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Found 16 results

  1. Cyclocystoids

    I collected this rock slab two years ago outside Napoleon, Indiana, and didn't get around to identifying the two "rings" until this week, when I asked two members of my fossil club for their help. What we have are two specimens of cyclocystoid in the same slab. Each is about 12mm in diameter. Because I collected this from spoils piles, I can't pinpoint the period, but my guess is Silurian or Ordovician. There's no evidence of the peripheral skirt, plates or radiating lines from the center. Only the cupules. I will call on another club member to see if he can do any cleaning that might reveal more of these specimens. I'd appreciate any help you can provide regarding genus and/or species.
  2. Looking For A Copy

    In order to ID a find of mine, I came across an article that appears to have my answer. Does anyone possibly have access to this? I can't seem to get it: Carabocrinid crinoids from the Ordovician of northern Iowa and southern Minnesota Thanks, Mike
  3. Cystoid and coral?

    Hello friends and TFF family! Another little palaeozoic problem. This was given to me back in the mid 1980s and was said to be from the Pentamerus Grits of Newlands, Girvan, Ayrshire, Scotland. Brrrrrrrr!!!!!! I have it marked down only as "Cystoid?" and it may well be. The hexagonal patterned bit down the edge of the rock including the smooth shell like piece is 2.2 cm long. Bad picture. Here is a better close up. You can kind of see above that the hexagons are lying on the surface of the smooth bit, which i once thought was a bit of Pentamerus oblongatus but now think it may be some sort of inner layer of the fossil to which the hexagons are attached. Clearer below : Any ideas would be most welcome! @piranha @TqB
  4. I went shopping for a nice Cystoid (We don't have in my area as far as I know) - Bought a Holocystites scutellatus - When researching the taxonomy, Wikipemedia Commons gives the following: Regnum: Animalia • Phylum: Echinodermata • Subphylum: Blastozoa • Classis: Cystoidea • Ordo: Aristocystitida • Familia: Aristocystitidae • Genus: Holocystites Hall, 1864 Fossilworks gives: Kingdom: Animalia Phylum: Echinodermata Subphylum: †Blastozoa - Sprinkle 1973 Class: †Diploporita Superfamily: †Sphaeronitida Family: †Holocystitidae Genus: †Holocystites So - Is it a CYSTOID or a BLASTOID? Or is science not sure???? I bought another one that Fossilworks DOES classify as a cystoid. Did some reading... seems the fossils from this location are listed as Holocystites and Cystoids. Any insight here? I am trying to build a nice representative collection, so I can start identifying on my own... and try to study when I have the time!!! Dave Ruckser
  5. Disorganized chaos

    Well I got a new phone (Samsung Galaxy Note 8) on Black Friday and was playing with it snapping some pictures. Those of you that have been to my house know that I am totally disorganized and definitely need to organize my fossils. Thought I would share some of the disorganized chaos that is my basement fossil dumping area. This tends to be where fossils go to rest if they do not make it to the glass display cases (3) upstairs where I put the good stuff. But then that is a step up from the ones that never get out of the map drawers and boxes in the garage. One of these days I will get around to organizing things, just never happens to be today....... I suspect my kids will end up having to organize it someday......... (That's a scary thought)
  6. Honestly I seriously thought about not posting this find from yesterday. I did not want any of you thinking that the fossil gods where being grossly unfair. But then I decided that in all likelihood most of my comrades here on the forum will never have seen one of these, never mind one this is pretty much as good as you find them. Promise not to submit it for IPFOTM. Four of us were out collecting splitting a lot of rock and excavating near the area that I found those two amazing Astrocystites a few weeks ago (August Invertebrate Fossil of the month) After a very unproductive 5 hours two of my friends gave up and headed home leaving the two regular diehards (Myself and J.) Seeing as no one had found anything of note splitting rock in the blast piles, we both decided decided to work on excavating the wall about 25 feet from the area that produced the astrocystites and a wealth of other cystoids and edrioasteroids. After about 8 hours of wall excavating J. was rewarded with a gorgeous complete extra large pleurosystites. As for myself I somehow once again lucked out finding this spectacular Amygdalocysties florealis. Only a few of these are found each year at this site and rarely are they as complete as this. This is a class of echinoderms known as paracrinoids. There are only two species represented in southern Ontario the Comarocystities and this one the amygdalocystites. These only occured in the Ordovician. I guess they were a failed experiment. This specimen was found at the top of the BobCaygeon formation. Here is what they look like...... very weird........ but cool Believe it or not I spent about 5 hours prepping this with 40 micron dolomite, .015 nozzle and 18 PSI. Here is the before picture. I actually knew what it was in the field because of the distinctinve pattern of the plates. I aslo could see that it had a stem and at least one arm in the field. I had to field douse it thoroughly in Cyano as it looked like it was ready to flake off the plate at the slightest tough. Here it is as found.... (not much to look at) Here it is prepped The finished creature is 35 mm x 20 mm wide The whole plate which also has a small crinoid on it.
  7. Amecystis laevis

    Amecystis laevis (Ulrich and Kirk, 1921). Upper Bobcaygeon Formation, Middle Ordovician. Simcoe County, Ontario, Canada. This specimen is among the ten specimens on a hash plate that was won in a bid and bought over Ebay. The specimen is missing the two tentacles at the top of the head. Length of the specimen was measured by using a measuring tape.
  8. I bought this fossil the other day. It is two cystoids from the middle Cambrian, apparently from Idaho. I was looking for more information as to how they caught their food, perhaps their mouth/digestive processes. I seem to find a lot more about crinoids than I do these guys. Part of my curiosity is that I've seen fossils of crinoids with rather well-preserved tube arms showing decently sized pinnules to catch floating food particles, however, the few pictures of cystoid fossils I've come across seem to show thin arms and I can't really see any pinnules preserved. It just kind of peaked my curiosity about how these guys would have caught their food and transported it to their mouths. I also can't seem to find any pictures of fossils showing the mouth structure of these creatures. I'm relatively new to fossils, so any help is appreciated. I'm sure someone is bound to know more about these things or have a fossil that shows these things in more detail. Any help is appreciated.
  9. Ordovician Lentil-Like Problematic Fossils

    Hello everyone, these fossils are quite common in at least one Czech locality of Bohdalec formation (upper Caradoc/Beroun) and I wondered if anyone has seen anything similar somewhere. The fossils are lentil shaped, with a thin egg-like shell that could be cracked and removed to expose inner layer of different color and structure. The size is 1 to 4 mm in diameter. I've consulted some experts and although they've all encountered similar fossil, they have no idea what it is. One of the opinions was that it could be a juvenile cystoid of some sort, for example Echinosphaerites seems to be common in this formation, although never found on this locality. However no one seems to have done any research into this yet. Associated fauna are small cyclopygid and illaenid trilobites, small brachiopods, graptolites, bivalves and ostracods. Thanks in advance for your thoughts Ondrej
  10. Unknown Ordovician Verulam

    Here is one for you knowledgeable folks. The fossil does not actually belong to me .The individual who found this specimen is a very experienced collector and has never seen this one before in either the verulam or the BobCaygeon. It was found last season in either the bottom of the verulam formation or the top of the BobCaygeon Ordovician formation near Brechin, Ontario Canada. We are generally calling this a cystoid or a crinoid. Some thoughts so far are (in order of our thinking) Balacrinus sp archeocrinus lacunosus Neoarcheocrinus Rare cystite Jump in with your thoughts
  11. Cystoid

    From the album Silurian Fossils - Giles County Tennessee

    Caryocrinites cystoid fossil found in the Waldron Shale in Giles County, Tennessee. The cystoids resembled crinoids, but they had an ovoid, rather than cup-shaped, body. The mouth was at the upper pole of the body, with the opposite end attached to the substratum, often by a stalk, although some stalkless species did exist
  12. I just purchased a large collection of fossils & need some help identifying this plate of trilobites; I'm a total novice when it comes to fossils; if you ever need help with Roman antiquities, I'm your man; but with fossils, I'm a total ignoramus. Here are some pics. I'm probably ok with the cystoid; but I can use all the help I can get! Any help will be greatly appreciated! Thanks in advance!
  13. Russian Trilobite Id

    Hi all, I recently acquired this plate with a couple of Russian trilobites and a cystoid. Seller said it was from an old estate, and does not have the exact species for each type of bug. I have my own amateur suspicions on their IDs but I would be grateful if someone could help me confirm. Larger trilobite is around 4 inches in length, could it be a Pseudoasaphus(Pseudoasaphinus)? Would like to pinpoint the exact species for this one if possible. Ventral trilobite is about 3 inches, pity it came without the hypostome! My guess is an Asaphus cornutus or lepidurus? Lastly the cystoid, Echinosphaerites? seems to be one of the more common types associated with Russian trilobites. Please let me know what you think!
  14. Pleurocystites sp.

    From the album Other Fossils

    Here is a Pleurocystites sp. from the Cummingsville Formation of the Galena group of Southeast Minnesota.
  15. Cystoid, Blastoid, Or Crinoid?

    Found by a friend in the Mojave Desert. I wasn't sure if this was a cystoid, blastoid, or crinoid - or something else? I appreciate the help. -Zach
  16. These are a few of the pdf files (and a few Microsoft Word documents) that I've accumulated in my web browsing. MOST of these are hyperlinked to their source. If you want one that is not hyperlinked or if the link isn't working, e-mail me at joegallo1954@gmail.com and I'll be happy to send it to you. Please note that this list will be updated continuously as I find more available resources. All of these files are freely available on the Internet so there should be no copyright issues. Articles with author names in RED are new additions since July 10, 2018. Phylum Echinodermata Subphylum Blastozoa Class Blastoidea - Blastoids Bodenbender, B.E. (1995). Morphological, Crystallographic, and Stratigraphic Data in Cladistic Analyses of Blastoid Phylogeny. Contributions from the Museum of Paleontology - The University of Michigan, Vol.29, Number 9. Bodenbender, B.E. and D.C. Fisher (2001). Stratocladistic Analysis of Blastoid Phylogeny. J.Paleont., 75(2). Broadhead, T.W. (1984). Macurdablastus, A Middle Ordovician Blastoid from the Southern Appalachians. The University of Kansas Paleontological Contributions, Paper 110. Etheridge, R. and P.H. Carpenter (1886). Catalogue of the Blastoidea in the Geological Department of the British Museum (Natural History). Taylor and Francis, London. Etheridge, R. and P.H. Carpenter (1882). XXV. On certain Points in the Morphology of the Blastoidea, with Descriptions of some new Genera and Species. The Annals and Magazine of Natural History [Fifth Series], Number 52. Fay, R.O. (1961). Blastoid Studies. University of Kansas Paleontological Contributions, Article 27, Echinodermata 3. (26.89MB) Golden, J. and M.H. Niteki (1971). Catalog of Type and Referred Specimens of Crinozoa (Blastoidea) in Field Museum of Natural History.Fieldiana Geology, Vol.23, Number 4. Haas, O. (1945). Remarks on Some Chester Pentremites. American Museum Novitates, Number 1289. Joysey, K.A. and A. Breimer (1963). The Anatomical Structure and Systematic Position of Pentablastus (Blastoidea) from the Carboniferous of Spain. Palaeontology, Vol.6, Part 3. Macurda, D.B. (1983). Systematics of the Fessiculate Blastoidea. Papers on Paleontology - The University of Michigan, Number 22. (304 pages, 32 MB) Macurda, D.B. (1979). The Ontogeny and Taxonomy of the Mississippian Blastoid Genus Schizoblastus. Contributions from the Museum of Paleontology - The University of Michigan, Vol.25, Number 3. Macurda, D.B. (1977). Two Carboniferous Blastoids from Scotland. Palaeontology, Vol.20, Part 1. Macurda, D.B. (1973). The Stereomic Microstructure of the Blastoid Endoskeleton. Contributions from the Museum of Paleontology - The University of Michigan, Vol.24, Number 8. Macurda, D.B. (1966). The Devonian Blastoid Belocrinus from France. Palaeontology, Vol.9, Part 2. Macurda, D.B. (1964). A New Spiraculate Blastoid, Pyramiblastus, from the Mississippian Hampton Formation of Iowa. Contributions from the Museum of Paleontology - The University of Michigan, Vol.XIX, Number 8. Sprinkle, J. and J.A. Waters (2013). New Ridged, Conical, Fessiculate Blastoid from the Permian of Timor. J.Paleontol., 87(6). Waters, J.A., et al. (2015). Advancing Phylogenic Inference in the Blastoidea (Echinodermata): Virtual 3D Reconstructions of the Internal Anatomy. In: Progress in Echinoderm Palaeobiology. Zamora, S. and I. Rabano (eds.), Cuadernos del Museo Geominero, 19. Class Diploporita Frest, T.J., H.L. Strimple and C.R.C. Paul (2011). The North American Holocystites Fauna (Echinodermata: Blastozoa: Diploporita): Paleobiology and Systematics. Bulletins of American Paleontology, Number 380. Makhlouf, Y., et al. (2017). The diploporite blastozoan Lepidocalix pulcher from the Middle Ordovician of northern Algeria: Taxonomic revision and palaeoecological implications. Acta Palaeontologica Polonica, 62(2). Sheffield, S.L. (2017). The Homology and Phylogeny of the Diploporita (Blastozoa: Echinodermata). Ph.D. Dissertation - University of Tennessee, Knoxville. (184 pages) Class Eocrinoidea Allaire, N., et al. (2017). Morphological disparity and systematic revision of the eocrinoid genus Rhopalocystis (Echinodermata, Blastozoa) from the Lower Ordovician of the central Anti-Atlas (Morocco). Journal of Paleontology. Clausen, S. (2004). New Early Cambrian eocrinoids from the Iberian Chains (NE Spain) and their role in nonreefal benthic communities. Eclogae geol.Helv., 97. Nardin, E., E. Almazan-Vasquez and B.E. Buitron-Sanchez (2009). First report of Gogia (Eocrinoidea, Echinodermata) from the Early-Middle Cambrian of Sonora (Mexico), with biostratigraphical and palaeoecological comments. Geobios, 42. Parsley, R.L. and Y. Zhao (2006). Long Stalked Eocrinoids in the Basal Middle Cambrian Kaili Biota, Taijiang County, Guizhou Province, China. J.Paleont., 80(6). Rozhnov, S.V. (1994). Comparative morphology of Rhipidocystis Jaekel, 1900 and Cryptocrinites von Buch, 1840 (Eocrinoidea; Ordovician). In: Echinoderms through Time. Feral and Roux (eds.), Balkema, Rotterdam. Zamora, S., S. Darroch and I.A. Rahman (2013). Taphonomy and ontogeny of early pelmatozoan echinoderms: A case study of a mass-mortality assemblage of Gogia from the Cambrian of North America. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 377. Class incertae sedis Noailles, F., B. Lefebvre and L. Kašička (2014). A probable case of heterochrony in the solutan Dendrocystites (Echinodermata: Blastozoa) of the Prague Basin (Czech Republic) and a revision of the family Dendrocystitidae Bassler, 1938. Bulletin of Geosciences, 89(3). Class Parablastoidea Paul, C.R.C. and J.C.W. Cope (1982). A Parablastoid from the Arenig of South Wales. Palaeontology, Vol.25, Part 3. Rozhnov, S.V. (2013). A New Genus of Parablastoidea (Echinodermata) from the Middle Ordovician of Ladoga Glint on the Volkhov River (Ladoga Region). Paleontological Journal, Vol.47, Number 2. Sprinkle, J. and C.D. Sumrall (2008). New Parablastoids from the Western United States. The University of Kansas Paleontological Contributions, Number 16. Class Rhombifera Nardin, E. and J. Bohaty (2013). A new pleurocystitid blastozoan from the Middle Devonian of the Eifel (Germany) and its phylogenetic importance. Acta Palaeontologica Polonica, 58(3). Sumrall, C.D. and J. Sprinkle (1998). Early ontogeny of the glyptocystid rhombiferan Lepadocystis moorei. In: Echinoderm Research 1998. Carnevali, C. and Bonasoro (eds.), Balkema, Rotterdam. General Blastozoa Donovan, S.K. and C.R.C. Paul (1985). Coronate Echinoderms from the Lower Palaeozoic of Britain. Palaeontology, Vol.28, Part 3. Foerste, A.F. (1920). Racine and Cedarville Cystids and Blastoids With Notes on Other Echinoderms. The Ohio Journal of Science, Vol.XXI, Number 2. Foote, M. (1992). Paleozoic record of morphological diversity in blastozoan echinoderms. Proc.Natl.Acad.Sci., USA, Vol.89. Nardin, E., et al. (2010). Reappraisal of ambulacral branching patterns in blastozoans. In: Echinoderms: Durham. Harris, et al. (eds.), Taylor&Francis Group, London. Sumrall, C.D., et al. (2009). An Enigmatic Blastozoan Echinoderm Fauna from Central Kentucky. J.Paleont., 83(5). Subphylum Crinozoa (Except Class Crinoidea) Class Cystoidea Ehlers, G.M. and J.B. Leighly (1922). Lipsanocystis traversiensis, a New Cystid from the Devonian of Michigan. Papers from the Michigan Academy of Science, Arts, and Letters, Vol.II. Foerste, A.F. (1920). Racine and Cedarville Cystids and Blastoids With Notes on Other Echinoderms. The Ohio Journal of Science, Vol.XXI, Number 2. Henderson, R.A. and J.H. Shergold (1971). Cyclocystoides from Early Middle Cambrian Rocks of Northwestern Queensland, Australia. Palaeontology, Vol.14, Part 4. Hussey, R.C. (1928). Cystoids from the Trenton Rocks of Michigan. Contributions from the Museum of Paleontology - University of Michigan, Vol.III, Number 4. Kesling, R.V. (1963). Morphology and Relationships of Cyclocystoides. Contributions from the Museum of Paleontology - The University of Michigan, Vol.XVIII, Number 9. Kesling, R.V. (1963). Key for Classification of Cystoids. Contributions from the Museum of Paleontology - The University of Michigan, Vol.XVIII, Number 6. Kesling, R.V. (1962). Morphology and Taxonomy of the Cystoid Cheirocrinus anatiformis (Hall). Contributions from the Museum of Paleontology - The University of Michigan, Vol.XIII, Number 1. Kesling, R.V. (1962). An Interpretation of Rhombifera bohemica Barrande, 1867, An Unusual Hydrophoridian Cystoid. Contributions from the Museum of Paleontology - The University of Michigan, Vol.XVII, Number 13. Kesling, R.V. (1961). Notes on Jaekelocystis hartleyi and Pseudocrinites gordoni, Two Rhombiferan Cystoids Described by Charles Schuchert in 1903. Contributions from the Museum of Paleontology - The University of Michigan, Vol.XVI, Number 3. Kesling, R.V. (1961). A New Glyptocystites from Middle Ordovician Strata in Michigan. Contributions from the Museum of Paleontology - The University of Michigan, Vol.XVI, Number 2. Kesling, R.V. and L.W. Mintz (1961). Notes on Lepadocystis moorei (Meek) An Upper Ordovician Callocystid Cystoid. Contributions from the Museum of Paleontology - The University of Michigan, Vol.XVII, Number 4. Mergl, M. and R.J. Prokop (2006). Lower Ordovician cystoids (Rhombifera, Diploporita) from the Prague Basin (Czech Republic). Bulletin of Geosciences, 81(1). Paul, C.R.C. (1972). Morphology and Function of Exothecal Pore-Structures in Cystoids. Palaeontology, Vol.15, Part 1. Paul, C.R.C. (1968). Morphology and Function of Dichoporite Pore-Structures in Cystoids. Palaeontology, Vol.11, Part 5. Paul, C.R.C. (1968). Macrocystella Callaway, the Earliest Glyptocystitid Cystoid. Palaeontology, Vol.11, Part 4. Paul, C.R.C. (1967). Hallicystis attenuata, A New Callocystitid Cystoid from the Racine Dolomite of Wisconsin.Contributions from the Museum of Paleontology - The University of Michigan, Vol.XXI, Number 11. Paul, C.R.C. (1967). A Redescription of the Cystoid Lipsanocystis transversensis Ehlers and Leighley (Rhombifera: Callocystitidae). Contributions from the Museum of Paleontology - The University of Michigan, Vol.XXI, Number 9. Stumm, E.C. (1955). Three New Species of the Cystid Genus Lipsanocystis from the Middle Devonian Traverse Group of Michigan. Contributions from the Museum of Paleontology - The University of Michigan, Vol.XII, Number 6. Thomka, J.R., et al. (2016). Taphonomy of 'cystoids' (Echinodermata: Diploporita) from the Napoleon quarry of southeastern Indiana, USA: The Lower Silurian Massie Formation as an atypical Lagerstätte. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 443. Class Edrioasteroidea Edrioasteroidea - Africa/Middle East Guensburg, T.E. and S.V. Rozhnov (2014). A Unique Edrioasteroid from the Upper Middle Cambrian of Iran, Its Phylogenetic Implications and Paleoecology. Paleontological Journal, Vol.48, Number 4. Sumrall, C.D. and S. Zamora (2011). Ordovician edrioasteroids from Morocco: faunal exchanges across the Rheic Ocean. Journal of Systematic Palaeontology, Vol.9, Issue 3. Edrioasteroidea - Asia/Malaysia/Pacific Islands Zhao, Y.-L., et al. (2010). Kailidiscus, A New Plesiomorphic Edrioasteroid from the Basal Middle Cambrian Kaili Biota of Guizhou Province, China. J.Paleont., 84(4). Zhu, X.-J., S. Zamora and B. Lefebvre (2014). Morphology and palaeoecology of a new edrioblastoid from the Furongian of China. Acta Palaeontologica Polonica, 59(4). Edrioasteroidea - Australia/New Zealand Holloway, D.J. and P.A. Jell (1983). Silurian and Devonian Edrioasteroids from Australia. Journal of Paleontology, Vol.57, Number 5. Jell, P.A. (2014). A Tremadocian asterozoan from Tasmania and a late Llandovery edrioasteroid from Victoria. Alcheringa, 38. Webby, B.D. (1968). Astrocystites distans Sp.Nov., An Edrioblastoid from the Ordovician of Eastern Australia. Palaeontology, Vol.11, Part 4. Edrioasteroidea - Europe (including Greenland and Siberia) Sumrall, C.D. (2009). First Definite Record of Permian Edrioasteroids: Neoisorophusella maslennikovi N.Sp. from the Kungurian of Northeast Russia. J.Paleont., 83(6). Zamora, S. (2013). Morphology and Phylogenetic Interpretation of a New Cambrian Edrioasteroid (Echinodermata) from Spain. Palaeontology, Vol.56, Part 2. Zamora, S. and A.B. Smith (2010). The oldest isorophid edrioasteroid (Echinodermata) and the evolution of attachment strategies in Cambrian edrioasteroids. Acta Palaeontologica Polonica, 55(3). Zamora, S., et al. (2007). A Middle Cambrian edrioasteroid from the Murero biota (NE Spain) With Australian Affinities. Annales de Paleontologie, 93. Edrioasteroidea - North America Bassler, R.S. (1936). New Species of American Edrioasteroidea. Smithsonian Miscellaneous Collections, Vol.95, Number 6. Bell, B.M., H.L. Strimple and C.O. Levorson (1976). Edrioasteroids (Echinodermata) of the Maquoketa Formation of Iowa. Proceedings of the Iowa Academy of Science, Vol.83, Number 1, Article 6. Guensburg, T.E. and J. Sprinkle (1994). Revised Phylogeny and Functional Interpretation of the Edrioasteroidea Based on New Taxa from the Early and Middle Ordovician of Western Utah. Fieldiana Geology, New Series Number 29. Kammer, T.W., E.C. Tissue and M.A. Wilson (1987). Neoisorophusella, a New Edrioasteroid Genus from the Upper Mississippian of the Eastern United States. Journal of Paleontology, Vol.61, Number 5. Kesling, R.V. (1967). Edrioasteroid with Unique Shape from Mississippian Strata of Alberta. Journal of Paleontology, Vol.41, Number 1. Kesling, R.V. and L.W. Mintz (1960). Internal Structures in Two Edrioasteroid Species, Isorophus cincinnatiensis (Roemer) and Carneyella pilea (Hall). Contributions of the Museum of Paleontology - The University of Michigan, Vol.XV, Number 14. Kesling, R.V. and G.M. Ehlers (1958). The Edrioasteroid Lepidodiscus squamosus (Meek & Worthen) AND Timeschytes, A New Genus of Hemicystitid Edrioasteroid from the Middle Devonian Four Mile Dam Limestone of Michigan. Journal of Paleontology, Vol.32, Number 5. Meyer, D.L. (1990). Population Paleoecology and Comparative Taphonomy of Two Edrioasteroid (Echinodermata) Pavements: Upper Ordovician of Kentucky and Ohio. Historical Biology, Vol.4. Shroat-Lewis, R.A., et al. (2014). A Paleoecologic Comparison of Two Edrioasteroid (Echinodermata) Encrusted Pavements from the Upper Ordovician Corryville Formation of Florence, Kentucky and the Miamitown Shale of Sharonville, Ohio, U.S.A. Palaios, Vol.29. Shroat-Lewis, R.A., et al. (2011). Paleoecologic Assessment of an Edrioasteroid (Echinodermata)-Encrusted Hardground from the Upper Ordovician (Maysvillian) Bellevue Member, Maysville, Kentucky. Palaios, Vol.26. Sprinkle, J. (1985). New Edrioasteroid from the Middle Cambrian of Western Utah. The University of Kansas Paleontological Contributions, Paper 116. Sprinkle, J. and C.D. Sumrall (2015). New edrioasterine and astrocystitid (Echinodermata: Edrioasteroidea) from the Ninemile Shale (Lower Ordovician), central Nevada. Journal of Paleontology, 89(02). Sumrall, C.D. (2010). The Systematics of a New Upper Ordovician Edrioasteroid Pavement from Northern Kentucky. J.Paleont., 84(5). Sumrall, C.D. (2001). Paleoecology and Taphonomy of Two New Edrioasteroids from a Mississippian Hardground in Kentucky. J.Paleont., 75(1) Sumrall, C.D. (2000). The Biological Implications of an Edrioasteroid Attached to a Pleurocystidid Rhombiferan. J.Paleont., 74(1). Sumrall, C.D. (1996). Late Paleozoic Edrioasteroids (Echinodermata) from the North American Midcontinent. J.Paleont., 70(6). Sumrall, C.D. (1992). Spiraclavis nacoensis, A New Species of Clavate Agelacrinitid Edrioasteroid from Central Arizona. J.Paleont., 66(1). Sumrall, C.D. and J. Sprinkle (2015). Unusual ambulacral branching pattern in a new Ordovician giant edrioasteroid, Bizzaroglobus. J.Paleont., 89(2). Sumrall, C.D. and R.L. Parsley (2003). Morphology and Biomechanical Implications of Isolated Discocystinid Plates (Edrioasteroidea, Echinodermata) from the Carboniferous of North America. Palaeontology, Vol.46, Part 1. Sumrall, C.D. and A.L. Bowsher (1996). Giganticlavus, A New Genus of Pennsylvanian Edrioasteroid from North America. J.Paleont., 70(6). Sumrall, C.D., C.E. Brett and M.L. McKinney (2009). A New Agelacrinitid Edrioasteroid Attached to a Large Hardground Clast from the McKenzie Member of the Mifflintown Member (Silurian) of Pennsylvania. J.Paleont., 83(5). Sumrall, C.D., J. Sprinkle and R.M. Bonem (2006). An Edrioasteroid-Dominated Echinoderm Assemblage from a Lower Pennsylvanian Marine Conglomerate in Oklahoma. J.Paleont., 80(2). Edrioasteroidea - South America/Central America/Caribbean Sumrall, C.D., et al. (2013). The first report of South American edrioasteroids and the paleoecology and ontogeny of rhenopyrgid echinoderms. Acta Palaeontologica Polonica, 58(4). General Edrioasteroidea Bassler, R.S. (1935). The Classification of the Edtioasteroidea. Smithsonian Miscellaneous Collections, Vol.93, Number 8. Kesling, R.V. (1960). Hydropores in Edrioasteroids. Contributions from the Museum of Paleontology - The University of Michigan, Vol.XV, Number 8. Lewis, R.A. (2011). The Paleoecology and Biogeography of Ordovician Edrioasteroids. Ph.D. Dissertation - University of Tennessee, Knoxville. (187 pages) Oswald, K.J. (2005). Investigation of Discocystinid Edrioasteroid Feeding Strategies. Honors Thesis Project - University of Tennessee, Knoxville. Sumrall, C.D., J. Garbisch and J.P. Pope (2000). The Systematics of Postibullinid Edrioasteroids. J.Paleontol., 74(1). Zamora, S., C.D. Sumrall and D. Vizcaino (2013). Morphology and ontogeny of the Cambrian edrioasteroid echinoderm Cambraster cannati from western Gondwana. Acta Palaeontologica Polonica, 58(3). Subphylum Echinozoa (Except Echinoidea) Class Helicoplacoidea Dornbos, S.Q. and D.J. Bottjer (2001). Taphonomy and Environmental Distribution of Helicoplacoid Echinoderms. PALAIOS, Vol.16. Dornbos, S.Q. and D.J. Bottjer (2000). Evolutionary paleoecology of the earliest echinoderms: Helicoplacoids and the Cambrian substrate revolution. Geology, Vol.28, Number 9. Wilbur, B.C. (2005). A Revision of Helicoplacoids and Other Early Cambrian Echinoderms of North America. Ph.D. Dissertation - The University of Texas at Austin. Class Holothuroidea - Sea Cucumbers Applegate, S.P., et al. (2009). Two Lower Cretaceous (Albian) fossil holothurians (Echinodermata) from Tepexi de Rodriguez, Puebla, Mexico. Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington, 122(1). Henderson, A.S., A.D. Talwar and M.B. Hart (1992). Some Holothurian Sclerites from The Corallian Group of North Dorset. Proceedings of the Ussher Society, 8. Kalita, K.D., S.K. Kulshrestha and N. Sahni (2002). Fossil Holothurian Sclerite Assemblage from the Callovian-Oxfordian Rocks of Jaisalmer, Western Rajasthan, India. Journal of the Palaeontological Society of India, Vol.47. Kerr, A.M. and J. Kim (2001). Phylogeny of Holothuroidea (Echinodermata) inferred from morphology. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society, 133. Reich, M. (2017). First report of sea cucumbers Echinodermata: Holothuroidea) from the latest Cretaceous of Bavaria, Germany. Zitteliana, 89. Reich, M. (2015). Different Pathways in Early Evolution of the Holothurian Calcareous Ring? In: Progress in Echinoderm Palaeobiology. Zamora, S. and I. Rabano (eds.), Cuadernos del Museo Geominero, 19. Reich, M. (2013). How many species of fossil holothurians are there? In: Echinoderms in a Changing World. Johnson (ed.), Taylor & Francis Group, London. Reich, M. (2012). On Mesozoic laetmogonid sea cucumbers (Echinodermata: Holothuroidea: Elasipodida)*. Zoosymposia, 7. Reich, M. (2004). Holothurians from the Late Cretaceous 'Fish shales' of Lebanon. In: Echinoderms - Munchen. Heinzeller, T. & J.H. Nebelsick (eds.), Taylor & Francis Group, London. Reich, M. (2004). Aspidochirote holothurians (Echinodermata) from the Middle Triassic of southern Germany. In: Echinoderms - Munchen. Heinzeller, T. & J.H. Nebelsick (eds.), Taylor & Francis Group, London. Reich, M. (2001). Ordovician holothurians from the Baltic Sea area. In: Echinoderms 2000. Barker, M. (ed.), A.A. Balkema Publishers. Reich, M. and F. Wiese (2010). Apodid sea cucumbers (Echinodermata: Holothuroidea) from the Upper Turonian of the Isle of Wolin, NW Poland. Cretaceous Research, 31. Reich, M. and M. Kutscher (2001). Ophiocistoids and holothurians from the Silurian of Gotland, Sweden. In: Echinoderms 2000. Barker (ed.), Swets & Zeitlinger, Lisse. Walkiewicz, A. (1977). Holothurian sclerites from the Korytnica Clays (Middle Miocene; Holy Cross Mountains, Poland). Acta Geologica Polonica, Vol.27, Number 2. Zawidzka, K. (1971). Triassic Holothurian Sclerites from Tatra Mountains. Acta Palaeontologica Polonica, Vol.XVI, Number 4. Class Ophiocistioidea Prokop, R.J. and V. Petr (2002). Survey of echinoderms and a new ophiocistoid Branzoviella talpa gen. et sp.nov. (Echinodermata, Ophiocistioidea) in the Lower Devonian, Lochkov Formation of the Barrandian area, Czech Republic. Bulletin of the Czech Geological Survey, Vol.77, Number 3 Reich, M. and R. Haude (2004). Ophiocistioidea (fossil Echinodermata): an overview. in: Echinoderms: Munchen. Heinzeller and Nebelsick (eds.), Taylor & Francis Group, London. Reich, M. and M. Kutscher (2001). Ophiocistoids and holothurians from the Silurian of Gotland, Sweden. In: Echinoderms 2000. Barker (ed.), Swets & Zeitlinger, Lisse. Subphylum Homalozoa Class Ctenocystoidea Rahman, I.A. and S. Clausen (2009). Re-evaluating the Palaeobiology and Affinities of the Ctenocystoidea (Echinodermata). Journal of Systematic Palaeontology, 7(4). Class Homostelea Fatka, O. and V. Kordule (2001). Asturicystis havliceki sp. nov. (Echinodermata, Homostelea) from the Middle Cambrian of Bohemia (Barrandian Area, Czech Republic). Journal of the Czech Geological Society, 46/3-4. Class Stylophora (may be Polyphyletic) Clausen, S. and A.B. Smith (2005). Palaeoanatomy and biological affinities of a Cambrian deuterostome (Stylophora). Nature (Letters). Hunter, A.W., et al. (2007). A mixed ophiuroid-stylophoran assemblage (Echinodermata) from the Middle Ordovician (Llandeilian) of western Brittany, France. In: Palaeozoic Reefs and Bioaccumulations: Climatic and Evolutionary Controls. Alvaro, J.J., et al. (eds.), Geological Society, London, Special Publications 275. Lee, S.-B., B. Lefebvre and D.K. Choi (2005). Latest Cambrian Cornutes (Echinodermata: Stylophora) from the Taebaeksan Basin, Korea. J.Paleont., 79(1). Lee, S.-B., B. Lefebvre and D.K. Choi (2004). Morphometric analysis of Tremadocian (earliest Ordovician) kirkocystid mitrates (Echinodermata, Stylophora) from the Taebaeksan Basin, Korea. Geobios, 37. Lefebvre, B. (2001). A Critical Comment on 'Ankyroids' (Echinodermata, Stylophora). Geobios, 34(6). Lefebvre, B. (2000). A New Mitrate (Echinodermata, Stylophora) from the Tremadoc of Shropshire (England) and the Origin of the Mitrocystidida. J.Paleont, 74(5). Lefebvre, B. and J.P. Botting (2007). First report of the mitrate Peltocystis cornuta Thoral (Echinodermata, Stylophora) in the Lower Ordovician of central Anti-Atlas (Morocco). Annales de Paleontologie, 93. Lefebvre, B. and P.R. Racheboef (2007). First Report of Mitrate Stylophorans (Echinodermata) in the Lower Devonian of Bolivia. In: 4th European Meeting on the Palaeontology and Stratigraphy of Latin America. Diaz-Martinez, E. and I. Rabano (eds.), Cuadernos del Museo Geominero, Number 8. Parsley, R.L. and J.C. Gutierrez-Marco (2005). Stylophorans in middle Arenig shallow water siliciclastics: Vizcainocarpus from the Imfout Syncline in Morocco's western Meseta. Bulletin of Geosciences, Vol.80, Number 3. Reid, M. (2017). Taphonomy, palaeoecology and taxonomy of an ophiuroid-stylophoran obrution deposit from the Lower Devonian Bokkeveld Group, South Africa. Masters Dissertation - University of Capetown. (149 pages) Ruta, M. (1998). An Abnormal Specimen of the Silurian Anomalocystitid Mitrate Placocystites forbesianus. Palaeontology, Vol.41, Part 1. General Echinodermata General Echinodermata - Africa/Middle East Kristan-Tollmann, E. (1991). Echinoderms from the Middle Triassic Sina Formation (Aghdarband Group) in NE Iran. In: The Triassic of Aghdarband (AqDarband), NE-Iran, and its Pre-Triassic Frame. Ruttner, A.W. (ed.), Abh. Geol. B.-A., Vol.38. Lefebvre, B., M. Ghobadipour and E. Nardin (2005). Ordovician echinoderms from the Tabas and Damghan regions, Iran: palaeobiogeographical implications. Bull.Soc.geol.Fr., Vol.176, Number 3. General Echinodermata - Antarctica Blake, D.B. and R.B. Aronson (1998). Eocene Stelleroids (Echinodermata) at Seymour Island, Antarctic Peninsula. J.Paleont., 72(2). Taylor, B.J. (1966). Taxonomy and Morphology of Echinodermata from the Aptian of Alexander Island. Br.Antarct.Surv.Bull., Number 8. General Echinodermata - Asia/Malaysia/Pacific Islands Shu, D.-G., et al. (2002). Ancestral echinoderms from the Chengjiang deposits of China. Nature, Vol.430. General Echinodermata - Europe (including Greenland and Siberia) Forbes, E. (1852). Monograph of the Echinodermata of the British Tertiaries. The Palaeontographical Society. Lewis, D.N., et al. (2007). A field guide to the Silurian Echinodermata of the British Isles: Part 1 - Eleutherozoa and Rhombifera. Scripta Geol., 134. Parsley, R.L. and R.J. Prokop (2004). Functional morphology and paleoecology of some sessile Middle Cambrian echinoderms from the Barrandian region of Bohemia. Bulletin of Geosciences, Vol.79, Number 3. Prokop, R.J. and V. Petr (1999). Echinoderms in the Bohemian Ordovician. Journal of the Czech Geological Society, 44/1-2. Reich, M., L. Viller and M. Kutscher (2004). The echinoderms of the Rugen White Chalk (Maastrichtian, Germany). In: Echinoderms - Munchen. Heinzeller, T. & J.H. Nebelsick (eds.), Taylor & Francis Group, London. Zamora, S. and A.B. Smith (2008). A new Middle Cambrian stem-group echinoderm from Spain: Palaeobiological implications of a highly asymmetric cinctan. Acta Palaeontologica Polonica, 53(2). Zamora, S., J. Javier Alvaro and D. Vizcaino (2009). Pelmatozoan echinoderms from the Cambrian-Ordovician transition of the Iberian Chains (NE Spain): early diversification of anchoring strategies. Swiss J. Geosci., 102. General Echinodermata - North America Clark, W.B. and M.W. Twitchell (1915). The Mesozoic and Cenozoic Echinodermata of the United States. Monographs of the United States Geological Survey, Vol.LIV. (468 pages, 33.9 MB download) Ettensohn, F.R., et al. (2003). Carboniferous echinoderm zonation in the Appalachian Basin, eastern USA. In: Proceedings of the XVth International Congress on Carboniferous and Permian Stratigraphy, Utrecht, the Netherlands (Wong, Th.E., ed.). Kier, P.M. (1952). Echinoderms of the Middle Devonian Silica Formation of Ohio. Contributions from the Museum of Paleontology - The University of Michigan, Vol.X, Number 4. Schuchert, C. (1915). Revision of the Paleozoic Stelleroidea, with Special Reference to North American Asteroidea. Smithsonian Institution United States National Museum, Bulletin 88. Schumacher, G.A. and W.I. Ausich (1983). New Upper Ordovician Echinoderm Site: Bull Fork Formation, Caesar Creek Reservoir (Warren County, Ohio). Ohio J. Sci., 83(1). Thomas, A.O. Echinoderms of the Iowa Devonian. Ubaghs, G. and R.A. Robison (1988). Homalozoan Echinoderms of the Wheeler Formation (Middle Cambrian) of Western Utah. The University of Kansas Paleontological Contributions, Paper 120. Weaver, P.G., et al. (2006). Additional Echinoderms from the PCS (Lee Creek) Phosphate Mine, Near Aurora, Beaufort County, North Carolina. Southeastern Geology, Vo.44, Number 2. General Echinodermata - South America/Central America/Caribbean Kutscher, M., et al. (2004). Echinoderms from the Miocene of Chile. In: Echinoderms: Munchen. Heinzeller & Nebelsick (eds.), Taylor & Francis Group, London. General Echinodermata Dornbos, S.Q. (2006). Evolutionary palaeoecology of early epifaunal echinoderms: Response to increasing bioturbation levels during the Cambrian radiation. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 237. Radwanska, U. and A. Radwanski (2005). Myzostomid and copepod infestation of Jurassic echinoderms: A general approach, some new occurrences, and/or reinterpretation of previous reports. Acta Geologica Polonica, Vol.55, Number 2. Smith, A.B. (2004). Deuterostome phylogeny and the interpretation of problematic fossil echinoderms. In: Echinoderms. Heinzeller and Nebelsick (eds.), Taylor & Francis Group, London. Smith, A.B. (1988). Patterns of Diversification and Extinction in Early Palaeozoic Echinoderms. Palaeontology, Vol.31, Part 3. Smith, A.B. (1984). Classification of the Echinodermata. Palaeontology, Vol.27, Part 3. Smith, A.B. and J.J. Savill (2001). Bromidechinus, a new Ordovician echinozoan (Echinodermata), and its bearing on the early history of echinoids. Transactions of the Royal Society of Edinburgh: Earth Sciences, 92. Zamora, S. and A.B. Smith (2011). Cambrian stalked echinoderms show unexpected plasticity of arm construction. Proc.R.Soc.Lond.B., published on-line.