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Found 23 results

  1. Probably Cordiates - stem and leaves

    From the album MY FOSSIL Collection - Dpaul7

    Probable Cordaites Branch/Leaves Rt 56 Bypass, Johnstown, Pennsylvania, USA Pennsylvanian Period (290-330 Million Years Ago) Cordaites was probably quite a large tree of monopodial or even sympodial stature. Its trunk diameter was at a minimum 0.5 m. Branches were between 1.1 m and spaced less than 0.7 m appart. The bases of the branches usually attained about 2/3 to 1/2 of the trunk width. The abaxial cuticle has stomata arranged in multiplex stomatal rows that formed a wide stomatiferous band. A transverse crypt above the stoma is an important diagnostic feature. The cordaitalean leaves, twigs, pith casts, fertile organs and seeds found are referable to a single natural species. The associated fertile organs belong to two types: 1) male fertile organs Florinanthus volkmannii and 2) a more robust, probably female, form similar to Cordaitanthus ovatus . Cuticles from the scales and long bracts of Florinanthus volkmannii have been studied in detail. Most scale cuticles are astomatal, but stomata may occur very rarely on some parts of the abaxial cuticle. Small trichomes grew from the scale margins. The cuticle of the bract has elongate cells and stomata are arranged in single stomatal rows on the abaxial cuticle. Many bilateral monosaccate pollen grains [ Florinites ovalis , Florinites guttatus and Pseudoillinites , with a central body bipolar attachment to the equatorial saccus were separated from scale surfaces of Florinanthus volkmannii . The pith cast belong to the species Artisia approximata . The seeds are small and of the " Cardiocarpus- type". Cordaites grew in wet, peat-forming habitats and they were most likely trees of medium height. Kingdom: Plantae Phylum: Pinophyta Class: Pinopsida Order: Cordaitales Family: Cordaitaceae Genus: †Cordaites *NOTE: Photo #2 iappears to be a stem or branch - It seems to be much harder than the surrounding shale! The pictures following show structures that are probably poorly preserved leaves.
  2. Probably Cordiates - stem and leaves

    From the album MY FOSSIL Collection - Dpaul7

    Probable Cordaites Branch/Leaves Rt 56 Bypass, Johnstown, Pennsylvania, USA Pennsylvanian Period (290-330 Million Years Ago) Cordaites was probably quite a large tree of monopodial or even sympodial stature. Its trunk diameter was at a minimum 0.5 m. Branches were between 1.1 m and spaced less than 0.7 m appart. The bases of the branches usually attained about 2/3 to 1/2 of the trunk width. The abaxial cuticle has stomata arranged in multiplex stomatal rows that formed a wide stomatiferous band. A transverse crypt above the stoma is an important diagnostic feature. The cordaitalean leaves, twigs, pith casts, fertile organs and seeds found are referable to a single natural species. The associated fertile organs belong to two types: 1) male fertile organs Florinanthus volkmannii and 2) a more robust, probably female, form similar to Cordaitanthus ovatus . Cuticles from the scales and long bracts of Florinanthus volkmannii have been studied in detail. Most scale cuticles are astomatal, but stomata may occur very rarely on some parts of the abaxial cuticle. Small trichomes grew from the scale margins. The cuticle of the bract has elongate cells and stomata are arranged in single stomatal rows on the abaxial cuticle. Many bilateral monosaccate pollen grains [ Florinites ovalis , Florinites guttatus and Pseudoillinites , with a central body bipolar attachment to the equatorial saccus were separated from scale surfaces of Florinanthus volkmannii . The pith cast belong to the species Artisia approximata . The seeds are small and of the " Cardiocarpus- type". Cordaites grew in wet, peat-forming habitats and they were most likely trees of medium height. Kingdom: Plantae Phylum: Pinophyta Class: Pinopsida Order: Cordaitales Family: Cordaitaceae Genus: †Cordaites *NOTE: Photo #2 iappears to be a stem or branch - It seems to be much harder than the surrounding shale! The pictures following show structures that are probably poorly preserved leaves.
  3. Probably Cordiates - stem and leaves

    From the album MY FOSSIL Collection - Dpaul7

    Probable Cordaites Branch/Leaves Rt 56 Bypass, Johnstown, Pennsylvania, USA Pennsylvanian Period (290-330 Million Years Ago) Cordaites was probably quite a large tree of monopodial or even sympodial stature. Its trunk diameter was at a minimum 0.5 m. Branches were between 1.1 m and spaced less than 0.7 m appart. The bases of the branches usually attained about 2/3 to 1/2 of the trunk width. The abaxial cuticle has stomata arranged in multiplex stomatal rows that formed a wide stomatiferous band. A transverse crypt above the stoma is an important diagnostic feature. The cordaitalean leaves, twigs, pith casts, fertile organs and seeds found are referable to a single natural species. The associated fertile organs belong to two types: 1) male fertile organs Florinanthus volkmannii and 2) a more robust, probably female, form similar to Cordaitanthus ovatus . Cuticles from the scales and long bracts of Florinanthus volkmannii have been studied in detail. Most scale cuticles are astomatal, but stomata may occur very rarely on some parts of the abaxial cuticle. Small trichomes grew from the scale margins. The cuticle of the bract has elongate cells and stomata are arranged in single stomatal rows on the abaxial cuticle. Many bilateral monosaccate pollen grains [ Florinites ovalis , Florinites guttatus and Pseudoillinites , with a central body bipolar attachment to the equatorial saccus were separated from scale surfaces of Florinanthus volkmannii . The pith cast belong to the species Artisia approximata . The seeds are small and of the " Cardiocarpus- type". Cordaites grew in wet, peat-forming habitats and they were most likely trees of medium height. Kingdom: Plantae Phylum: Pinophyta Class: Pinopsida Order: Cordaitales Family: Cordaitaceae Genus: †Cordaites *NOTE: Photo #2 iappears to be a stem or branch - It seems to be much harder than the surrounding shale! The pictures following show structures that are probably poorly preserved leaves.
  4. Probably Cordiates - stem and leaves

    From the album MY FOSSIL Collection - Dpaul7

    Probable Cordaites Branch/Leaves Rt 56 Bypass, Johnstown, Pennsylvania, USA Pennsylvanian Period (290-330 Million Years Ago) Cordaites was probably quite a large tree of monopodial or even sympodial stature. Its trunk diameter was at a minimum 0.5 m. Branches were between 1.1 m and spaced less than 0.7 m appart. The bases of the branches usually attained about 2/3 to 1/2 of the trunk width. The abaxial cuticle has stomata arranged in multiplex stomatal rows that formed a wide stomatiferous band. A transverse crypt above the stoma is an important diagnostic feature. The cordaitalean leaves, twigs, pith casts, fertile organs and seeds found are referable to a single natural species. The associated fertile organs belong to two types: 1) male fertile organs Florinanthus volkmannii and 2) a more robust, probably female, form similar to Cordaitanthus ovatus . Cuticles from the scales and long bracts of Florinanthus volkmannii have been studied in detail. Most scale cuticles are astomatal, but stomata may occur very rarely on some parts of the abaxial cuticle. Small trichomes grew from the scale margins. The cuticle of the bract has elongate cells and stomata are arranged in single stomatal rows on the abaxial cuticle. Many bilateral monosaccate pollen grains [ Florinites ovalis , Florinites guttatus and Pseudoillinites , with a central body bipolar attachment to the equatorial saccus were separated from scale surfaces of Florinanthus volkmannii . The pith cast belong to the species Artisia approximata . The seeds are small and of the " Cardiocarpus- type". Cordaites grew in wet, peat-forming habitats and they were most likely trees of medium height. Kingdom: Plantae Phylum: Pinophyta Class: Pinopsida Order: Cordaitales Family: Cordaitaceae Genus: †Cordaites *NOTE: Photo #2 iappears to be a stem or branch - It seems to be much harder than the surrounding shale! The pictures following show structures that are probably poorly preserved leaves.
  5. Probably Cordiates - stem and leaves

    From the album MY FOSSIL Collection - Dpaul7

    Probable Cordaites Branch/Leaves Rt 56 Bypass, Johnstown, Pennsylvania, USA Pennsylvanian Period (290-330 Million Years Ago) Cordaites was probably quite a large tree of monopodial or even sympodial stature. Its trunk diameter was at a minimum 0.5 m. Branches were between 1.1 m and spaced less than 0.7 m appart. The bases of the branches usually attained about 2/3 to 1/2 of the trunk width. The abaxial cuticle has stomata arranged in multiplex stomatal rows that formed a wide stomatiferous band. A transverse crypt above the stoma is an important diagnostic feature. The cordaitalean leaves, twigs, pith casts, fertile organs and seeds found are referable to a single natural species. The associated fertile organs belong to two types: 1) male fertile organs Florinanthus volkmannii and 2) a more robust, probably female, form similar to Cordaitanthus ovatus . Cuticles from the scales and long bracts of Florinanthus volkmannii have been studied in detail. Most scale cuticles are astomatal, but stomata may occur very rarely on some parts of the abaxial cuticle. Small trichomes grew from the scale margins. The cuticle of the bract has elongate cells and stomata are arranged in single stomatal rows on the abaxial cuticle. Many bilateral monosaccate pollen grains [ Florinites ovalis , Florinites guttatus and Pseudoillinites , with a central body bipolar attachment to the equatorial saccus were separated from scale surfaces of Florinanthus volkmannii . The pith cast belong to the species Artisia approximata . The seeds are small and of the " Cardiocarpus- type". Cordaites grew in wet, peat-forming habitats and they were most likely trees of medium height. Kingdom: Plantae Phylum: Pinophyta Class: Pinopsida Order: Cordaitales Family: Cordaitaceae Genus: †Cordaites *NOTE: Photo #2 iappears to be a stem or branch - It seems to be much harder than the surrounding shale! The pictures following show structures that are probably poorly preserved leaves.
  6. Neuropteris sp

    From the album MY FOSSIL Collection - Dpaul7

    Neuropteris Leaf Rt 56 Bypass, Johnstown, Pennsylvania, USA Pennsylvanian Period (290-330 Million Years Ago) Neuropteris is an extinct seed fern that existed in the Carboniferous period, known only from fossils. Major species include Neuropteris loschi. It is a fairly common fossil in bituminous coal with Alethopteris and similar ferns, especially in the Carboniferous Alleghany Mountains of Pennsylvania, they can be found near St. Clair, Pennsylvania. One common leaf fossil found during the Carboniferous was once called Neuropteris scheuchzeri. In 1989, it was reclassified as Macroneuropteris scheuchzeri. This specimen looks like Neuropteris loschi Kingdom: Plantae Division: †Pteridospermatophyta Order: †Medullosales Family: †Neurodontopteridaceae Genus: †Neuropteris
  7. Calamites sp.

    From the album MY FOSSIL Collection - Dpaul7

    Calamites Rt 56 Bypass, Johnstown, Pennsylvania, USA Pennsylvanian Period (290-330 Million Years Ago) A number of organ taxa have been identified as part of a united organism, which has inherited the name Calamites in popular culture. Calamites correctly refers only to casts of the stem of Carboniferous/Permian sphenophytes, and as such is a form genus of little taxonomic value. There are two forms of casts, which can give mistaken impressions of the organisms. The most common is an internal cast of the hollow (or pith-filled) void in the centre of the trunk. This can cause some confusion: firstly, it must be remembered that a fossil was probably surrounded with 4-5 times its width in (unpreserved) vascular tissue, so the organisms were much wider than the internal casts preserved. Further, the fossil gets narrower as it attaches to a rhizoid, a place where one would expect there to be the highest concentration of vascular tissue (as this is where the peak transport occurs). However, because the fossil is a cast, the narrowing in fact represents a constriction of the cavity, into which vascular tubes encroach as they widen. Further organ genera belonging to sphenophytes include: (1) Arthropitys (stems which are preserved in a mineralised form (2) Astromyelon (permineralised rhizomes, distinguished from Arthropitys by the absence of a carinal canal) (3) Annularia and Asterophylites (form genera of leaf-whorls which are paraphyletic). This is possibly Calamites suckowi. Kingdom: Plantae Phylum: Pteridophyta Class: Equisetopsida Order: Equisetales Family: †Calamitaceae Genus: †Calamites
  8. Calamites sp.

    From the album MY FOSSIL Collection - Dpaul7

    Calamites Rt 56 Bypass, Johnstown, Pennsylvania, USA Pennsylvanian Period (290-330 Million Years Ago) A number of organ taxa have been identified as part of a united organism, which has inherited the name Calamites in popular culture. Calamites correctly refers only to casts of the stem of Carboniferous/Permian sphenophytes, and as such is a form genus of little taxonomic value. There are two forms of casts, which can give mistaken impressions of the organisms. The most common is an internal cast of the hollow (or pith-filled) void in the centre of the trunk. This can cause some confusion: firstly, it must be remembered that a fossil was probably surrounded with 4-5 times its width in (unpreserved) vascular tissue, so the organisms were much wider than the internal casts preserved. Further, the fossil gets narrower as it attaches to a rhizoid, a place where one would expect there to be the highest concentration of vascular tissue (as this is where the peak transport occurs). However, because the fossil is a cast, the narrowing in fact represents a constriction of the cavity, into which vascular tubes encroach as they widen. Further organ genera belonging to sphenophytes include: (1) Arthropitys (stems which are preserved in a mineralised form (2) Astromyelon (permineralised rhizomes, distinguished from Arthropitys by the absence of a carinal canal) (3) Annularia and Asterophylites (form genera of leaf-whorls which are paraphyletic). This is possibly Calamites suckowi. Kingdom: Plantae Phylum: Pteridophyta Class: Equisetopsida Order: Equisetales Family: †Calamitaceae Genus: †Calamites
  9. Calamites sp.

    From the album MY FOSSIL Collection - Dpaul7

    Calamites *Note: Photos 1, 2 and 3 show obverse; photo 4 reverse. Rt 56 Bypass, Johnstown, Pennsylvania, USA Pennsylvanian Period (290-330 Million Years Ago) A number of organ taxa have been identified as part of a united organism, which has inherited the name Calamites in popular culture. Calamites correctly refers only to casts of the stem of Carboniferous/Permian sphenophytes, and as such is a form genus of little taxonomic value. There are two forms of casts, which can give mistaken impressions of the organisms. The most common is an internal cast of the hollow (or pith-filled) void in the centre of the trunk. This can cause some confusion: firstly, it must be remembered that a fossil was probably surrounded with 4-5 times its width in (unpreserved) vascular tissue, so the organisms were much wider than the internal casts preserved. Further, the fossil gets narrower as it attaches to a rhizoid, a place where one would expect there to be the highest concentration of vascular tissue (as this is where the peak transport occurs). However, because the fossil is a cast, the narrowing in fact represents a constriction of the cavity, into which vascular tubes encroach as they widen. Further organ genera belonging to sphenophytes include: (1) Arthropitys (stems which are preserved in a mineralised form (2) Astromyelon (permineralised rhizomes, distinguished from Arthropitys by the absence of a carinal canal) (3) Annularia and Asterophylites (form genera of leaf-whorls which are paraphyletic). This is possibly Calamites suckowi. Kingdom: Plantae Phylum: Pteridophyta Class: Equisetopsida Order: Equisetales Family: †Calamitaceae Genus: †Calamites
  10. Calamites sp.

    From the album MY FOSSIL Collection - Dpaul7

    Calamites *Note: Photos 1, 2 and 3 show obverse; photo 4 reverse. Rt 56 Bypass, Johnstown, Pennsylvania, USA Pennsylvanian Period (290-330 Million Years Ago) A number of organ taxa have been identified as part of a united organism, which has inherited the name Calamites in popular culture. Calamites correctly refers only to casts of the stem of Carboniferous/Permian sphenophytes, and as such is a form genus of little taxonomic value. There are two forms of casts, which can give mistaken impressions of the organisms. The most common is an internal cast of the hollow (or pith-filled) void in the centre of the trunk. This can cause some confusion: firstly, it must be remembered that a fossil was probably surrounded with 4-5 times its width in (unpreserved) vascular tissue, so the organisms were much wider than the internal casts preserved. Further, the fossil gets narrower as it attaches to a rhizoid, a place where one would expect there to be the highest concentration of vascular tissue (as this is where the peak transport occurs). However, because the fossil is a cast, the narrowing in fact represents a constriction of the cavity, into which vascular tubes encroach as they widen. Further organ genera belonging to sphenophytes include: (1) Arthropitys (stems which are preserved in a mineralised form (2) Astromyelon (permineralised rhizomes, distinguished from Arthropitys by the absence of a carinal canal) (3) Annularia and Asterophylites (form genera of leaf-whorls which are paraphyletic). This is possibly Calamites suckowi. Kingdom: Plantae Phylum: Pteridophyta Class: Equisetopsida Order: Equisetales Family: †Calamitaceae Genus: †Calamites
  11. Calamites sp.

    From the album MY FOSSIL Collection - Dpaul7

    Calamites *Note: Photos 1, 2 and 3 show obverse; photo 4 reverse. Rt 56 Bypass, Johnstown, Pennsylvania, USA Pennsylvanian Period (290-330 Million Years Ago) A number of organ taxa have been identified as part of a united organism, which has inherited the name Calamites in popular culture. Calamites correctly refers only to casts of the stem of Carboniferous/Permian sphenophytes, and as such is a form genus of little taxonomic value. There are two forms of casts, which can give mistaken impressions of the organisms. The most common is an internal cast of the hollow (or pith-filled) void in the centre of the trunk. This can cause some confusion: firstly, it must be remembered that a fossil was probably surrounded with 4-5 times its width in (unpreserved) vascular tissue, so the organisms were much wider than the internal casts preserved. Further, the fossil gets narrower as it attaches to a rhizoid, a place where one would expect there to be the highest concentration of vascular tissue (as this is where the peak transport occurs). However, because the fossil is a cast, the narrowing in fact represents a constriction of the cavity, into which vascular tubes encroach as they widen. Further organ genera belonging to sphenophytes include: (1) Arthropitys (stems which are preserved in a mineralised form (2) Astromyelon (permineralised rhizomes, distinguished from Arthropitys by the absence of a carinal canal) (3) Annularia and Asterophylites (form genera of leaf-whorls which are paraphyletic). This is possibly Calamites suckowi. Kingdom: Plantae Phylum: Pteridophyta Class: Equisetopsida Order: Equisetales Family: †Calamitaceae Genus: †Calamites
  12. Calamites sp.

    From the album MY FOSSIL Collection - Dpaul7

    Calamites *Note: Photos 1, 2 and 3 show obverse; photo 4 reverse. Rt 56 Bypass, Johnstown, Pennsylvania, USA Pennsylvanian Period (290-330 Million Years Ago) A number of organ taxa have been identified as part of a united organism, which has inherited the name Calamites in popular culture. Calamites correctly refers only to casts of the stem of Carboniferous/Permian sphenophytes, and as such is a form genus of little taxonomic value. There are two forms of casts, which can give mistaken impressions of the organisms. The most common is an internal cast of the hollow (or pith-filled) void in the centre of the trunk. This can cause some confusion: firstly, it must be remembered that a fossil was probably surrounded with 4-5 times its width in (unpreserved) vascular tissue, so the organisms were much wider than the internal casts preserved. Further, the fossil gets narrower as it attaches to a rhizoid, a place where one would expect there to be the highest concentration of vascular tissue (as this is where the peak transport occurs). However, because the fossil is a cast, the narrowing in fact represents a constriction of the cavity, into which vascular tubes encroach as they widen. Further organ genera belonging to sphenophytes include: (1) Arthropitys (stems which are preserved in a mineralised form (2) Astromyelon (permineralised rhizomes, distinguished from Arthropitys by the absence of a carinal canal) (3) Annularia and Asterophylites (form genera of leaf-whorls which are paraphyletic). This is possibly Calamites suckowi. Kingdom: Plantae Phylum: Pteridophyta Class: Equisetopsida Order: Equisetales Family: †Calamitaceae Genus: †Calamites
  13. Calamites sp.

    From the album MY FOSSIL Collection - Dpaul7

    Calamites Rt 56 Bypass, Johnstown, Pennsylvania, USA Pennsylvanian Period (290-330 Million Years Ago) A number of organ taxa have been identified as part of a united organism, which has inherited the name Calamites in popular culture. Calamites correctly refers only to casts of the stem of Carboniferous/Permian sphenophytes, and as such is a form genus of little taxonomic value. There are two forms of casts, which can give mistaken impressions of the organisms. The most common is an internal cast of the hollow (or pith-filled) void in the centre of the trunk. This can cause some confusion: firstly, it must be remembered that a fossil was probably surrounded with 4-5 times its width in (unpreserved) vascular tissue, so the organisms were much wider than the internal casts preserved. Further, the fossil gets narrower as it attaches to a rhizoid, a place where one would expect there to be the highest concentration of vascular tissue (as this is where the peak transport occurs). However, because the fossil is a cast, the narrowing in fact represents a constriction of the cavity, into which vascular tubes encroach as they widen. Further organ genera belonging to sphenophytes include: (1) Arthropitys (stems which are preserved in a mineralised form (2) Astromyelon (permineralised rhizomes, distinguished from Arthropitys by the absence of a carinal canal) (3) Annularia and Asterophylites (form genera of leaf-whorls which are paraphyletic). This is possibly Calamites suckowi. Kingdom: Plantae Phylum: Pteridophyta Class: Equisetopsida Order: Equisetales Family: †Calamitaceae Genus: †Calamites
  14. Calamites

    From the album MY FOSSIL Collection - Dpaul7

    Calamites Rt 56 Bypass, Johnstown, Pennsylvania, USA Pennsylvanian Period (290-330 Million Years Ago) A number of organ taxa have been identified as part of a united organism, which has inherited the name Calamites in popular culture. Calamites correctly refers only to casts of the stem of Carboniferous/Permian sphenophytes, and as such is a form genus of little taxonomic value. There are two forms of casts, which can give mistaken impressions of the organisms. The most common is an internal cast of the hollow (or pith-filled) void in the centre of the trunk. This can cause some confusion: firstly, it must be remembered that a fossil was probably surrounded with 4-5 times its width in (unpreserved) vascular tissue, so the organisms were much wider than the internal casts preserved. Further, the fossil gets narrower as it attaches to a rhizoid, a place where one would expect there to be the highest concentration of vascular tissue (as this is where the peak transport occurs). However, because the fossil is a cast, the narrowing in fact represents a constriction of the cavity, into which vascular tubes encroach as they widen. Further organ genera belonging to sphenophytes include: (1) Arthropitys (stems which are preserved in a mineralised form (2) Astromyelon (permineralised rhizomes, distinguished from Arthropitys by the absence of a carinal canal) (3) Annularia and Asterophylites (form genera of leaf-whorls which are paraphyletic). This is possibly Calamites suckowi. Kingdom: Plantae Phylum: Pteridophyta Class: Equisetopsida Order: Equisetales Family: †Calamitaceae Genus: †Calamites
  15. Calamites

    From the album MY FOSSIL Collection - Dpaul7

    Calamites Rt 56 Bypass, Johnstown, Pennsylvania, USA Pennsylvanian Period (290-330 Million Years Ago) A number of organ taxa have been identified as part of a united organism, which has inherited the name Calamites in popular culture. Calamites correctly refers only to casts of the stem of Carboniferous/Permian sphenophytes, and as such is a form genus of little taxonomic value. There are two forms of casts, which can give mistaken impressions of the organisms. The most common is an internal cast of the hollow (or pith-filled) void in the centre of the trunk. This can cause some confusion: firstly, it must be remembered that a fossil was probably surrounded with 4-5 times its width in (unpreserved) vascular tissue, so the organisms were much wider than the internal casts preserved. Further, the fossil gets narrower as it attaches to a rhizoid, a place where one would expect there to be the highest concentration of vascular tissue (as this is where the peak transport occurs). However, because the fossil is a cast, the narrowing in fact represents a constriction of the cavity, into which vascular tubes encroach as they widen. Further organ genera belonging to sphenophytes include: (1) Arthropitys (stems which are preserved in a mineralised form (2) Astromyelon (permineralised rhizomes, distinguished from Arthropitys by the absence of a carinal canal) (3) Annularia and Asterophylites (form genera of leaf-whorls which are paraphyletic). This is possibly Calamites suckowi. Kingdom: Plantae Phylum: Pteridophyta Class: Equisetopsida Order: Equisetales Family: †Calamitaceae Genus: †Calamites
  16. Calamites

    From the album MY FOSSIL Collection - Dpaul7

    Calamites Rt 56 Bypass, Johnstown, Pennsylvania, USA Pennsylvanian Period (290-330 Million Years Ago) A number of organ taxa have been identified as part of a united organism, which has inherited the name Calamites in popular culture. Calamites correctly refers only to casts of the stem of Carboniferous/Permian sphenophytes, and as such is a form genus of little taxonomic value. There are two forms of casts, which can give mistaken impressions of the organisms. The most common is an internal cast of the hollow (or pith-filled) void in the centre of the trunk. This can cause some confusion: firstly, it must be remembered that a fossil was probably surrounded with 4-5 times its width in (unpreserved) vascular tissue, so the organisms were much wider than the internal casts preserved. Further, the fossil gets narrower as it attaches to a rhizoid, a place where one would expect there to be the highest concentration of vascular tissue (as this is where the peak transport occurs). However, because the fossil is a cast, the narrowing in fact represents a constriction of the cavity, into which vascular tubes encroach as they widen. Further organ genera belonging to sphenophytes include: (1) Arthropitys (stems which are preserved in a mineralised form (2) Astromyelon (permineralised rhizomes, distinguished from Arthropitys by the absence of a carinal canal) (3) Annularia and Asterophylites (form genera of leaf-whorls which are paraphyletic). This is possibly Calamites suckowi. Kingdom: Plantae Phylum: Pteridophyta Class: Equisetopsida Order: Equisetales Family: †Calamitaceae Genus: †Calamites
  17. Artisia fossil

    From the album MY FOSSIL Collection - Dpaul7

    Artisia fossil Rt 56 Bypass, Johnstown, Pennsylvania, USA Pennsylvanian Period (290-330 Million Years Ago) Artisia - the pith cast of Cordaites. In The Fossil Flora of Great Britain, or figures and descriptions of the vegetable remains found in a fossil state in this country - John Lindley, Wlliam Hutton, Volume III, 1837 were described similar ones as Sternbergia. Sternbergia angulosa Artis Antedil. phytol. t. 8. and Sternbergia approximata Ad. Brongn. Prodr. p. 137. " When the integuaient of coal is broken off, these plants are sometimes found simply marked by horizontal depressed lines, which meet alternately from opposite sides anastomozing in the middle ; but in other cases the space between the lines is excavated into deep furrows, and honey-combed as it were by the formation of short perpendicular bars which connect the lines ; traces also may be found of lines running along the sides of the stem for a considerable distance. The result of this is that many stems appear as if they were composed of horizontal plates, about l-16th of an inch apart and held together by some connection in the axis of the stem : a most extraordinary appearance, to which we know of no parallel, and which we are by no means prepared to say is their real structure. " Cordaites is an important genus of extinct gymnosperms which grew on wet ground similar to the Everglades in Florida. Kingdom: Plantae Division: Pinophyta Class: Pinopsida Order: Cordaitales Family: Cordaitaceae Genus: Cordaites
  18. Artisia fossil

    From the album MY FOSSIL Collection - Dpaul7

    Artisia fossil Rt 56 Bypass, Johnstown, Pennsylvania, USA Pennsylvanian Period (290-330 Million Years Ago) Artisia - the pith cast of Cordaites. In The Fossil Flora of Great Britain, or figures and descriptions of the vegetable remains found in a fossil state in this country - John Lindley, Wlliam Hutton, Volume III, 1837 were described similar ones as Sternbergia. Sternbergia angulosa Artis Antedil. phytol. t. 8. and Sternbergia approximata Ad. Brongn. Prodr. p. 137. " When the integuaient of coal is broken off, these plants are sometimes found simply marked by horizontal depressed lines, which meet alternately from opposite sides anastomozing in the middle ; but in other cases the space between the lines is excavated into deep furrows, and honey-combed as it were by the formation of short perpendicular bars which connect the lines ; traces also may be found of lines running along the sides of the stem for a considerable distance. The result of this is that many stems appear as if they were composed of horizontal plates, about l-16th of an inch apart and held together by some connection in the axis of the stem : a most extraordinary appearance, to which we know of no parallel, and which we are by no means prepared to say is their real structure. " Cordaites is an important genus of extinct gymnosperms which grew on wet ground similar to the Everglades in Florida. Kingdom: Plantae Division: Pinophyta Class: Pinopsida Order: Cordaitales Family: Cordaitaceae Genus: Cordaites
  19. Artisia fossil

    From the album MY FOSSIL Collection - Dpaul7

    Artisia fossil Rt 56 Bypass, Johnstown, Pennsylvania, USA Pennsylvanian Period (290-330 Million Years Ago) Artisia - the pith cast of Cordaites. In The Fossil Flora of Great Britain, or figures and descriptions of the vegetable remains found in a fossil state in this country - John Lindley, Wlliam Hutton, Volume III, 1837 were described similar ones as Sternbergia. Sternbergia angulosa Artis Antedil. phytol. t. 8. and Sternbergia approximata Ad. Brongn. Prodr. p. 137. " When the integuaient of coal is broken off, these plants are sometimes found simply marked by horizontal depressed lines, which meet alternately from opposite sides anastomozing in the middle ; but in other cases the space between the lines is excavated into deep furrows, and honey-combed as it were by the formation of short perpendicular bars which connect the lines ; traces also may be found of lines running along the sides of the stem for a considerable distance. The result of this is that many stems appear as if they were composed of horizontal plates, about l-16th of an inch apart and held together by some connection in the axis of the stem : a most extraordinary appearance, to which we know of no parallel, and which we are by no means prepared to say is their real structure. " Cordaites is an important genus of extinct gymnosperms which grew on wet ground similar to the Everglades in Florida. Kingdom: Plantae Division: Pinophyta Class: Pinopsida Order: Cordaitales Family: Cordaitaceae Genus: Cordaites
  20. Another odd "wood" fossil

    One more, if I may - This piece looks like a piece of wood! But it is in an area with a large amount of Calamites. (Lesser amounts of sigillaria and lepidodendron). A "root" section? Again, I am at a loss - and I will probably find MORE like this one. It is SOME part of a tree... Pennsylvanian period, of course. The 2nd photo is a close-up. Thank you for your attention!
  21. Odd wood fossil!

    This fossil is odd on a number of levels! The shale is a bit crumbly - but the "stick" that protrudes on the left side of figure 1 and 2 are VERY hard. Photo 3 and 4 are the reverse side... it looks like layers of wood! Found in an area heavy with calamites - Could these be pith casts? A rhizoid? I'm lost on this one!
  22. I found a nice group of Calamites - I am thinking Calamites suckovii - they ARE common in this area of Johnstown, Pennsylvania. The pattern appears to match my reference books... but I like to be sure if possible!
  23. I'm looking for opinions on this one..... I consulted a VERY old volume and found what I believe is a match... ESPECIALLY since the book's diagram was from my immediate area of Johnstown, Pennsylvania USA. This is from my Wednesday Feb. 21 hunt. The data on the fossil: Rt 56 Bypass, Johnstown, Pennsylvania, USA Pennsylvanian Period (290-330 Million Years Ago) Fern leaves called Pecopteris grew abundantly in the coal swamps of the Carboniferous Period. These leaves dropped off of a 35 foot fern tree called “Psaronius“, one of the most common Paleozoic types. With its sparse and expansive branches, it resembled the modern day palm tree. It produced as many as 7000 spores on the underside of its leaves. These samples are well preserved in gray coal shale as many Carboniferous leaf fossils. (From A Dictionary of the Fossils of Pennsylvania VOL II:) Pecopteris velutina. Les. Geol. Pa. 1858, p. 866, pll. 12, fig. 3, 3 a; 3.from Johnstown, Cambria Co., Pa., venation not visible under the thick skin; but in a specimen afterwards obtained at Cannelton, Beaver Co., Pa., also with a thick shining skin some of the leaflets show the style of venation.Lesq.—Kittanning coal. XIII. Pecopteris is a very common form genus of leaves. Most Pecopteris leaves and fronds are associated with the marattialean tree fern Psaronius. However, Pecopteris-type foliage also is borne on several filicalean ferns, and at least one seed fern. Pecopteris first appeared in the Devonian period, but flourished in the Carboniferous, especially the Pennsylvanian. Plants bearing these leaves became extinct in the Permian period. Kingdom: Plantae Phylum: Pteridophtya (meaning vascular plant with transport system for nutrients and fluids) Class: Filicopsida (Ferns which reproduce with spores) Order: Marattiales (primitive ferns) Family: Marattiaceae Genus: †Pecopteris Species: †velutina
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