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Found 40 results

  1. part one cavaliersmithrslrstb20150476.pdf (less than 0,8 Mb) The name of the author, one of the big thinkers on the phylogenies of several phyla,was one of the things that attracted me to this piece part two:the response DufourMcIlroydiscussommerslcambrianeventexplosioediaca2017.pdf less than 1 Mb outtake: outtake from the response:
  2. Shedding new light on the evolution of the squid University of Bristol, February 28, 2017 https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2017/02/170228222814.htm The paper is: Tanner, A.R., Fuchs, D., Winkelmann, I.E., Gilbert, M.T.P., Pankey, M.S., Ribeiro, Â.M., Kocot, K.M., Halanych, K.M., Oakley, T.H., da Fonseca, R.R. and Pisani, D., 2017, March. Molecular clocks indicate turnover and diversification of modern coleoid cephalopods during the Mesozoic Marine Revolution. In Proc. R. Soc. B (Vol. 284, No. 1850, p. 20162818). The Royal Society. http://rspb.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/284/1850/20162818 PDF files: https://curis.ku.dk/ws/files/180602001/Tanner_2017_Molecular_clocks.pdf http://b3.ifrm.com/30233/130/0/p3002384/Molecular_clocks_indicate_turnover_and_diversification_of_modern_coleoid_cephalopods_during_the_Mesozoic_Marine_Revolution.pdf http://static-curis.ku.dk/portal/files/180602001/Tanner_2017_Molecular_clocks.pdf A related paper is: Clements, T., Colleary, C., De Baets, K. and Vinther, J., 2017. Buoyancy mechanisms limit preservation of coleoid cephalopod soft tissues in Mesozoic Lagerstätten. Palaeontology, 60(1), pp. 1-14. http://www.bristol.ac.uk/earthsciences/people/jakob-vinther/pub/94029132 PDF files: https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/efc5/e8c2e2e3eda2561feb1e4234afe2b7a4e254.pdf https://www.researchgate.net/publication/312524043_Data_from_Buoyancy_mechanisms_limit_preservation_of_coleoid_cephalopod_soft_tissues_in_Mesozoic_Lagerstatten_Dryad_Digital_Repository https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Kenneth_De_Baets https://research-information.bristol.ac.uk/files/107708089/Clements_et_al_2017_Palaeontology.pdf Yours, Paul H.
  3. Researchers sequence complete genomes of extinct and living elephants, McMaster University, February 26, 2018, https://phys.org/news/2018-02-sequence-genomes-extinct-elephants.html The paper is: Eleftheria Palkopoulou, Mark Lipson, and others, 2018, A comprehensive genomic history of extinct and living elephants PNAS 2018; published ahead of print February 26, 2018 https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1720554115 Yours, Paul H.
  4. The Great Cosmopolitodus

    I have some questions surrounding the extinct species of Giant White Shark, Cosmopolitodus hastalis. I think it was a fascinating creature, but for reason it doesn't seem to be brought up much. As far as I know, it was a very large shark that lived during the Miocene Epoch, and scientists believe it to be a possible ancestor to the extant Great White Shark, the biggest and meanest shark of our present day oceans. What I'd like to know is what was this shark really like? Did it look similar to the Great White? How do we think it behaved? How exactly does it fit into the lineage of the Great White? How big was it? Did it share the seas, or even possibly become prey for, the mighty O. megalodon? And finally, WHY do people call it "Mako" if it clearly isn't one?? Obviously, not all of these questions have concrete answers but I'd like to hear what you all know about the species. Google search results can only tell so much. Do you know of any good sources where I could read up about it in greater detail? I just think it's a really cool species, and I'd love to know more about it. Thanks!
  5. Land Plants Arose Earlier Than Thought

    Land plants arose earlier than thought—and may have had a bigger impact on the evolution of animals By Elizabeth Pennisi, Feb. 19, 2018 http://www.sciencemag.org/news/2018/02/land-plants-arose-earlier-thought-and-may-have-had-bigger-impact-evolution-animals Plants may have colonized Earth's surface 100 MILLION years earlier than previously thought, Press association, Daily Mail, Feb. 19, 2018 http://www.dailymail.co.uk/sciencetech/article-5410161/New-research-pushes-history-land-plants-100-million-years.html Morris, JL, Puttick, M, Clark, J, Edwards, D, Kenrick, P, Pressel, S, Wellman, CH, Yang, Z, Harald, S & Donoghue, P, 2018, ‘The timescale of early land plant evolution: controlling for competing topologies and dating strategies on divergence time estimates’. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. http://www.bristol.ac.uk/earthsciences/people/mark-n-puttick/pub/142491407 http://www.bristol.ac.uk/earthsciences/people/mark-n-puttick/index.html Yours, Paul H.
  6. biological symmetry

    As stated many times on the forum, brachiopods differ from bivalves regarding symmetry. Brachiopods have sagittal symmetry (side to side), just like humans, birds, reptiles etc. Bivalves have coronal symmetry (front to back). It seems that coronal symmetry is an outlier in biology, and I'm having trouble coming up with many examples in the animal kingdom. Is coronal symmetry a different branch in the evolutionary chain than sagittal symmetry? I guess the question could also apply to radial symmetry or asymmetry. Put another way, is symmetry something very basic within evolutionary chains, or do chains develop with mixed symmetry?
  7. The Alien Observatory --"The Vast Majority of Fossils Discovered in the Universe Will Be Extinct Microbial Life, Not Dinosaurs or Humanoids" The Daily Galaxy January 14, 2018 http://www.dailygalaxy.com/my_weblog/2018/01/the-alien-observatory-the-vast-majority-of-fossils-discovered-in-the-universe-will-be-extinct-microb.html A paper is: Chopra, A. and Lineweaver, C.H., 2016. The case for a Gaian bottleneck: the biology of habitability. Astrobiology, 16(1), pp. 7-22. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/291334824_The_Case_for_a_Gaian_Bottleneck_The_Biology_of_Habitability? https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Charley_Lineweaver http://magonia.com/files/the-case-for-a-gaian-bottleneck.pdf http://www.nso.lt/science/content/bottleneck.pdf Another paper is: Lineweaver, C.H., 2009. Paleontological tests: human-like intelligence is not a convergent feature of evolution. In From fossils to astrobiology (pp. 353-368). Springer, Dordrecht. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/241315068_Paleontological_Tests_HumanLike_Intelligence_Is_Not_a_Convergent_Feature_of_Evolution https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Charley_Lineweaver Yours, Paul H.
  8. Aron Ra's "Systematic Classification of Life" is up to the 19th episode and he's still in the Permian Period! There's lots of detail and just enough subtle humor thrown in to keep it fun while we learn which branches our own tree-sap comes from. Here is the newest video but don't skip ahead if you haven't been keeping up. It can be hard to keep track of all of our ancestors when there are so many. This just got published today and there's a new one every few days so start at episode 1 now and maybe number 20 will be done when you're finished.
  9. Mosasaur morph Animation

    Hi everyone, This animation is not meant to be accurate, otherwise I would not have drawn a generic lizard in the beginning and grow a mosasaurine snout much earlier in the sequence. Again, this was created on Adobe Animate CC 2018 using my Huion 1060PLUS tablet.
  10. Are you finding cladistics and taxonomy confusing and complicated? Well, that's because they are, but to help you clear up some of that confusion and find your true place in the classification of life there is a new series of videos out that is still being produced but becoming available very rapidly. Episode 15 of "Systematic Classification of Life" is just out and if you start now watching the first 15 episodes maybe the next one will be available by the time you're done. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=AXQP_R-yiuw&t=8s
  11. Interesting look at why bipedal Ornithischians reverted to quadrupledality Abstract Ornithischian dinosaurs were primitively bipedal, but reverted to quadrupedality on at least three (and potentially several more) occasions: in Ceratopsia, Thyreophora and Hadrosauriformes. Each of these reversals was accompanied by anatomical changes to the whole skeleton that enabled the forelimb to function in weight bearing and that also resulted in numerous changes to the hip and hind limb musculature. Each quadrupedal clade acquired a suite of similar biomechanical characters, although they varied in terms of function and in how these character complexes were assembled. Some similar changes occurred in parallel among sauropodomorph dinosaurs as they transitioned from bipedality to quadrupedality. It is unclear why bipedal ornithischians reverted to quadrupedalism, but neither increases in body size nor the acquisition of dermal armour seem to have played a significant role. Increased head size might have influenced the position of the centre of mass and stance in ceratopsians and it is plausible that the evolution of herbivory played an important role in both ornithischians and sauropods, but the latter hypothesis is difficult to test. https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s41513-017-0036-0
  12. These are a few of the pdf files (and a few Microsoft Word documents) that I've accumulated in my web browsing. MOST of these are hyperlinked to their source. If you want one that is not hyperlinked or if the link isn't working, e-mail me at joegallo1954@gmail.com and I'll be happy to send it to you. Please note that this list will be updated continuously as I find more available resources. All of these files are freely available on the Internet so there should be no copyright issues. Articles with author names in RED are new additions since December 15, 2017. Order Saurischia Suborder Theropoda General Theropoda General Theropoda - Africa/Middle East Fanti, F. and F. Therrien (2007). Theropod tooth assemblages from the Late Cretaceous Maevarano Formation and the possible presence of dromaeosaurids in Madagascar. Acta Palaeontologica Polonica, 52(1). Fanti, F., et al. (2014). Integrating palaeoecology and morphology in theropod diversity estimation: A case from the Aptian-Albian of Tunisia. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 410. Galton, P.M. and R.E. Molnar (2012). An unusually large theropod dinosaur tooth from the Kirkwood Formation (Lower Cretaceous) of South Africa. N.Jb.Geol.Palaont.Abh., 263/1. Knoll, F. and J.I. Ruiz-Omenaca (2009). Theropod teeth from the basalmost Cretaceous of Anoual (Morocco) and their palaeobiogeographical significance. Geol.Mag., 146(4). Maganuco, S., A. Cau and G. Pasini (2005). First description of theropod remains from the Middle Jurassic (Bathonian) of Madagascar. Atti Soc.it.Sci.nat. Museo civ.Stor.nat. Milano, 146(II). Mateer, N.J. (1987). A New Report of a Theropod Dinosaur from South Africa. Palaeontology, Vol.30, Part 1. Niedźwiedzki, G. and G. Gierliński (2002). Isolated theropod teeth from the Cretaceous strata of Khouribga, Morocco. Geological Quarterly, 46(1). Novas, F.E., F. Dalla Vecchia and D.F. Pais (2005). Theropod pedal unguals from the Late Cretaceous (Cenomanian) of Morocco, Africa. Rev.Mus. Argentino Cienc.Nat., n.s., 7(2). Rauhut, O.W.M. (2011). Theropod Dinosaurs from the Late Jurassic of Tendaguru (Tanzania). Palaeontology, Special Papers in Palaeontology, 86. Ray, S. and A. Chinsamy (2002). A theropod tooth from the Late Triassic of southern Africa. J.Biosci., 27. Richter, U., A. Mudroch and L.G. Buckley (2012). Isolated theropod teeth from the Kem Kem Beds (Early Cenomanian) near Taouz, Morocco. Palaontol.Z., 87(2). (Author's personal copy) Sampson, S.D., et al. (1998). Predatory Dinosaur Remains from Madagascar: Implications for the Cretaceous Biogeography of Gondwana. Science, Vol.280. Serrano-Martinez, A., et al. (2016). Isolated theropod teeth from the Middle Jurassic of Niger and the early dental evolution of Spinosauridae. Acta Palaeontologica Polonica, 61(2). Sereno, P.C., et al. (1996). Predatory Dinosaurs from the Sahara and Late Cretaceous Faunal Differentiation. Science, Vol.272. General Theropoda - Asia/Malaysia/Pacific Islands Averianov, A.O. (2007). Theropod dinosaurs from Late Cretaceous deposits in the northeastern Aral Sea region, Kazakhstan. Cretaceous Research, 28. Han, F., et al. (2011). Theropod Teeth from the Middle-Upper Jurassic Shishugou Formation of Northwest Xinjiang, China. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology, 31(1). Mo, J.-Y. and X. Xu (2012). Large theropod teeth from the Upper Cretaceous of Jiangxi, southern China. Vertebrata PalAsiatica, 53(1). Obsorn, H.F. (1924). Three New Theropoda, Protoceratops Zone, Central Mongolia. American Museum Novitates, Number 144. Stilwell, J.D., et al. (2006). Dinosaur sanctuary on the Chatham Islands, Southwest Pacific: First record of theropods from the K-T boundary, Takatika Grit. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 230. General Theropoda - Australia/New Zealand Benson, R.B.J., et al. (2012). Theropod Fauna from Southern Australia Indicates High Polar Diversity and Climate-Driven Dinosaur Provinciality. PLoS ONE, 7(5). Long, J.A. (1995). A theropod dinosaur bone from the Late Cretaceous Molecap Greensand, Western Australia. Records of the Western Australian Museum, 17. Long, J.A. and A.R.I. Cruickshank (1996). First record of an Early Cretaceous theropod dinosaur bone from Western Australia. Records of the Western Australian Museum, 18. Thulborn, T. (1998). Australia's Earliest Theropods: Footprint Evidence in the Ipswich Coal Measures (Upper Triassic) of Queensland. GAIA, Number 15. General Theropoda - Europe (including Greenland and Siberia) Averianov, A.O. and A.A. Yarkov (2004). Carnivorous Dinosaurs (Saurischia, Theropoda) from the Maastrichtian of the Volga-Don Interfluve, Russia. Paleontological Journal, Vol.38, Number 1. Delsate, D. and M.D. Ezcurra (2014). The first Early Jurassic (late Hettangian) theropod dinosaur remains from the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg. Geologica Belgica, 17/2. Ezcuerra, R., et al. (2007). Were non-avian theropod dinosaurs able to swim? Supportive evidence from an Early Cretaceous trackway, Cameros Basin (La Rioja, Spain). Geology, Vol.35, Number 6. Gerke, O. and O. Wings (2016). Multivariate and Cladistic Analysis of Isolated Teeth Reveal Sympatry of Theropod Dinosaurs in the Late Jurassic of Northern Germany. PLoS ONE, 11(7). (Thanks to Troodon for finding this one!) Knoll, F., E. Buffetaut and M. Bulow (1999). A theropod braincase from the Jurassic of the Vaches Noires cliffs (Normandy, France): osteology and palaeoneurology. Bull.Soc.geol. France, Vol.170, Number 1. Lindgren, J., et al. (2008). Theropod dinosaur teeth from the lowermost Cretaceous Rabekke Formation on Bornholm, Denmark. Geobios, 41. Madzia, D. (2014). The first non-avian theropod from the Czech Republic. Acta Palaeontologica Polonica, 59(4). Mateus, I., et al. (1998). Upper Jurassic Theropod Dinosaur embryos from Lourinhã (Portugal). Memorias da Academia de Ciencias de Lisboa, Vol.37. Mateus, O., A. Walen and M.T. Antunes (2006). The Large Theropod Fauna of the Lourinhã Formation (Portugal) and its Similarity to the Morrison Formation, With a Description of a New Species of Allosaurus. In: Paleontology and Geology of the Upper Jurassic Morrison Formation. New Mexico Museum of Natural History and Science, Bulletin 36. Naish, D. (1999). Theropod dinosaur diversity and palaeobiology in the Wealden Group (Early Cretaceous) of England: evidence from a previously undescribed tibia. Geologie en Mijnbouw, 78. Rauhut, O.W.M. and A. Hungerbühler (1998). A Review of European Triassic Theropods. GAIA, Number 15. Rauhut, O.W.M. and J. Kriwet (1994). Teeth of a big Theropod Dinosaur from Porto das Barcas (Portugal). Berliner geowiss. Abh., E 13. Torices, A., et al. (2015). Theropod dinosaurs from the Upper Cretaceous of the South Pyrenees Basin of Spain. Acta Palaeontologica Polonica, 60(3). Ribeiro, V, et al. (2014). Two new theropod egg sites from the Late Jurassic Lourinhã Formation, Portugal. Historical Biology, Vol.26, Number 2. Zinke, J. and O.W.M. Rauhut (1994). Small theropods (Dinosauria, Saurischia) from the Upper Jurassic and Lower Cretaceous of the Iberian Peninsula. Berliner geowiss. Abh., E 13. General Theropoda - North America Dalman, S.G. (2014). New data on small theropod dinosaurs from the Upper Jurassic Morrison Formation of Como Bluff, Wyoming, USA. Volumina Jurassica, XII(2). Fiorillo, A.R. and R.A. Gangloff (2000). Theropod Teeth from the Prince Creek Formation (Cretaceous) of Northern Alaska, With Speculations on Arctic Dinosaur Paleoecology. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology, 20(4). Fiorillo, A.R. and P.J. Currie (1994). Theropod Teeth from the Judith River Formation (Upper Cretaceous) of South-Central Montana. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology, 14(1). Gates, T.A., L.E. Zanno and P.J. Mackovicky (2015). Theropod teeth from the upper Maastrichtian Hell Creek Formation "Sue" Quarry: New morphotypes and faunal comparisons. Acta Palaeontologica Polonica, 60(1). Henderson, D.M. (1998). Skull and Tooth Morphology as Indicators of Niche Partitioning in Sympatric Morrison Formation Theropods. Gaia, Number 15. Paul, G.S. (1988). Small Predatory Dinosaurs of the Mid-Mesozoic: The Horned Theropods of the Morrison and Great Oolite - Ornitholestes and Proceratosaurus - and the Sickle-Claw Theropods of the Cloverly, Djadokhta and Judith River - Deinonychus, Velociraptor and Saurornitholestes. Hunteria, Vol.2, Number 4. Sankey, J.T., et al. (2002). Small Theropod and Bird Teeth from the Late Cretaceous (Late Campanian) Judith River Group, Alberta. J.Paleont., 76(4). Sarigul, V. (2017). New Theropod Fossils from the Upper Triassic Dockum Group of Texas, USA, and a Brief Overview of the Dockum Theropod Diversity. PaleoBios, 34. Wick, S.L., T.M. Lehman and A.A. Brink (2015). A theropod tooth assemblage from the lower Aguja Formation (early Campanian) of West Texas, and the roles of small theropod and varanoid lizard mesopredators in a tropical predator guild. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 418. Williamson, T.E. and S.L. Brusatte (2014). Small Theropod Teeth from the Late Cretaceous of the San Juan Basin, Northwestern New Mexico and Their Implications for Understanding Latest Cretaceous Dinosaur Evolution. PLoS ONE, 9(4). Zanno, L.E., et al. (2010). A Preliminary Report on the Theropod Dinosaur Fauna of the Late Campanian Kaiparowits Formation, Grand Staircase-Escalante National Monument, Utah. In: Learning from the Land, Grand Staircase-Escalante National Monument Science Symposium Proceedings. Eaton, M. (ed.), Grand Staircase-Escalante Partners, Kanab, Utah. General Theropoda - South America/Central America/Caribbean Canale, J.I., et al. (2017). The oldest theropods from the Neuquen Basin: Predatory dinosaur diversity from the Bajada Colorada Formation (Lower Cretaceous: Berriasian-Valanginian), Neuquen, Argentina. Cretaceous Research, 71. Candeiro, C.R.A., P.J. Currie and L.P. Bergqvist (2012). Theropod teeth from the Marília Formation (Late Maastrichtian) at the paleontological site of Peirópolis in Minas Gerais State, Brazil. Revista Brasileira de Geociências, Vol.42(2). Ezcurra, M.D. (2009). Theropod remains from the uppermost Cretaceous of Colombia and their implications for the palaeozoogeography of western Gondwana. Cretaceous Research, 30. (Author's personal copy) Ezcurra, M.D. and F.E. Novas (2016). Theropod dinosaurs from Argentina. Machado, E.B., D. de A. Campos and A.W.A. Kellner (2008). On a theropod scapula (Upper Cretaceous) from the Marilia Formation, Bauru Group, Brazil. Palaontologische Zeitschrift, 82/3. Motta, M.J., et al. (2016). 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  13. The Colour of Fossils - Dr Maria McNama

    The Colour of Fossils - Dr Maria McNama Geological Society, Sepember 6, 2017 https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Ewa8vflfipo “Dr Maria McNamara (University College Cork) explains how the emerging field of fossil colour has revealed unprecedented insights into the ecology and behaviour of ancient animals, describing how colour is preserved in ancient animals and how it can shed light on what they looked like, how they communicated with each other, and how the functions of colour have evolved through deep time.” Yours, Paul H.
  14. cetacean phylogeny

  15. Fish out of water

    This is just a mildly interesting video I found on Youtube. Sorry if it isn't in the right category, as it isn't directly fossil related. Description (given by the video): Around 400 million years ago, fish left the water and started to evolve into land-loving creatures. But how did the transition happen? A new and unusual experiment could shed some light on the kinds of changes that enabled fins to become limbs. Researchers took a fish species known to be able to walk on its fins from time to time, and raised it on land. Watch the fish promenade in this Nature Video. Enjoy! Original paper: http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v513/n7516/full/nature13708.html?foxtrotcallback=true Video by: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UC7c8mE90qCtu11z47U0KErg
  16. Leap onto land saves fish from being eaten

    Leap onto land saves fish from being eaten University of New South Wales, March 14, 2017 https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2017/03/170314111116.htm "Fish on the South Pacific island of Rarotonga have evolved the ability to survive out of water and leap about on the rocky shoreline..." The paper is: Ord, T.J., Summers, T.C., Noble, M.M. and Fulton, C.J., 2017. Ecological Release from Aquatic Predation Is Associated with the Emergence of Marine Blenny Fishes onto Land. The American Naturalist, 189(5), pp.000-000. Abstract: http://www.journals.uchicago.edu/doi/abs/10.1086/691155 PDF file: http://www.eerc.unsw.edu.au/ord/ord_etal2017.pdf Yours, Paul H.
  17. Cats Domesticated Themselves, Ancient DNA Shows National Geographic, June 19,2017 http://news.nationalgeographic.com/2017/06/domesticated-cats-dna-genetics-pets-science/ Ancient DNA reveals role of Near East and Egypt in cat domestication, KU Leuven, June 19, 2017 http://nieuws.kuleuven.be/en/content/2017/domestication-of-the-cat-ancient-dna-reveals-significant-role-of-the-near-east-and-egypt https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2017/06/170619125825.htm "DNA found at archaeological sites reveals that the origins of our domestic cat are in the Near East and ancient Egypt. Cats were domesticated by the first farmers some 10,000 years ago. They later spread across Europe and other parts of the world via trade hub Egypt. The DNA analysis also revealed that most of these ancient cats had stripes: spotted cats were uncommon until the Middle Ages." the paper is: Claudio Ottoni, Wim Van Neer, Bea De Cupere, Julien Daligault, Silvia Guimaraes, Joris Peters, Nikolai Spassov, Mary E. Prendergast, Nicole Boivin, Arturo Morales-Muñiz, Adrian Bălăşescu, Cornelia Becker, Norbert Benecke, Adina Boroneant, Hijlke Buitenhuis, Jwana Chahoud, Alison Crowther, Laura Llorente, Nina Manaseryan, Hervé Monchot, Vedat Onar, Marta Osypińska, Olivier Putelat, Eréndira M. Quintana Morales, Jacqueline Studer, Ursula Wierer, Ronny Decorte, Thierry Grange, Eva-Maria Geigl. The palaeogenetics of cat dispersal in the ancient world. Nature Ecology & Evolution, 2017; 1 (7): 0139 DOI: 10.1038/s41559-017-0139 Online archive: http://biorxiv.org/content/early/2016/10/09/080028 PDF file: http://biorxiv.org/content/biorxiv/early/2016/10/09/080028.full.pdf Yours, Paul H.
  18. Horsing around:the next installment

    some of you might like this NB:large download NB 2: an oldie outtakes,to convince doubters:
  19. Whales Only "Recently" Evolved Into Giants

    Interesting..... https://www.seeker.com/earth/animals/whales-only-recently-evolved-into-giants
  20. If anybody has read any Shubin,Clack,Coates,etc:this is indispensable,IMHO dioja37592.pdf wonderful coloured diagrams in this one,this is one of them
  21. I've noticed that a lot of clades that first appear in the early Paleozoic seem to immediately be present across the globe, even though the continents at the time were mostly disconnected and separated by oceans. For example, (calcified) trilobites suddenly appear in Cambrian Stage 3, but are already present in Laurentia, Siberia and parts of Gondwana, despite the vast distance and oceanic separation of the landmasses. Similarly, Rugose corals appear in the late Middle Ordovician, but already seem to present across the equatorial regions of the globe. How did these benthic/sessile clades(so I'm not referring to pelagic trilobites) manage to spread geographically wide so fast? Is there any way we could know what landmass was the actual "birthplace" of some of them?
  22. bird brained

    kurochdykerslutapho309.full.pdf A fossil brain is compared to that of Archaeopteryx. Interesting:possibly nocturnal?