduvai Gorge, Tanzania, in 1913. Mitt.Bayer.Staatslg.Palaont.hist.Geol., 35. Laubscher, N.F., F.E. Steffens and E.S. Vrba (1972). Statistical Evaluation of the Taxonomic Status of a Fossil Member of the Bovidae (Mammalia: Artiodactyla). Annals of the Transvaal Museum, Vol.28, Number 2. Vrba, E.S. (1997). New Fossils of Alcelaphini and Caprinae (Bovidae, Mammalia) from Awash, Ethiopia, and Phylogenetic Analysis of Alcelaphini. Palaeont.afr., 34. (29.6MB) Vrba, E.S. (1979). Phylogenetic analysis and classification of fossil and recent Alcelaphini Mammalia: Bovidae. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society, 11. Vrba, E.S. (1978). Problematical Alcelaphine Fossils from the Kromdraai Faunal Site (Mammalia: Bovidae). Annals of the Transvaal Museum, Vol.31, Number 3. Vrba, E.S. (1977). New Species of Parmularius Hopwood and Damaliscus Sclater and Thomas (Alcelaphini, Bovidae, Mammalia) from Makapansgat, and Comments on Faunal Chronological Correlation. Palaeont.afr., 20. Vrba, E.S. (1971). A New Fossil Alcelaphine (Artiodactyla: Bovidae) from Swartkrans. Annals of the Transvaal Museum, Vol.27, Number 5. Subfamily Antilopinae - Gazelles, Dwarf Antelopes and Saiga Tribe Antilopini - Gazelles and Dwarf Antelopes Antilopini - Africa/Middle East Brink, J.S. and J.A. Lee-Thorp (1992). The feeding niche of an extinct springbok, Antidorcas bondi (Antilopini, Bovidae), and its palaeoenvironmental meaning. South African Journal of Science, Vol.88. Lerp, H., et al. (2013). Chapter 3. Speciation of Arabian Gazelles. In: Speciation: Natural Processes, Genetics, and Biodiversity. Michalak, P. (ed.), Nova Science, New York. Peters, J. and J.S. Brink (1992). Comparative Postcranial Osteomorphology and Osteometry of Springbok, Antidorcas marsupialis (Zimmerman, 1780) and Grey Rehbok, Pelea capreolus (Forster, 1790) (Mammalia: Bovidae). Navorsinge Van De Nasionale Museum Blomfontein, Vol.8, Part 4. Reynolds, S.C. (2007). Temporal variation in Plio-Pleistocene Antidorcas (Mammalia: Bovidae) horncores: the case from Bolt's Farm and why size matters. South African Journal of Science, 103. Vrba, E.S. (1973). Two Species of Antidorcas Sundevall at Swartkrans (Mammalia: Bovidae). Annals of the Transvaal Museum, Vol.28, Number 15. Vrba, E.S. (1970). Evaluation of Springbok-Like Fossils: Measurement and Statistical Treatment of the Teeth of the Springbok, Antidorcas marsupialis marsupialis Zimmerman (Artiodactyla: Bovidae). Annals of the Transvaal Museum, Vol.26, Number 13. Antilopini - Asia/Malaysia/Pacific Islands Babar, M.A., et al. (2015). Fossils of Gazella (Bovidae, Mammalia) from Dhok Bun Amir Khatoon Chinji Formation of Pakistan. Biologia (Pakistan), 61(2). Chen, G.-F. (2005). Dorcadoryx Teilhard et Trassaert, 1938 (Bovidae, Artiodactyla) from the Bahe Formation of Lantian, Shaanxi Province, China. Vertebrata PalAsiatica, 43(4). Chen, G.-F. (1997). The genus Gazella Blainville, 1816 (Bovidae, Artiodactyla) from the Late Neogene of Yushe Basin, Shanxi Province, China. Vertebrata PalAsiatica, Vol.35, Number 4. Chen, G.-F. (1997). Gazella blacki Teilhard and Young, 1931 (Bovidae, Artiodactyla, Mammalia) from the Late Pliocene of Hefeng, Jingle District, Shanxi Province. Vertebrata PalAsiatica, 35(3). Khan, M.A., et al. (2013). Gazella lydekkeri (Cetartiodactyla: Ruminantia: Bovidae) from the Middle Siwaliks of Hasnot (Late Miocene), Pakistan. Pakistan J.Zool., 45(4). Kumar, S. and R. Gaur (2013). First Record of Gazella lydekkeri from the Tatrot Formation of Upper Siwalik of the Indian Subcontinent. Journal of the Palaeontological Society of India, Vol.58(2). Samiullah, K., et al. (2015). Gazella lydekkeri from dhok bun ameer khatoon, lower siwaliks of Pakistan: evolution, taxonomy and biogeography. Int.J.Biosci., Vol.6, Number 5. Zhang, Z.-Q. and R. Yang (2016). Morphology and taxonomy of Gazella (Bovidae, Artiodactyla) from the Late Miocene Bahe Formation, Lantian, Shanxii Province, China. Vertebrata PalAsiatica, 54(1). Antilopini - Europe (including Greenland and Siberia) Athanassiou, A. (2002). A New Gazelle Species (Artiodactyla, Bovidae) from the Late Pliocene of Greece. Annales Geologiques Des Pays Hellinques, 39. Athanassiou, A. (2001). Gazellospira torticornis (Aymard, 1854) from the Late Pliocene Locality of Sesklo (Thessaly, Greece). Les Ongules Holarctiques. De Wilde, B. (2006). Caprovis savinii (Bovidae, Mammalia) rediscovered: horn core finds of an Early Pleistocene antelope from the North Sea floor. Netherlands Journal of Geosciences, 85-3. Hooijer, D.A. (1945). A Fossil Gazelle (Gazella schreuderae nov.sp.) from The Netherlands. Zoologische Mededlingen. General Antilopini Barmann, E.V. (2014). The evolution of body size, horn shape and social behaviour in crown Antilopini - an ancestral character state analysis. Zitelliana B, 32. Tribe Neotragini - Dik-diks, Klipspringers and their relatives Watson, V. and I. Plug (1995). Oreotragus major Wells and Oreotragus oreotragus (Zimmerman) (Mammalia: Bovidae): Two Species? Annals of the Transvaal Museum, 36(13). Tribe Saigini - Saiga Aaris-Sørensen, K., K.S. Petersen and M.B. Henricksen (1999). Late Weichselian Record of Saiga (Saiga tatarica (L.)) from Denmark and its Indications of Glacial History and Environment. Baryshnikov, G. and A. Tikhonov (1994). Notes on Skulls of Pleistocene Saiga of Northern Eurasia. Historical Biology, Vol.8. Currant, A.P. (1987). Late Pleistocene Saiga Antelope Saiga tatarica on Mendip. Proc.Univ. Bristol Spelaeol.Soc., 18(1). Harington, C.R. and J. Cinq-Mars (1995). Radiocarbon Dates on Saiga Antelope (Saiga tatarica) Fossils from Yukon and Northwest Territories. Arctic, Vol.48, Number 1. Jurgensen, J., et al. (2017). Diet and habitat of the saiga antelope during the late Quaternary using stable carbon and oxygen isotope ratios. Quaternary Science Reviews, 160. Nadachowski, A., et al. (2015). Dispersal events of the saiga antelope (Saiga tatarica) in Central Europe in response to the climatic fluctuations in MIS 2 and the early part of MIS 1. Quaternary International, xxx. (Article in press) Vladimirovich, G.M., et al. (2014). Saiga fossils in the Southern-Lower Volga of Astrakhan, Russia. Songklanakarin Journal of Science and Technology, 36(1). General Antilopinae Alcala, L. and J. Morales (2006). Antilopinae (Bovidae, Mammalia) from the Lower Pliocene of Teruel Basin (Spain). Estudios Geologicos, 62(1). Kostopoulos, D.S. (2014). Taxonomic re-assessment and phylogenetic relationships of Miocene homonymously spiral-horned antelopes. Acta Palaeontologica Polonica, 59(1). Subfamily Bovinae - Cattle, Aurochs, Bison, Buffalo and Spiral-Horned Antelopes Tribe Boselaphini - Four-horned Antelope, Nilgai and Their Relatives Ali, M., M.A. Khan and M. Akhtar (2012). New Fossils of Elachistoceras (Bovidae: Mammalia) from Chinji Formation (Middle Miocene) of Pakistan. Pakistan J.Zool., 44(4). Aslam, S., et al. (2010). Some New Remains of Pachyportax (Bovidae, Artiodactyla) from the Middle Siwaliks of Pakistan. Punjab Univ.Jour.Zool., Vol.25(1-2). Bhatti, Z.H., et al. (2006). Middle Siwalik Pachyportax from District Jhelum, Punjab, Pakistan. Punjab Univ.J.Zool., Vol.21(1-2). Fuss, J., J. Prieto and M. Bohme (2015). Revision of the boselaphin bovid Miotragocerus monacensis Stromer, 1928 (Mammalia, Bovidae) at the Middle to Late Miocene transition in Central Europe. N.Jb.Geol.Palaont. Abh., 276/3. Ikram, T., et al. (2017). Fossil molars of Pachyportax (Boselaphini, Bovidae) from Middle Siwalik Subgroup of Pakistan. Biologia (Pakistan), 63(2). Ikram, T., et al. (2016). New Boselaphini (Mammalia) Remains from the Middle Siwaliks of Pakistan. Biologia (Pakistan), 62(1). Khan, M.A., G. Iliopoulos and M. Akhtar (2009). Boselaphines (Artiodactyla, Ruminantia, Bovidae) from the Middle Siwaliks of Hasnot, Pakistan. Geobios, 42. Khan, M.A., et al. (2014). New Remains of Tragoportax (Boselaphini: Bovidae: Mammalia) from Middle Siwaliks of Dhok Patahan, Northern Pakistan. Pakistan J.Zool., 46(2). Khan, M.A., et al. (2011). Sivaceros gradiens Pilgrim 1937 (Mammalia, Bovidae, Boselaphini) from the Lower Siwaliks of Dhok Bun Amir Khatoon, Chakwal, Pakistan: systematics and biostratigraphy. Turk.J.Zool., 35(2). Khan, M.A., et al. (2008). Collection of Selenoportax from the Kundi Wala Kas, Hasnot, Pakistan. Pakistan J.Zool., Vol.40(4). Khan, M.A., et al. (2007). New Fossil Remains of Selenoportax vexillarius from the Late Miocene of Hasnot. Pakistan J.Zool., Vol.39(5). Khan, M.A., et al. (2005). Fossil Molars of Selenoportax vexillarius. Geol.Bull. Punjab Univ., Vol.40-41. Samiullah, K., et al. (2015). Selenoportax vexillarius from Dhok Pathan, Chakwal District, the Punjab, Pakistan. J.Bio. & Envi.Sci., Vol.6, Number 5. Spassov, N. and D. Geraads (2004). Tragoportax Pilgrim, 1937 and Miotragoceras Stomer, 1928 (Mammalia, Bovidae) from the Turolian of Hadjidimovo, Bulgaria, and a revision of the late Miocene Mediterranean Boselaphini.Geodiversitas, 26(2). Suraprasit, Y., et al. (2015). Middle Miocene bovids from Mae Noh Basin, Northern Thailand: The first record of the genus Eotragus from Southeast Asia. Acta Palaeontologica Polonica, 60(1). Waseem, M.T., et al. (2016). Newly discovered fossil remains of Selenoportax vexillarius from Hasnot, locality of Siwaliks of Pakistan. Punjab Univ.J.Zool., Vol.31(1). Zhang, Z.-Q. (2005). Late Miocene Boselaphini (Bovidae, Artiodactyla) from Fugu, Shaanxi Province, China. Vertebrata PalAsiatica, 43(3). Tribe Bovini - Catttle, Buffalo, Bison and Their Relatives Bovini - Africa/Middle East Chaix, L. (2007). Contribution to the knowledge of domestic cattle in Africa: The osteometry of fossil Bos taurus L. from Kerma, Sudan (2050-1750 BC). Martinez-Navarro, B., et al. (2007). The Olduvai buffalo Pelorovis and the origin of Bos. Quaternary Research, 68. Bovini - Asia/Malaysia/Pacific Islands Akhtar, M. (2002). A New Species of Buffalo from the Upper Siwaliks of Jarikas, District Mirpur, Azad Jammu and Kashmir, Pakistan. Punjab Univ.J.Zool., Vol.17. Badam, G.L. and S.L. Jain (1988). First Record of Bos namadicus from Middle-Late Pleistocene Deposits of Lower Godavari, Near Servaipet in Karimnagar Dist., Andhra Pradesh. Journal of the Palaeontological Society of India, Vol.33. Croft, D.A., et al. (2006). Fossil Remains of a New, Diminutive Bubalus (Artiodactyla: Bovidae: Bovini) from Cebu Island, Phillipines. Journal of Mammalogy, 87(5). Khan, M.A. and M. Akhtar (2011). Proamphibos kashmiricus (Bovini: Bovidae: Mammalia) from the Pinjor Formation of Pakistan. Pakistan J.Zool., 43(4). (MS Word document) Khan, M.A., M. Iqbal and M. Akhtar (2009). Hemibos (Bovini, Bovidae, Mammalia) from the Pinjor Formation of Pakistan. The Journal of Animal & Plant Sciences, 19(2). Khan, M.A., et al. (2013). Some new remains of Bovini from the Pinjor Formation Khural Sharif (Pleistocene) of the Upper Siwaliks, Pakistan. Biologia (Pakistan), 59(2). Khan, M.A., et al. (2011). Dental Remains of Early Bison from the Tatrot Formation of the Upper Siwaliks, Pakistan. The Journal of Animal & Plant Sciences, 21(4). Khan, M.A., et al. (2010). Bison remains from the Upper Siwaliks of Pakistan. N.Jb.Geol.Palaont.Abh., 258/1. Khan, M.A., et al. (2009). Proamphibos (Bovini, Bovidae, Mammalia) from the Tatrot Formation in the Upper Siwaliks of Pakistan. The Journal of Animal & Plant Sciences, 19(2). Kumar, S. and R. Gaur (2015). Leptobos (Bovidae, Artiodactyla) from the Tatrot Formation of the Upper Siwaliks of the Indian Subcontinent. Ind.J.Phys.Anthrop. & Hum.Genet., Vol.34, Number 1. Li, Y.-K. (2015). A mandible of Leptobos (Bovidae, Artiodactyla) from the Lower Pleistocene of Longdan, Gansu, China, and evidence of feline predatory strategy. Vertebrata PalAsiatica, 53(3). Mead, J.I., et al. (2014). New data on Leptobos crassus (Artiodactyla, Bovidae) from Renzidong Cave, Early Pleistocene (Nihewanian) of Anhui, China, and an overview of the genus. Quaternary International, 354. Siddiq, M.K., M.A. Khan and M. Akhtar (2014). Proamphibos (Bovini: Bovidae: Ruminantia) from Sardhok Pleistocene of Pakistan. Pakistan J.Zool., Vol.46(4). Xue, X.-X. and X.-C. Li (2000). Fossil Bubalus from Shaanxi, Distribution and Phylogeny of Fossil Bubalus in China. Vertebrata PalAsiatica, 38(3). Zong, G. (1984). A record of Bos primigenius from the Quaternary of the Aba Tibetan Autonomous Region.Vertebrata PalAsiatica, Vol.XXII, Number 3. Bovini - Europe (including Greenland and Siberia) Boeskorov, G.G., et al. (2015). The Yukagir Bison: The exterior morphology of a complete frozen mummy of the extinct steppe bison, Bison priscus from the early Holocene of northern Yakutia, Russia. Quaternary International, xxx. (Article in Press) Boeskorov, G.G., et al. (2014). Preliminary analyses of the frozen mummies of mammoth (Mammuthus primigenius), bison (Bison priscus) and horse (Equus sp.) from the Yana-Indigirka Lowland, Yakutia, Russia. Integrative Zoology, 9. Drees, M. (2005). Sexual dimorphism in Pleistocene Bison priscus (Mammalia, Bovidae) with a discussion on the position of Bison schoetensacki. Senckenbergiana lethaea, 85(1). Drees, M. and K. Post (2007). Bison bonasus from the North Sea, the Netherlands. Cranium, 24,2. Julien, M.-A., et al. (2012). Were European steppe bison migratory? 18O, 13C and Sr intra-tooth isotopic variations applied to a palaeoethological reconstruction. Quaternary International, 271. Kirillova, I.V., et al. (2015). An ancient bison from the mouth of the Rauchua River (Chukotka, Russia). Quaternary Research, 84. Kitchener, A.C. and J. Doune (2012). A record of the aurochs, Bos primigenius, from Morayshire. The Glasgow Naturalist, Vol.25, Part 4. Kowalski, K. (1967). The Evolution and Fossil Remains of the European Bison. Acta Theriologica, Vol.XII, 21. Marsolier-Kergoat, M.-C., et al. (2015). Hunting the Extinct Steppe Bison (Bison priscus) Mitochondrial Genome in the Trois-Feres Paleolithic Painted Cave. PLoS ONE, 10(6). Martinez-Navarro, B. and M.R. Palombo (2007). The Horn-Core of Hemibos galerianus from Ponte Milvio, Rome (Italy). Revista Italiana di Paleontologia e Stratigrafia, Vol.113, Number 3. Martinez-Navarro, B., et al. (2011). Presence of Asian origin Bovini, Hemibos sp.aff. Hemibos gracilis and Bison sp., at the early Pleistocene site of Venta Micena (Orce, Spain). Quaternary International, 243. Mona, S., et al. (2010). Population dynamic of the extinct European aurochs: genetic evidence of a north-south differentiation pattern and no evidence of post-glacial expansion. BMC Evolutionary Biology 10:83. Pandolfini, L., C. Patronio and L. Salari (2011). Bos primigenius Bojanus, 1827 from the Early Late Pleistocene Deposit of Avetrana (Southern Italy) and the Variation in Size of the Species in Southern Europe: Preliminary Report. Hindawi Journal of Geological Research, Vol.2011. Van Geel, B., et al. (2014). Multiproxy diet analysis of the last meal of an early Holocene Yakutian bison. Journal of Quaternary Science, 29(3). Velivetskaya, T.A., et al. (2014). Resolution-enhanced stable isotope profiles within the complete tooth rows of Late Pleistocene bisons (Middle Urals, Russia) as a record of their individual development and environmental changes. Quaternary International, xxx. (Article in Press) Wright, E. (2013). The history of the European aurochs (Bos primigenius) from the Middle Pleistocene to its extinction: an archaeological investigation of its evolution, morphological variability and response to human exploitation. Ph.D. Thesis - University of Sheffield. Bovini - North America Apland, B. and C.R. Harington (1994). Pleistocene Bison Skeleton (Bison bison cf. occendentalis) from Clayhurst Crossing, British Columbia.Geographie physique et Quaternaire, Vol.48, Number 2. Cannon, K.P. (2004). The Analysis of a Late Holocene Bison Skull from the Ashley National Forest, Utah. Ashley National Forest Report Number AS-04-1010. Cook, H.J. (1928). A New Fossil Bison from Texas. Proceedings Colorado Museum of Natural History, Vol.8, Issue 3. Drakos, P.G., S.L. Reneau and G.S. Morgan (2007). Bison antiquus Occurrence and Pleistocene-Holocene Stratigraphy, Canada Del Buey, Pajarito Plateau, New Mexico. In: New Mexico Geological Society Guidebook, 58th Field Conference, Geology of the Jemez Mountains Region II. Dundas, R.G., et al. (2009). Bison cf. B. latifrons from the Late-Pleistocene Broach Locality, Fresno, California. Paleoenvironments: Vertebrates and Invertebrates. Feranec, R.S., E.A. Hadly and A. Paytan (2009). Stable isotopes reveal season competition between late Pleistocene bison (Bison) and horse (Equus) from Rancho La Brea, southern California. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 271. Gordon, B.C. Bison antiquus from the Northwest Territories. Short Papers and Notes. Harington, C.R. and R.E. Morlan (2002). Evidence for Human Modification of a Late Pleistocene Bison (Bison sp.) Bone from the Klondike District, Yukon Territory, Canada. Arctic, Vol.55, Number 2. Hay, O.P. (1913). The Extinct Bisons of North America; With Descriptions of One New Species, Bison regius. Proceedings U.S. National Museum, Vol.46, Number 2021. Heintzman, P.D., et al. (2016). Bison phylogeography constrains dispersal and viability of the Ice Free Corridor in western Canada. PNAS Early Edition. Hill, M.E., M.G. Hill and C.C. Widga (2008). Late Quaternary Bison diminution on the Great Plains of North America: evaluating the role of human hunting versus climate change. Quaternary Science Reviews, 27. Hoganson, J.W. Occurrence of the Giant Ice Age Bison, Bison latifrons, in North Dakota. North Dakota Geological Society Newsletter, Vol. 29, Number 2. Kenady, S.M., et al. (2010). Late Pleistocene butchered Bison antiquus from Ayer Pond, Orcas Island, Pacific Northwest: Age confirmation and taphonomy. Quaternary International. Leidy, J. (1852). Memoir on the Extinct Species of American Ox. Smithsonian Contributions to Knowledge, Vol.V, Article 3. Lucas, F.A. The Fossil Bison of North America. Proceedings U.S. National Museum, Volume XXI, Number 1172. Lyman, R.L. (2004). Late-Quaternary diminution and abundance of prehistoric bison (Bison sp.) in eastern Washington state, USA. Quaternary Research, 62. Lyman, R.L. and K. Bassett (2004). Late-Pleistocene Female Bison antiquus from Central Missouri. CRP, 21. Martin, J.M., R.A. Martin and J.I. Mead (2017). Late Pleistocene and Holocene Bison of the Colorado Plateau. The Southwestern Naturalist, 62(1). McClung, C.E. (1903). The Fossil Bison of Kansas. Transactions of the Kansas Academy of Science, Vol.19. Meltzer, D.J., et al. (2004). A Bison antiquus from Archuleta Creek, Folsom, New Mexico. Paleoenvironments - Vertebrates. Miller, W.E. (1968). Occurrence of a Giant Bison, Bison latifrons, and a Slender-Limbed Camel, Tanupolama, at Rancho La Brea. Contributions in Science, Los Angeles County Museum, Number 147. Miller, W.E. and J.D. Brotherson (1979). Size Variation in Foot Elements of Bison from Rancho La Brea. Contributions in Science, Natural History Museum of Los Angeles County, Number 323. Morrow, W. (2006). Holocene coccidiomycosis: Valley Fever in early Holocene bison (Bison antiquus). Mycologia, 98(5). Pope, P.H. A Fossil Bison Skull from Prescott, Washington. Rhoads, S.N. (1897). Notes on Living and Extinct Species of North American Bovidae. Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia, Vol.49. Robertson, J.S. (1969). Fossil Bison from Florida. The Plaster Jacket, Number 12. (Thanks to Nimravus for pointing this one out!) Schultz, C.B. and J.M. Hillerud (1977). The Antiquity of Bison latifrons (Harlan) in the Great Plains of North America. Transactions of the Nebraska Academy of Science and Affiliated Societies, Paper 450. Skinner, M.F. and O.C. Kaisen (1947). The Fossil Bison of Alaska and Preliminary Revision of the Genus. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History, Vol.89, Article 3. Stewart, A. (1897). Notes on the Osteology of Bison antiquus Leidy. Kansas University Quarterly, Vol.VI, Number 3. Wilson, M.C., L.V. Hills, and B. Shapiro (2008). Late Pleistocene northward-dispersing Bison antiquus from the Bighill Creek Formation, Gallelli Gravel Pit, Alberta, Canada, and the fate of Bison occidentalis. Can.J.Earth Sci., 45. Wolff, S.E. (2013). Home on the Range: Biogeographic Distribution of Bison in Arizona. PalArch's Journal of Vertebrate Palaeontology, 10(4). Zazula, G.D., et al. (2009). A late Pleistocene steppe bison (Bison priscus) carcass from Tsiigehtchic, Northwest Territories, Canada. Quaternary Science Reviews, 28. Bovini - South America/Central America/Caribbean Jimenez-Hidalgo, E., et al. (2013). First record of Bison antiquus from the Late Pleistocene of southern Mexico. Journal of South American Earth Sciences, 42. General Bovini Bernard, A., et al. (2009). Pleistocene seasonal temperature variations recorded in the δ18O of Bison priscus teeth. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 283. Douglas, K.C. (2006). Comparing the Diversity of Late Pleistocene Bison with Modern Bison bison Using Ancient DNA Techniques and the Mitochondrial DNA Control Region. (Masters thesis) Geraads, D. (1992). Phylogenetic analysis of the tribe Bovini (Mammalia: Artiodactyla). Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society, 104. Olsen, S.J. (1960). Post-Cranial Skeletal Characters of Bison and Bos. Papers of the Peabody Museum of Archaeology and Ethnology, Harvard University, Vol.XXXV, Number 4. Prusak, B., et al. (2004). Taxonomic position of Bison bison (Linnaeus, 1758) and Bison bonasus (Linnaeus, 1758) as determined by the means of cytb gene.. Animal Science Papers and Reports, Vol. 22, Number 1. Raymond, K.R. and D.R. Prothero (2011). Did Climate Changes Affect Size in Late Pleistocene Bison? In: Fossil Record 3. Sullivan, et al. (eds.), New Mexico Museum of Natural History and Science, Bulletin 53. Shapiro, B., et al. (2004). Rise and fall of the Beringian steppe bison. Science, 306. van Vuure, T. History, Morphology and Ecology of the Aurochs (Bos primigenius). Tribe Strepsicerotini - Spiral-horned Antelopes Chen, G.-F. (1988). Remarks on the Oioceros Species (Bovidae, Artiodactyla, Mammalia) from the Neogene of China. Vertebrata PalAsiatica, 26(3). Geraads, D. and E. Gulec (1999). On Some Spiral-Horned Antelopes (Mammalia: Artiodactyla: Bovidae) from the Late Miocene of Turkey, With Remarks on Their Distribution. Palaontologische Zeitschrift, 73,3-4. Kostopoulos, D.S. (2009). Contribution to the systematics and phylogeny of Prostrepsiceros vallesiensis Bouvrain, 1982 (Mammalia, Bovidae). Geodiversitas, 31(4). Kostopoulos, D.S. (1998). Parastrepsiceros koufosi n.sp. (Mammalia: Bovidae); note on the possible presence of a Prostrepsiceros descendant in the latest Pliocene of northern Greece. Acta zool., cracov., 41(1). Pilgrim, G.E. (1934). Two New Species of Sheep-Like Antelope from the Miocene of Mongolia. American Museum Novitates, Number 716. Roussiakis, S.J. (2009). Prostrepsiceros and Protragelaphus (Artiodactyla, Mammalia) from the Late Miocene locality of Chomateri (Attica, Greece). Annales de Paléontologie, 95. Roussiakis, S.J. (2003). Oioceros rothii (Wagner, 1857) from the late Miocene of Pikermi (Greece): cranial and dental morphology, comparison with related forms. Geodiversitas, 25(4). Vekua, A. (2012). New Spiral-Horned Antelope in Dmanisi Fauna. Bulletin of the Georgian National Academy of Sciences, Vol.6, Number 3. Tribe Tragelaphini - Elands Gentry, A.W., A. Gentry and H. Mayr (1995). Rediscovery of fossil antelope holotypes (Mammalia, Bovidae) collected from Olduvai Gorge, Tanzania, in 1913. Mitt.Bayer.Staatslg.Palaont.hist.Geol., 35. Kostopoulos, D.S. and G.D. Koufos (2006). Pheraios chryssomalos, gen. et sp.nov. (Mammalia, Bovidae, Tragelaphini), from the Late Miocene of Thessaly (Greece): Implications for Tragelaphin Biogeography. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology, 26(2). Subfamily Caprinae - Sheep, Goats, Muskox and Relatives Tribe Caprini - Sheep, Goats, Ibex and their Relatives Caprini - Africa/Middle East Geraads, D., S. El Boughabi and S. Zourhi (2012). A new caprin bovid (Mammalia) from the late Miocene of Morocco. Palaeont.afr., 47. Caprini - Asia/Malaysia/Pacific Islands Li, X.-C. (2006). Early Pleistocene Takin Fossil from China. Vertebrata PalAsiatica, 44(3). Caprini - Europe (including Greenland and Siberia) Alcover, J.A., et al. (1999). The diet of Myotragus balearicus Bate, 1909 (Artiodactyla: Caprinae), an extinct bovid from the Balearic Islands: evidence from coprolites. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society, 66. Bover, P., J. Quintana and J.A. Alcover (2010). A new species of Myotragus Bate, 1909 (Artiodactyla, Caprinae) from the Early Pliocene of Mallorca (Balearic Islands, western Mediterranean). Geol.Mag., 147(6). Bukhsianidze, M. and A. Vekua (2006). Capra dalii nov.sp. (Caprinae, Bovidae, Mammalia) at the limit of Plio-Pleistocene from Damanisi (Georgia). Cour.Forsch.-Inst. Senckenberg, 256. Geraads, D., N. Spassov and D. Kovachev (2006). A New Sporadotragus (Bovidae, Mammalia) from the Late Miocene of Bulgaria. Revista Italiana di Paleontologia e Stratigrafia, Vol.112, Number 3. Gliozzi, E. and A. Malatesta (1980). The Quaternary Goat of Capo Figari (Northeastern Sardinia). Geologica Rom., 19. Kohler, M. and S. Moya-Sola (2004). Reduction of Brain and Sense Organs in the Fossil Insular Bovid Myotragus. Brain, Behavior and Evolution, 63. Lalueza-Fox, C., et al. (2002). Molecular phylogeny and evolution of the extinct bovid Myotragus balearicus. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, 25. Palombo, M.R., et al. (2006). A New Bovid, Asoletragus gentryi N.Gen. et Sp., from Monte Tuttavista (Orosei, Eastern Sardinia, Italy). Revista Italiana di Paleontologia e Stratigrafia, Vol.112, Number 3. Palombo, M.R., et al. The Plio-Pleistocene endemic bovids from the Western Mediterranean islands: knowledge, problems and perspectives. Hellenic Journal of Geosciences, Vol.41. Spoor, C.F. (1988). The body proportions in Myotragus balearicus Bate, 1909. Palaeontology, Series B, 91(3). Welker, F., et al. (2014). Analysis of coprolites from the extinct mountain goat Myotragus balearicus. Quaternary Research, 81. Caprini - North America Hibbard, C.W. and B.A. Wright (1956). A New Pleistocene Bighorn Sheep from Arizona. Journal of Mammalogy, Vol.37, Number 1. Mead, J.I. and L.H. Taylor (2005). New Species of Sinocapra (Bovidae, Caprinae) from the Lower Pliocene Panaca Formation, Nevada, USA.Palaeontologia Electronica, Vol. 8, Issue 1. Wang, X. (1988). Systematics and Population Ecology of Late Pleistocene Bighorn Sheep (Ovis canadensis) of Natural Trap Cave, Wyoming.Transactions of the Nebraska Academy of Sciences, XVI. Wang, X. and J.F. Neas (1987). A Large Bighorn Sheep, Ovis canadensis (Artiodactyla: Bovidae) from the Late Pleistocene of Colorado. Southwestern Naturalist, Vol.32, Number 2. General Caprini Bunch, T.D., et al. (2006). Phylogenetic Analysis of Snow Sheep (Ovis nivicola) and Closely Related Taxa. Journal of Heredity, 97(1). Ropiquet, A. and A. Hassanin (2005). Molecular phylogeny of caprines (Bovidae, Antilopinae): the question of their origin and diversification during the Miocene. Journal of Zoological Systematics, 43(1). Tribe Naemorhedini - Mountain Goats, Chamois and Their Relatives Campos, P.F., et al. (2010). Molecular identification of the extinct mountain goat, Oreamnos harringtoni (Bovidae). Boreas, Vol.39. Gliozzi, E. and A. Malatesta (1980). The Quaternary Goat of Capo Figari (Northeastern Sardinia). Geologica Rom., 19. Nagorsen, D.W. and G. Keddie (2000). Late Pleistocene Mountain Goats (Oreamnos americanus) from Vancouver Island: Biogeographic Implications. Journal of Mammalogy, 81(3). Tribe Ovibovini - Musk Ox and Their Relatives ' Ovibovini - Africa/Middle East Gentry, A.W. (1970). Revised Classification for Makapania broomi Wells and Cooke (Bovidae, Mammalia). Palaeont.afr., 13. Ovibovini - Asia/Malaysia/Pacific Islands Qiu, Z.-X., B.-Y. Wang and G.-P. Xie (2000). Preliminary Report on a New Genus of Ovibovinae from Hezheng District, Gansu, China. Vertebrata PalAsiatica, 38(2). Ovibovini - Europe (including Greenland and Siberia) Cregut-Bonnoure, E. and V. Dimitrijevic (2006). Megalovis balcanicus sp.nov. and Soergelia intermedia sp.nov. (Mammalia, Bovidae, Caprinae), new Ovibovini from the Early Pleistocene of Europe. Revue de Paleobiologie, Vol.25, Number 2. Geraads, D. and N. Spassov. A new species of Criotherium (Bovidae, Mammalia) from the late Miocene of Bulgaria. Hellenic Journal of Geosciences, Vol.43. Gentry, A.W. (2001). An Ovibovine (Mammalia, Bovidae) from the Neogene of Stratzing, Austria. Ann.Naturhist.Mus. Wien, 102A. Martinez-Navarro, B., et al. (2012). First occurrence of Soergelia (Ovibovini, Bovidae, Mammalia) in the Early Pleistocene of Italy. Quaternary International, 267. Ovibovini - North America Guthrie, R.D. (1992). New paleoecological and paleoethological information on the extinct helmeted muskoxen from Alaska. Acta. Zool. Fennici, 28. Hills, L.V. and M.C. Wilson (2003). Helmeted Muskox (Bootherium bombifrons) from near Fort Saskatchewan, Alberta: Dating Evidence for Redeposition in Late Pleistocene Alluvium.Geographie physique et Quaternaire, Vol.57, numbers 2-3. Kitts, D.B. (1953). A Pleistocene Musk Ox from New York and the Distribution of the Musk-Oxen. American Museum Novitates, Number 1607. Kropf, M., et al. (2007). Dung, diet, and the paleoenvironment of the extinct shrub-ox (Euceratherium collinum) on the Colorado Plateau, USA. Quaternary Research, 67. Liggett, G.A. and M.E. Nelson New Records of Late Pleistocene (Rancholabrean) Muskox (Artiodactyla: Bovidae: Ovibos) from Alaska. Maher, W.J. 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