Jump to content

Search the Community

Showing results for tags 'fake'.

More search options

  • Search By Tags

    Type tags separated by commas.
    Tags should be keywords or key phrases. e.g. carcharodon, pliocene, cypresshead formation, florida.
  • Search By Author

Content Type


  • Fossil Discussion
    • General Fossil Discussion
    • Fossil Hunting Trips
    • Fossil ID
    • Is It Real? How to Recognize Fossil Fabrications
    • Partners in Paleontology - Member Contributions to Science
    • Questions & Answers
    • Fossil of the Month
    • Member Collections
    • A Trip to the Museum
    • Paleo Re-creations
    • Collecting Gear
    • Fossil Preparation
    • Member Fossil Trades Bulletin Board
    • Member-to-Member Fossil Sales
    • Fossil News
  • Gallery
  • Fossil Sites
    • Africa
    • Asia
    • Australia - New Zealand
    • Canada
    • Europe
    • Middle East
    • South America
    • United States
  • Fossil Media
    • Members Websites
    • Fossils On The Web
    • Fossil Photography
    • Fossil Literature
    • Documents


  • Anson's Blog
  • Mudding Around
  • Nicholas' Blog
  • dinosaur50's Blog
  • Traviscounty's Blog
  • Seldom's Blog
  • tracer's tidbits
  • Sacredsin's Blog
  • fossilfacetheprospector's Blog
  • jax world
  • echinoman's Blog
  • Ammonoidea
  • Traviscounty's Blog
  • brsr0131's Blog
  • brsr0131's Blog
  • Adventures with a Paddle
  • Caveat emptor
  • -------
  • Fig Rocks' Blog
  • placoderms
  • mosasaurs
  • ozzyrules244's Blog
  • Sir Knightia's Blog
  • Terry Dactyll's Blog
  • shakinchevy2008's Blog
  • MaHa's Blog
  • Stratio's Blog
  • Phoenixflood's Blog
  • Brett Breakin' Rocks' Blog
  • Seattleguy's Blog
  • jkfoam's Blog
  • Erwan's Blog
  • Erwan's Blog
  • Lindsey's Blog
  • marksfossils' Blog
  • ibanda89's Blog
  • Liberty's Blog
  • Liberty's Blog
  • Back of Beyond
  • St. Johns River Shark Teeth/Florida
  • Ameenah's Blog
  • gordon's Blog
  • West4me's Blog
  • West4me's Blog
  • Pennsylvania Perspectives
  • michigantim's Blog
  • michigantim's Blog
  • lauraharp's Blog
  • lauraharp's Blog
  • micropterus101's Blog
  • micropterus101's Blog
  • GPeach129's Blog
  • nicciann's Blog
  • Olenellus' Blog
  • nicciann's Blog
  • maybe a nest fossil?
  • Deep-Thinker's Blog
  • Deep-Thinker's Blog
  • bear-dog's Blog
  • javidal's Blog
  • Digging America
  • John Sun's Blog
  • John Sun's Blog
  • Ravsiden's Blog
  • Jurassic park
  • The Hunt for Fossils
  • The Fury's Grand Blog
  • julie's ??
  • Hunt'n 'odonts!
  • falcondob's Blog
  • Monkeyfuss' Blog
  • cyndy's Blog
  • pattyf's Blog
  • pattyf's Blog
  • chrisf's Blog
  • chrisf's Blog
  • nola's Blog
  • mercyrcfans88's Blog
  • Emily's PRI Adventure
  • trilobite guy's Blog
  • xenacanthus' Blog
  • barnes' Blog
  • myfossiltrips.blogspot.com
  • HeritageFossils' Blog
  • Fossilefinder's Blog
  • Fossilefinder's Blog
  • Emily's MotE Adventure
  • farfarawy's Blog
  • Microfossil Mania!
  • A Novice Geologist
  • Southern Comfort
  • Eli's Blog
  • andreas' Blog
  • Recent Collecting Trips
  • retired blog
  • Stocksdale's Blog
  • andreas' Blog test
  • fossilman7's Blog
  • Hey Everyone :P
  • fossil maniac's Blog
  • Piranha Blog
  • xonenine's blog
  • xonenine's Blog
  • Fossil collecting and SAFETY
  • Detrius
  • pangeaman's Blog
  • pangeaman's Blog
  • pangeaman's Blog
  • Jocky's Blog
  • Jocky's Blog
  • Kehbe's Kwips
  • RomanK's Blog
  • Prehistoric Planet Trilogy
  • mikeymig's Blog
  • Western NY Explorer's Blog
  • Regg Cato's Blog
  • VisionXray23's Blog
  • Carcharodontosaurus' Blog
  • What is the largest dragonfly fossil? What are the top contenders?
  • Hihimanu Hale
  • Test Blog
  • jsnrice's blog
  • Lise MacFadden's Poetry Blog
  • BluffCountryFossils Adventure Blog
  • meadow's Blog
  • Makeing The Unlikley Happen
  • KansasFossilHunter's Blog
  • DarrenElliot's Blog
  • jesus' Blog
  • A Mesozoic Mosaic
  • Dinosaur comic
  • Zookeeperfossils
  • Cameronballislife31's Blog
  • My Blog
  • TomKoss' Blog
  • A guide to calcanea and astragali
  • Group Blog Test
  • Paleo Rantings of a Blockhead
  • Dead Dino is Art
  • The Amber Blog
  • TyrannosaurusRex's Facts
  • PaleoWilliam's Blog
  • The Paleo-Tourist
  • The Community Post
  • Lyndon D Agate Johnson's Blog
  • BRobinson7's Blog
  • Eastern NC Trip Reports
  • Toofuntahh's Blog
  • Pterodactyl's Blog
  • A Beginner's Foray into Fossiling
  • Micropaleontology blog
  • Pondering on Dinosaurs
  • Fossil Preparation Blog
  • On Dinosaurs and Media
  • cheney416's fossil story
  • jpc
  • Red-Headed Red-Neck Rock-Hound w/ My Trusty HellHound Cerberus
  • Red Headed
  • Paleo-Profiles
  • Walt's Blog
  • Between A Rock And A Hard Place
  • Rudist digging at "Point 25", St. Bartholomä, Styria, Austria (Campanian, Gosau-group)
  • Prognathodon saturator 101


  • Calendar


  • Annelids
  • Arthropods
    • Crustaceans
    • Insects
    • Trilobites
    • Other Arthropods
  • Brachiopods
  • Cnidarians (Corals, Jellyfish, Conulariids )
    • Corals
    • Jellyfish, Conulariids, etc.
  • Echinoderms
    • Crinoids & Blastoids
    • Echinoids
    • Other Echinoderms
    • Starfish and Brittlestars
  • Forams
  • Graptolites
  • Molluscs
    • Bivalves
    • Cephalopods (Ammonites, Belemnites, Nautiloids)
    • Gastropods
    • Other Molluscs
  • Sponges
  • Bryozoans
  • Other Invertebrates
  • Ichnofossils
  • Plants
  • Chordata
    • Amphibians & Reptiles
    • Birds
    • Dinosaurs
    • Fishes
    • Mammals
    • Sharks & Rays
    • Other Chordates
  • *Pseudofossils ( Inorganic objects , markings, or impressions that resemble fossils.)

Found 153 results

  1. I guess restoration is OK up to a point but are overly restored Heteromorphs common coming out Drôme? I've picked a couple up at what seems to be an average price for these examples in this condition. There's some resin between the ammos and matrix maybe as support. Do they often come out broken and are stuck back together? Certainly there is something going on as there is little room twixt ammo and matrix and ammos have been prepped there which looks far too clean to have been done on matrix. I've not yet had time to look for minute resin air bubbles on the fossils but the resin support doesn't look like it was hidden too well. I guess this could be intentional to show or a rubbish enhancement. One is soaking in water at the moment, acetone and UV lights are in my studio so can't do those tests tomorrow tho I might use Mrs B's nail polish remover to look for resin/colouring on the fossils. I'll get a hot needle out too. Rough images with not much info below, I'll take better pics later. Thanks John In an act of stupidity I think this should have been posted in the 'Is It Real' section so admins if you think I have please move. Edited for stupidity.....
  2. Ok before I get laughed off the forum, I have to state that I purchased this not knowing if it was real but loving it for the aesthetic factor. Been a long time beachcomber/shell collector and as a result have found some sea fossils over the years, like shark's teeth and fossil shells. I do not know anything about ammonites. I bought this at a store that specializes in home décor and often has a mish mash of imported items. I have seen real shells there as well as agate décor items. I basically love anything with a seashell or sea fossil on it, real or not! Began to look at rough fossil ammonites on line and really can't determine how to tell difference. I do not see any holes in this one produced by air bubbles, which was one thing to look for. I smelled it and I get a clay smell. Have done pottery with clay so I know the smell. It measures about 7" x 7" widest part and about 2 5/8" deep. Weighs 5 lbs 15.9 ounces. I know this came wrapped in plastic with an "India" stamp on plastic before they unwrapped to sell. So you ammonite experts have a go at it and tell me what you see! I love to learn!
  3. Is my Amber necklace real?

    Please help me to identify if my necklace is Amber . Thank you.
  4. Hi all, as we know, Cambropallas trilobites are one of the most highly faked of all trilobites. Still, I am keen to get a real pair. I notice more positive+negatives popping up in the market, sometimes for 150 USD or less. How safe are these type? Have fakers found a new method to create pairs now? What do you think of these two in particular?
  5. Hi all. eBay is generally a good website for us to get fossil specimens as long as we do the proper research, and seek out reputable sellers. However, certain fossils pop up every now and then that are obvious fakes, and not every buyer is diligent enough to know so. What we can do is to report these listings. Believe it or not, sometimes they do get taken down. To begin, say you notice a fossil you know is fake. Click on Report Item on the top right, it's above the eBay item number. eBay takes you to another screen: Choose Listing practices > Fraudulent listing activities > You suspect that a listing is fraudulent Hit Continue, and you'll be given an item number. Hit 'Send Report'. You do not need to be a bidder to make this report. You'll know the report is made when you're taken to this new screen: Ultimately, the best practice if you shop on eBay is to do your due research. Ask the experts here; they are more than willing to point out when a fossil is fake. I've personally saved thousands just by helpful advice here. Also, if you notice any fake fossils, do us a favor as well by posting about it here, but do not mention the seller's name or identity; we are here to learn, not conduct a witch hunt. Good luck
  6. I was perusing trilobites on e-bay and came across this gem: the seller makes no bones about the fact that it is a resin cast of a Phacops mortality plate. What is interesting is the level of detail of the cast, including individual lenses on the schizochroal eyes. Most of the websites discussing trilobite fakes indicate that if you see details like terrace lines and individual eye facets, there is a very good chance that it is not a fake (at least those parts of the trilobite). This cast changes those rules, it seems. In the close-up views, you can see bubbles from the setting resin (another tell-tale sign of a resin cast). So, in conclusion...be watchful...the level of detail in resin casts has just gone up a notch. ---Prem
  7. So, I came upon this supposed "Sturgeon fossil" from China, while looking at a well known auction site. I am not convinced of it's authenticity, due to the fact that it is preserved 3-Dimensionally. Also the lack of distinction around the margin of the fish is questionably, as well. The sturgeon fossils from China that I have seen are usually compression fossils, preserved 2-dimensionally. See this thread here on the Forum. It also looks more like a modern sturgeon, as well. It looks like either a skillful carving of a sturgeon, that has been adhered to the matrix, or even possibly a dried out fish that has been cemented to the matrix. Either way, I wouldn't pay what they are asking for it. I think many uniformed collectors might actually fall for this kind of fakery. The more you know,... Buyer beware. Regards,
  8. Hello I just came to your fantastic community and i want your knowledge and experiences to answer my questions if you can. I used to collect ammonites and trilobites, but my love for dinos pushed me to search about them and i found some cheap spinosaurus teeth. I thought it was a good start so i purchased some in low price (I couldnt beleave that i could take a dinosaur part so cheap, but i saw the spino teeth are very common) They look real teeth to me and i dont care about any restoration or breakage because i just want a dinosaur tooth. The info from the dealer: DINOSAUR TEETH 55MM 40mm Spinosaurus aegyptiacus Cenomanian CRETACEOUS Kem Kem, MOROCCO The photo is from him. I am waiting for them to come in the next few days so i can post some new pictures if you want. So in your opinion are they real dinosaur teeth? Are from Spinosaurus? Whats the difference from the teeth from other animals, lets say crocodile teeth or something else? Thanks.
  9. Hello Everyone, I've decided to start this thread after originally creating this thread. The thread goes into discussion on the idea of a "fake" Mosasaur Jaw from Morocco. The discussion concluded that the Jaw itself is fake but the teeth are real. However, many people (including experts selling the fossil and previous buyers) didn't know that the vast majority of the fossils found like that Jaw were in fact mostly fake. They are often marked down as Composits which the sellers believing them to be made up from parts of a Mosasaur and the reset into a new matrix. This is wrong as the vast majority are made from 'goat bones' and 'dust' and glued together. As it turns out Morocco is a popular place for fossils but locals have found ways to increase the price of cheaper end fossils to sell for higher amounts, this is not limited to Mosasaurs and goes for all fossils found in Morocco. For example with the Jaws they often don't even use good teeth and mostly pick the cheapest broken teeth that have 1 good side. Click on these articles for more detail on fakes and how they make them. Article 1 Article 2 Continuing from this idea I thought I would produce this thread to not only highlight information for all future buyers but also give examples of fakes, start discussions about the fossils and how to discover if they are the natural matrix or not and also talk about general Morocco fossil things. Hope this and this thread helps all future buyers, Lolman
  10. I received a huge Trilobite like this as a gift many years ago. I know the matrix looks fake on these but are the Trilobites normally real?
  11. Hello everyone! I purchased this trilobite but after reading tutorials on spotting fake trilobites. Im doubtful if this is a legit trilobite. Here are the images of my trilobite. I would apreciate a lot your help. Thank you, regards, Tina
  12. Hey guys! If you have bids on hadrosaur eggs currently being sold on our favorite auction site STRONGLY RECONSIDER your purchase... There are several of them being auctioned right now from two different sellers. I bought one and received it on Monday. I was pretty suspicious from the get go, but my curiosity got the better of me. It came from Malaysia (red flag), was packaged well, and came quickly. It looked nice, but a little sketchy. Texture wasn't great. Already I decided I wanted to return it...but I also needed to know if it was really a hoax. That's when I decided to take a knife and scrape away the matrix from the egg for a few hours (I don't have any prep tools). Eventually my knife plunged through a hole. Within the hole I could see there was a small space between the base of the egg and matrix. At this point I decided, what the heck, and grabbed a nail and a hammer. I hammered away until eventually the matrix came off in chunks. One chunk came away with a piece of egg shell. Under the egg shell there were large amounts of glue. It was quite obvious at this point that this was just a piece of junk... With that said, don't make my mistake. I'm sure most people on here are wiser than I am, but the eggs looked reasonable, and the guy offered a full return. Maybe if I hadn't hammered at it I could have gotten my money back, but I had to know. At least I may save other people from getting scammed . Kind regards, Lauren
  13. Given the enormous number of repaired Megalodon teeth, which we must endure, and in honor of the new sub-forum here, I thought this might be a good time and place to revisit a classic case. It all began with a simple, but hopeful question, put to the membership here, last year. The item below was the item in question.
  14. This mammoth molar was given to me a few years ago, and the owner could not tell me much about it. Based on the photos, can anyone tell me if it is real or a replica? I tried pushing a red hot pin into it to see if it was resin or not, and the pin did not go through. And based on the number of enamel ridges, does anyone know which species it might be? Thanks a lot.
  15. I am new to collecting fossils. Can someone tell me if this is genuine?
  16. Fake Mosasaur Jaw?

    Hi Everyone, I'm new here and relatively new to fossil collecting. Today I bought this Moroccan Mosasaur jaw in matrix and I am 99% sure it is fake. I was hoping to get the groups opinion on its authenticity or lack thereof. Please refer to the included pictures. Thanks for your help! -AWT
  17. Real Or Fake Meg?

    So, I bought this tooth on Amazon and it finally came, it feels sorta smooth and plastic like on the blade. It's about two inches (haven't measured it yet). Can you guys tell if it's real?
  18. Noticed this listing on eBay of a pig jaw being sold as fossil. Obvious problem is the pig is not native to North America until introduced by early European settlers. I know this because I bought a wild boar jaw from a person also in Iowa, researched it and found that the pig, domestic or wild, was not native to North America. The same seller lists bison bones which I assume are of the same vintage. This person makes an all too common mistake, they go out and look around along river banks during low water and every bone they find which has dark patina suddenly becomes a fossil. I don't think this person is intentionally trying to decieve anyone. But whether honest or dishonest the damage is done once the bones go into a collection and people are told they are 10,000 year old ice age fossils. I like the wild boar jaw I bought which I fortunately didnt pay very much. It's nice to have but it's more part of my reference than fossil collection. I also bought two bison vertebrae cheaply from the same person. They are nice to have for the same reasons but questionable fossils. The last few months there has been a flood of these so called fossils coming out of Iowa because as it was explained to me there was a flood season followed by a drought about two or three years ago in that area and anyone interested in fossils or bones was out walking up and down the river banks picking up about any bone they found. They are going on eBay in growing numbers.
  19. Mosasaur Jaw Real Or Fake?

    Brought a mosasaur jaw for a decent amount of money, heard so much about composite jaws I would like to ask people's opinion on here? I've had a dig round the edges of the teeth since this photo to try and check if it's real, this hasn't helped me decide, wondering if it's restored or just fake, please help me decide?
  20. This is a very dubious trilobite I've purchased. There are lots of disagreements among other fossil collectors regarding it's authenticity. Here are some of their conclusions about it (1) A fake (2) Genuine, but bad preparation work (3) Restored on the missing parts, with galbella and axial rings are real. Do tell me what you think. Thank you.
  21. I'm sure this is a fake; I just want some verification before I saw it in half. As some of you know, I just bought a large collection of fossils and am trying to learn as much as possible. From my reading, I'm 99.9% sure this is a fake. I want to saw it in half to better understand how they are created. You can actually see where the trilobite is sunken down a bit. Looks like the real matrix was hollowed out and the fake trilobite was set inside. I appreciate any and all opinions! Thanks
  22. My brother was born with all the artistic talent in my family. He flint knaps arrowheads to flint guitars as art. He can make Mississippian Indian pipes, picture frames with the appearance of how you would find arrowheads on the ground with grass, flakes and sand glued to the surface, displays of arrows arranged like flowers and 20 inch flint blades of exceptional quality. This time he expanded into Paleontology: This was one of two "fake mosasaur" skulls he made. He did not even know what a Mosasaur looked like but went on to make one in an artistic moment. It was so big he wanted to get it out of the back of his pickup truck and sold it to me for some small sum, maybe $30.00. Not bad for making it up... one tooth at a time. Even the skull sutures! Look closely now... It made of Elmer's Glue, Flour and wood putty, a little paint and lots of imagination. I had two USGS geologists to pick up some mining books and noticed the slab in an open door closet. Their eyes popped out of their sockets! The old looking tag says 3/24/20, Snaglasaurus, Grove, Oklahoma. I for an April Fools joke put several photographs on Craigs List, price $10,000. I had an email the next time I turned the computer on with someone interested. I emailed back and said I had just sold it... and deleted it.
  23. Pertaining to various threads recently about insect inclusions in Baltic amber and the possibilities for faking, I thought you may be interested in the attached paper. It’s not widely known in the fossil community that the sellers of this material (especially those in the jewellery trade) have for many years been autoclaving the material to improve its colour and clarity. An autoclave is a steam oven that functions a bit like a large pressure cooker, typically used in hospitals for sterilizing surgical instruments. One of the spin-offs from this practice is that there has been a dramatic increase in the availability of Baltic material containing insects reaching the fossil community because it is now being widely applied to cheaper (and often younger) layered amber. This extract from Christel Hoffeins’ paper (published last year): “The prices for trade quantities of amber have increased year by year, so many companies have started to treat large quantities of the so-called “Schlauben” or “sklejka”, a cheaper quality of raw layered amber. Layered amber was formed by successive resin flows outside the bark of the amber tree, sometimes up to 100 in large samples, and the surface of each layer was as sticky as flypaper. The percentage of inclusions is higher than normally found in unlayered amber pieces. Schlauben are very brittle and cannot be cut for beads or other products. But after treatment in an autoclave the layers are permanently bound, and can then be cut and trimmed without difficulty or loss of prized material. A side-effect of clarifying and Schlauben processing is the large amount of autoclaved inclusion material available on the market.” The paper describes the process, what happens to the amber and what happens to the inclusions with some interesting comment of the difficulties this may create for insect identification in specimens that have been purchased rather than found. Baltic Amber - Autoclave Treatment & Effect on Insect Inclusions.pdf
  24. Real Or Fake?

    I am hoping someone here can help me decide if this ammonite is real or fake. I don’t have a really reason that I believe it is fake other then it was bought and not found. I bought it from a gift shop 7-8 years ago. If I need to take better pictures please let me know, this was the best I could do with my phone. Thanks in advance for any help!
  25. These are a few of the pdf files (and a few Microsoft Word documents) that I've accumulated in my web browsing. MOST of these are hyperlinked to their source. If you want one that is not hyperlinked or if the link isn't working, e-mail me at joegallo1954@gmail.com and I'll be happy to send it to you. Please note that this list will be updated continuously as I find more available resources. All of these files are freely available on the Internet so there should be no copyright issues. Articles with author names in RED are new additions since July 6, 2017. Fossil Fakes and Composites Aguirre, J. (2004). Plagiarism in Paleontology: A New Threat Within the Scientific Community. Revista Española de Micropaleontologia, 36(2). Balter, M. (2013). Authenticity of China's Fabulous Fossils Gets New Scrutiny. Science, Vol.340. Bednarik, R.G. (2013). African Eve: Hoax or Hypothesis? Advances in Anthropology, Vol.3, Number 4. Branch, G. and E.C. Scott (2013). Peking, Piltdown and Paluxy: creationist legends about paleoanthropology. Evolution: Education and Outreach, 6: 27. Corbacho, J. and C. Sendino. Fossil fakes and their recognition. Corbacho, J., C. Sendino., and M'H.Tahiri (2011). Palaeontological Fakes. Batalleria, 16. (Thanks to xonenine for finding this one!) Dawson, C. and A.S. Woodward (1913). On the Discovery of a Paleolithic Human Skull and Mandible in the Flint-Bearing Gravel Overlying the Wealden at Piltdown, Fletching.Quarterly Journal of the Geological Society, Vol. 69. (NOTE: 'Piltdown Man' was later proven to be one of the greatest hoaxes ever perpetrated in science. This article is included for historical value only.) Eriksson, M.E. and G.O. Poinar (2015). Fake it till you make it - the uncanny art of forging amber. Geology Today, Vol.31, Number 1. Espinoza, E.O., et al. (1990). A Method for Differentiating Modern from Ancient Proboscidean Ivory in Worked Objects. Current Research in the Pleistocene, Vol.7. Kosmowska-Ceranowicz, B. (2003). Amber Imitations in the Warsaw amber collection. Acta zoologica cracoviensia, 46 (suppl.-Fossil Insects). Lerosey-Aubril, R.. A fake Inca trilobite from Chile. The trilobite papers, 16. Massare, J.A. and D.R. Lomax (2014). Recognizing Composite Specimens of Jurassic Ichthyosaurs in Historical Collections. The Geological Curator, 10(1). (Note: Article begins on page 9. Thanks to doushantuo for locating this one!) Mateus, O., M. Overbeeke, and F. Rita (2008). Dinosaur Frauds, Hoaxes and "Frankensteins": How to Distinguish Fake and Genuine Vertebrate Fossils. Journal of Paleontological Techniques, Number 2. Olson, S.L. (2000). Birds-Dino Flap - Countdown to Piltdown at National Geographic. The Rise and Fall of Archaeoraptor. Backbone, Vol.13, Number 2. Raducanu, I. (2006). Actual Exigencies Concerning the Quality of Amber Pieces Commercialized in Romania. Buletinul Universitatii Petrol - Gaze din Ploiesti, Vol. LVIII, Number 2. Rowe, T., et al. (2001). The Archaeoraptor forgery. Nature, Vol.410 (brief communications). Ruffell, A., N. Majury and W.E. Brooks (2012). Geological Fakes and Frauds. Earth-Science Reviews, 111. Padian, K. (2000). Feathers, Fakes and Fossil Dealers: How the Commercial Sale of Fossils Erodes Science and Education. Palaeontologia Electronica, Vol.3, Issue 2, Editorial 2. Senter, P. and D.M. Klein (2014). Investigations of claims of late-surviving pterosaurs: the cases of Belon's, Aldrovandi's, and Cardinal Barberini's winged dragons. Palaeontologia Electronica, Vol.17, Issue 3. Senter, P. and P.D. Wilkins (2013). Investigation of a claim of a late-surviving pterosaur and exposure of a taxidemic hoax: the case of Cornelius Meyer's dragon. Palaeontologia Electronica, Vol.16, Issue 1; 6A. Stone, R. (2010). Altering the Past: China's Faked Fossils Problem. Science, Vol.330. Straus, W.L. (1954). The Great Piltdown Hoax. Science, Vol.119. Turrittin, T.H. (2006). An annotated bibliography of the Piltdown Man forgery, 1953-2005. PalArch, 1, 1. Vanlandingham, S.L. Extraordinary Examples of Deception in Peer Reviewing: Conconction of the Dorenberg Skull Hoax and Related Misconduct. Wang, X. (2013). Mortgaging the future of Chinese paleontology. PNAS, Vol.110, Number 9. Wing, O. (2009). A simulated bird gastric mill and its implications for fossil gastrolith authenticity. Fossil Record, 12(1). Zhou, Z., J.A. Clarke and F. Zhang (2002). Archaeoraptor's Better Half. Nature, Vol. 420. Zipfel, B., C. Yates and A.M. Yates (2010). A case of vertebrate fossil forgery from Madagascar. Palaeont.afr., 45, Technical Note. Pseudofossils Breton, G., M. Serrano-Sanchez and F.J. Vega (2014). Filamentous micro-organisms, inorganic inclusions and pseudo-fossils in the Miocene amber from Totolapa (Chiapas, Mexico): taphonomy and systematics. Boletin de la Sociedad Geologica Mexicana, Vol.66, Number 1. Jenkins, R.J.F., P.S. Plummer and K.C. Moriarty (1981). Late Precambrian Pseudofossils from the Flinders Ranges, South Australia. Transactions of The Royal Society of South Australia, 105. Knaust, D. and R. Hauschke (2004). Trace fossils versus pseudofossils in Lower Triassic playa deposits, Germany. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecoloty, 215. Queensland Museum (2011). Pseudofossils - Fact Sheet. The State of Queensland (Queensland Museum). Schopf, J.W., et al. (2010). Precambrian microbe-like pseudofossils: A promising solution to the problem. Precambrian Research, 179.