Jump to content

Search the Community

Showing results for tags 'manatee'.

More search options

  • Search By Tags

    Type tags separated by commas.
    Tags should be keywords or key phrases. e.g. carcharodon, pliocene, cypresshead formation, florida.
  • Search By Author

Content Type


  • Fossil Discussion
    • General Fossil Discussion
    • Fossil Hunting Trips
    • Fossil ID
    • Is It Real? How to Recognize Fossil Fabrications
    • Partners in Paleontology - Member Contributions to Science
    • Questions & Answers
    • Fossil of the Month
    • Member Collections
    • A Trip to the Museum
    • Paleo Re-creations
    • Collecting Gear
    • Fossil Preparation
    • Member Fossil Trades Bulletin Board
    • Member-to-Member Fossil Sales
    • Fossil News
  • Gallery
  • Fossil Sites
    • Africa
    • Asia
    • Australia - New Zealand
    • Canada
    • Europe
    • Middle East
    • South America
    • United States
  • Fossil Media
    • Members Websites
    • Fossils On The Web
    • Fossil Photography
    • Fossil Literature
    • Documents


  • Anson's Blog
  • Mudding Around
  • Nicholas' Blog
  • dinosaur50's Blog
  • Traviscounty's Blog
  • Seldom's Blog
  • tracer's tidbits
  • Sacredsin's Blog
  • fossilfacetheprospector's Blog
  • jax world
  • echinoman's Blog
  • Ammonoidea
  • Traviscounty's Blog
  • brsr0131's Blog
  • brsr0131's Blog
  • Adventures with a Paddle
  • Caveat emptor
  • -------
  • Fig Rocks' Blog
  • placoderms
  • mosasaurs
  • ozzyrules244's Blog
  • Sir Knightia's Blog
  • Terry Dactyll's Blog
  • shakinchevy2008's Blog
  • MaHa's Blog
  • Stratio's Blog
  • Phoenixflood's Blog
  • Brett Breakin' Rocks' Blog
  • Seattleguy's Blog
  • jkfoam's Blog
  • Erwan's Blog
  • Erwan's Blog
  • Lindsey's Blog
  • marksfossils' Blog
  • ibanda89's Blog
  • Liberty's Blog
  • Liberty's Blog
  • Back of Beyond
  • St. Johns River Shark Teeth/Florida
  • Ameenah's Blog
  • gordon's Blog
  • West4me's Blog
  • West4me's Blog
  • Pennsylvania Perspectives
  • michigantim's Blog
  • michigantim's Blog
  • lauraharp's Blog
  • lauraharp's Blog
  • micropterus101's Blog
  • micropterus101's Blog
  • GPeach129's Blog
  • nicciann's Blog
  • Olenellus' Blog
  • nicciann's Blog
  • maybe a nest fossil?
  • Deep-Thinker's Blog
  • Deep-Thinker's Blog
  • bear-dog's Blog
  • javidal's Blog
  • Digging America
  • John Sun's Blog
  • John Sun's Blog
  • Ravsiden's Blog
  • Jurassic park
  • The Hunt for Fossils
  • The Fury's Grand Blog
  • julie's ??
  • Hunt'n 'odonts!
  • falcondob's Blog
  • Monkeyfuss' Blog
  • cyndy's Blog
  • pattyf's Blog
  • pattyf's Blog
  • chrisf's Blog
  • chrisf's Blog
  • nola's Blog
  • mercyrcfans88's Blog
  • Emily's PRI Adventure
  • trilobite guy's Blog
  • xenacanthus' Blog
  • barnes' Blog
  • myfossiltrips.blogspot.com
  • HeritageFossils' Blog
  • Fossilefinder's Blog
  • Fossilefinder's Blog
  • Emily's MotE Adventure
  • farfarawy's Blog
  • Microfossil Mania!
  • A Novice Geologist
  • Southern Comfort
  • Eli's Blog
  • andreas' Blog
  • Recent Collecting Trips
  • retired blog
  • Stocksdale's Blog
  • andreas' Blog test
  • fossilman7's Blog
  • Books I have enjoyed
  • Piranha Blog
  • xonenine's blog
  • xonenine's Blog
  • Fossil collecting and SAFETY
  • Detrius
  • pangeaman's Blog
  • pangeaman's Blog
  • pangeaman's Blog
  • Jocky's Blog
  • Jocky's Blog
  • Kehbe's Kwips
  • RomanK's Blog
  • Prehistoric Planet Trilogy
  • mikeymig's Blog
  • Western NY Explorer's Blog
  • Regg Cato's Blog
  • VisionXray23's Blog
  • Carcharodontosaurus' Blog
  • What is the largest dragonfly fossil? What are the top contenders?
  • Hihimanu Hale
  • Test Blog
  • jsnrice's blog
  • Lise MacFadden's Poetry Blog
  • BluffCountryFossils Adventure Blog
  • meadow's Blog
  • Makeing The Unlikley Happen
  • KansasFossilHunter's Blog
  • DarrenElliot's Blog
  • jesus' Blog
  • A Mesozoic Mosaic
  • Dinosaur comic
  • Zookeeperfossils
  • Cameronballislife31's Blog
  • My Blog
  • TomKoss' Blog
  • A guide to calcanea and astragali
  • Group Blog Test
  • Paleo Rantings of a Blockhead
  • Dead Dino is Art
  • The Amber Blog
  • TyrannosaurusRex's Facts
  • PaleoWilliam's Blog
  • The Paleo-Tourist
  • The Community Post
  • Lyndon D Agate Johnson's Blog
  • BRobinson7's Blog
  • Eastern NC Trip Reports
  • Toofuntahh's Blog
  • Pterodactyl's Blog
  • A Beginner's Foray into Fossiling
  • Micropaleontology blog
  • Pondering on Dinosaurs
  • Fossil Preparation Blog
  • On Dinosaurs and Media
  • cheney416's fossil story
  • jpc
  • Red-Headed Red-Neck Rock-Hound w/ My Trusty HellHound Cerberus
  • Red Headed
  • Paleo-Profiles
  • Walt's Blog
  • Between A Rock And A Hard Place
  • Rudist digging at "Point 25", St. Bartholomä, Styria, Austria (Campanian, Gosau-group)
  • Prognathodon saturator 101


  • Calendar


  • Annelids
  • Arthropods
    • Crustaceans
    • Insects
    • Trilobites
    • Other Arthropods
  • Brachiopods
  • Cnidarians (Corals, Jellyfish, Conulariids )
    • Corals
    • Jellyfish, Conulariids, etc.
  • Echinoderms
    • Crinoids & Blastoids
    • Echinoids
    • Other Echinoderms
    • Starfish and Brittlestars
  • Forams
  • Graptolites
  • Molluscs
    • Bivalves
    • Cephalopods (Ammonites, Belemnites, Nautiloids)
    • Gastropods
    • Other Molluscs
  • Sponges
  • Bryozoans
  • Other Invertebrates
  • Ichnofossils
  • Plants
  • Chordata
    • Amphibians & Reptiles
    • Birds
    • Dinosaurs
    • Fishes
    • Mammals
    • Sharks & Rays
    • Other Chordates
  • *Pseudofossils ( Inorganic objects , markings, or impressions that resemble fossils.)

Found 18 results

  1. Sirenia.jpg

    I 3d-printed some skull-replicas of 3 sirenia genera: West Indian Manatee (Trichechus manatus) Padific Dugong (Dugong dugon) and Steller's Sea-cow (Hydrodamalis gigas). I was really amazed about the fact that, despite the immense disparity in body-size between the extinct sea-cow and its extant relatives, their heads/crania were remarkably similar to each other in overall dimensions. The sea-cow skull was larger, but not by as much as one would think.
  2. Unknown Florida Fossils

    I have two gastropods for @MikeR to weigh in on if he has time. These were found in a pile of street material in a upcoming housing development in Sarasota County. I am assuming Tamiami Formation. 1. I am thinking Chicoreus floridanus but the opening looks different. On my specimen, it is fractured off a bit. 2. I am pretty sure this is Subpterynotus textilis, but being such a pretty fossil, I want to make sure. Now I will call on my resident experts @jcbshark and @Shellseeker , or anyone else that has an opinion, to aide in IDing these. The location was from dredging material piled up from the creation of a lake in Manatee County, by Bradenton. The pile was full of dugong ribs and shark teeth. 3. This looks like a horse tooth to me but MUCH smaller than ones I have found before. Jack, this one is for you! 4. Is this a bony fish vertebrae or shark. I am betting on fish.
  3. Manatee Scapula

    With a quick google image search, I’m left to believe this is a manatee scapula. Is this correct and is there any other information y’all may have? It’s not fossilized, but I think it’s pretty cool!
  4. Hi all - I did not have time in January when I normally write these up, but thanks to Covid quarantine I managed to get some time last month and write up a comprehensive review on my blog of every single 2019 paper in marine mammal paleontology. Enjoy! https://coastalpaleo.blogspot.com/2020/05/2019-in-review-advances-in-marine.html
  5. Manatee teeth?

    Howdy, I find these sifting at Venice beach. Are they worn down/broken wave worn pieces of manatee teeth and enamel? Some of them remind me of a very worn down half of an image A. from @Harry Pristis photo that was previously shared on the forum. I think they are so beautiful and I can tell it’s enamel but I never knew from what. thanks
  6. Just wanting to figure what these barnacles are attached to. I'm guessing a whale bone, but kinda want to be for certain. It's pretty damaged and large. It's pretty cool though. Found in nokomis Florida on a construction site.
  7. Found these in a small creek in North Florida. Have no idea what they could be. They could potentially fit together (they were found together)?? Unsure. That's my fossil hunting partners guess, but we're both pretty clueless. Manatee jaw? Help!
  8. Dugong or Manatee

    This is an excellent find, but I am unsure how to identify it and I also wanted to share the moment. Why excellent? Any fossil tooth with complete roots is rare and any Manatee or Dugong molar in any shape is rare for me. In 10 years , I have found 5 or 6 of these in Peace River hunting. So my question: Can a Trichechus manatus molar be differentiated from a Metaxytherium floridanum molar and , if so, which is this fossil? Details : Crown height - 45 mm, Crown length - 26 mm; Found in Peace River Watershed. Thanks for all comments and suggestions!!!
  9. Dugong manatee dilemma

    During my field works at Central Hispaniola I have been finding what appear to be manatees/dugongs ribs. As a rookie in the field of paleontology, which I am passionate about, could you help me determine if these dozens of pieces collected, in an elongated form and that are pinching at the end, as ribs of manatee/dugongs correspond or not to these vertebrates? ? They are dense and have small blackish dots like some mollusk fossils that I have also collected. Thanks, infinite thanks for helping me with this dilemma that fascinates me at the same time !!
  10. It kinda looks like an ear bone?

    Found this today, something struck me as odd so I stuck it in my pocket. It’s from the peace river. I’m looking at it, and it kinda looks like an ear bone from a dolphin or manatee, but I don’t know...it’s something, just can’t wrap my head around it. Any ideas?
  11. Little Manatee River?

    Has anyone ever fossil hunted on the Little Manatee River? If so, is it worthwhile? I spoke to a ranger who works at LMR SP, and he had no idea. It was like I was speaking in Greek or something. I did some looking around on the web, but can't find much about LMR.
  12. Bone

    My father had found this bone about 2 years back, we think it is a dugong or manatee bone. It was found in Venice, Florida. Thanks to anyone who can identify.
  13. I have been found relatively abundant fossil remains of what I think can be dugong (manatee) ribs and other related bones (?), in the Caribbean. Mostly end on pointed-ends. I have heard about the burial social preferences of manatees also. They are relatively common but any skull has been found yet. Can you help me to ID these bone-like fossils?? How to differenciate it even from fossil whales. Thanks deeply for all your help adorable Community !!
  14. What do you guys think of these manatee teeth? I've looked around online at different pictures and the first one seems a little too perfect.
  15. New Ear Bone

    Hello I'm not sure if it belongs to a cetacea or a manatee, could someone help me, thanks.
  16. Curiosity Killed The Newbie...

    I would love input as to what this tooth may be. Found in the St. John's river (actually my toes found it). The folds and whatnot just piqued my curiosity as I have never seen a tooth like this. It's small and flat and I can only guess it came from a mammal. Any help is greatly appreciated.
  17. The Looper Collection

    A family of fossil hunters collects specimens from the Mississippi River in northwest Louisiana, northeast Mississippi, and southeast Arkansas. They've displayed their finds on the below linked website. Among the most exciting fossils in my opinion are of manatee and stag-moose. The latter is very rare in southeastern fossil sites and must date to a cold stadial . The manatee must date to a warm interglacial or interstadial. http://www.cwreplicas.com/index1.html
  18. These are a few of the pdf files (and a few Microsoft Word documents) that I've accumulated in my web browsing. MOST of these are hyperlinked to their source. If you want one that is not hyperlinked or if the link isn't working, e-mail me at joegallo1954@gmail.com and I'll be happy to send it to you. Please note that this list will be updated continuously as I find more available resources. All of these files are freely available on the Internet so there should be no copyright issues. Articles with author names in RED are new additions since December 1, 2017. Order Sirenia Sirenia - Africa/Middle East Abbassi, N., et al. (2016). Sirenia fossils from QOM Formation (Burdigalian) of the Kabudar Ahang Area, Northwest Iran. Revista Italiana di Paleontologia y Stratigrafia, Vol.122(1). Benoit, J., et al. (2013). Cranial Remain from Tunisia Provides New Clues for the Origin and Evolution of Sirenia (Mammalia, Afrotheria) in Africa. PLoS ONE, 8(1). Clementz, M.T., S. Sorbi and D.P. Domning (2009). Evidence of Cenozoic environmental and ecological change from stable isotope analysis of sirenian remains from the Tethys-Mediterranean region. Geology, Vol.37, Number 4. Domning, D.P, and P.D. Gingerich (1994). Protosiren smithae, New Species (Mammalia, Sirenia) from the Late Middle Eocene of Wadi Hitan, Egypt. Contributions from the Museum of Paleontology - The University of Michigan, Vol.29, Number 3. Domning, D.P., I.S. Zalmout and P.D. Gingerich (2010). Chapter 14. Sirenia. In: Cenozoic Mammals of Africa. Werdelin, L. and W.J. Sanders (eds.), University of California Press. Domning, D.P., et al. (1994). A New Early Oligocene Dungongid (Mammalia, Sirenia) from Fayum Province, Egypt. Contributions from the Museum of Paleontology - The University of Michigan, Vol.29, Number 4. Gingerich, P.D. (1992). Marine Mammals (Cetacea and Sirenia) from the Eocene of Gebel Mokattam and Fayum, Egypt: Stratigraphy, Age and Paleoenvironments. Museum of Paleontology - The University of Michigan, Papers on Paleontology, 30. Gingerich, P.D., et al. (1994). Cranial Morphology of Protosiren fraasi (Mammalia, Sirenia) from the Middle Eocene of Egypt: A New Study Using Computed Tomography. Contributions from the Museum of Paleontology - The University of Michigan, Vol.29, Number 2. Prista, G., et al. (2014). Euro-North African Sirenia biodiversity as a response to climate variations. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 410. Prista, G., et al. (2013). The disappearance of the European/North African Sirenia (Mammalia). Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 387. Samonds, K.E., et al. (2009). Eotheroides lambondrano, New Middle Eocene Seacow (Mammalia, Sirenia) from the Mahajanga Basin, Northwestern Madagascar. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology, 29(4). Zalmout, I.S. (2008). Late Eocene Sea Cows (Mammalia, Sirenia) from Wadi Al Hitan in the Fayum Basin, Egypt. Ph.D. Disseration - The University of Michigan. Sirenia - Asia/Malaysia/Pacific Islands Bajpai, S., M.P. Singh and R. Singh (1987). A New Sirenian from the Miocene of Kachchh, Western India. Journal of the Palaeontological Society of India, Vol.32. Bajpai, S., et al. (2009). A new middle Eocene sirenian (Mammalia, Protosirenidae) from India. N.Jb.Geol.Palaont.Abh., Vol.252/3. Bajpai, S., et al. (2006). Eocene and Oligocene Sirenians (Mammalia) from Kachchh, India. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology, 26(2). Gingerich, P.D., et al. (1995). Protosiren and Babiacetus (Mammalia, Sirenia and Cetacea) from the Middle Eocene Drazinda Formation, Sulaiman Range, Punjab (Pakistan). Contributions from the Museum of Paleontology - The University of Michigan, Vol.29, Number 12. Sahni, A. and K. Kumar (1980). Lower Eocene Sirenia, Ishatherium subathuensis, Gen. et Sp.Nov. from the Type Area, Subathu Formation, Subathu, Simla Himalayas, H.P. Journal of the Palaeontological Society of India, Vols. 23&24. Shikama, T. and D.P. Domning (1970). 573. Pliocene Sirenia in Japan. Trans.Proc.Palaeont.Soc. Japan, N.S., Number 80. Takahashi, S., D.P. Domning and T. Saito (1986). 809. Dusisiren dewana, N.Sp. (Mammalia: Sirenia), A New Ancestor of Steller's Sea Cow from the Upper Miocene of Yamagata Prefecture, Northeastern Japan. Trans.Proc.Palaeont.Soc. Japan, N.S., Number 141. Thewissen, J.G.M. and S. Bajpai (2009). A new Miocene sirenian from Kutch, India. Acta Paleontologica Polonica, 54(1). Zalmout, I.S., M. Ul-Haq, and P.D. Gingerich (2003). New Species of Protosiren (Mammalia, Sirenia) from the Early Middle Eocene of Balochistan (Pakistan). Contributions from the Museum of Paleontology - The University of Michigan, Vol.31, Number 3. Sirenia - Europe (including Greenland and Siberia) Abel, O. (1904). The Sirenia of the Mediterranean Tertiary Formations of Austria. Abhandlungen Geologische Reichsanstalt Wien, 19. (Plates not included) Astibia, H., et al. New fossils of Sirenia from the Middle Eocene of Navarre (Western Pyrenees): the oldest West European sea cow record. Astre, G. (1954). The easternmost strata containing Halitherium in the marine Stampien of Bordelais. Bulletin de la Societe d'Histoire Naturelle de Toulouse, 89. (Plates not included) Bianucci, G. and W. Landini (2003). Metaxytherium medium (Mammalia: Sirenia) from Upper Miocene Sediments of the Arenaria di Ponsano Formation (Tuscany, Italy). Revista Italiana di Paleontolgia e Stratigrafia, Vol.109, Number 3. Bianucci, G., W. Landini and A. Varola (2003). New records of Metaxytherium (Mammalia: Sirenia) from the late Miocene of Cisterna quarry (Apulia, southern Italy). Bollettino della Societa Paleontologica Italiana, 42(1-2). Bianucci, G., et al. (2008). Pre-Messinian Dwarfing in Mediterranean Metaxytherium (Mammalia: Sirenia): Evidence of Habitat Degradation Related to the Messinian Salinity Crisis. Garyounis Scientific Bulletin, Special Issue, Number 5. Clementz, M.T., S. Sorbi and D.P. Domning (2009). Evidence of Cenozoic environmental and ecological change from stable isotope analysis of sirenian remains from the Tethys-Mediterranean region. Geology, Vol.37, Number 4. Carone, G. and D.P. Domning (2007). Metaxytherium serresii (Mammaia: Sirenia): new Pre-Pliocene record, and implications for Mediterranean paleoecology before and after the Messinian salinity crisis. Bolletino della Societa Paleontologica Italiana, 46(1). Carone, G., A.C. Marra and C. Mesiano (2016). First record of Dugongidae (Mammalia: Sirenia) from the Floresta Calcarenites (Late Burgundalian-Early Langhian, Reggio Calabria, Southern Italy). Revista Italiana di Paleontologia y Stratigrafia, Vol.122(1). Carone, G., D.P. Domning and A.C. Marra (2013). New finds of Metaxytherium serresii (Gervais, 1847)(Mammalia: Sirenia) from the Upper Miocene of Monte Poro (Calabria, Italy). Bollettino della Societa Paleontologica Italiana, 52(3). de Buffrenil,V., H. Astibia, and N. Bardet (2008). Variation in bone histology of middle Eocene sirenians from western Europe. Geodiversitas, 30(2). Diedrich, C.G. (2013). The most northerly record of the sirenian Protosiren and the possible polyphyletic evolution of manatees and dugongs. Natural Science, Vol.5, Number 11. Domning, D.P. and P. Pervesler (2012). The sirenian Metaxytherium (Mammalia: Dugongidae) in the Badenian (Middle Miocene) of Central Europe. Austrian Journal of Earth Sciences, Vol.105/3. Freudenthal, M. (1970). Fossil Seacows in the Eocene of Taulanne. Experimenteel Geologisch Onderwijs, 1969/70. (Plates not included) Hooijer, D.A. (1977). A sirenian skeleton from the Miocene of Eibergen, Province of Gelderland, The Netherlands: Metaxytherium cf. medium (Desmarest). Scripta Geol., 41. Kordos, L. (1981). Some complements to the knowledge of a Middle Miocene Sirenia, Sirenavus hungaricus Kretzoi, 1941. Fragmenta Mineralogica et Palaeontologica, Vol. 10. Pilleri, G. (1990). Endocranial cast of Metaxytherium (Mammalia: Sirenia) from the Miocene of Cerro Gordo, Almeria, Spain. Treb.Mus.Geol. Barcelona, 1. Prista, G., et al. (2014). Euro-North African Sirenia biodiversity as a response to climate variations. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 410. Prista, G., et al. (2013). The disappearance of the European/North African Sirenia (Mammalia). Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 387. Rutten, L. (1907). On fossil Trichechids from Zealand and Belgium. Huygens Institute - Royal Netherlands Academy of Arts and Sciences, Proceedings, 10 I. Sorbi, S. (2008). New record of Metaxytherium (Mammalia, Sirenia) from the lower Miocene of Manosque (Provence, France). Geodiversitas, 30(2). Sorbi, S. and S.C. Vaiani (2007). New Sirenian Record from Lower Pliocene Sediments of Tuscany (Italy). Revista Italiana di Paleontologia e Stratigrafia, Vol.113, Number 2. Svana, K., G. Iliopoulos and C. Fassoulas (2010). New Sirenian Findings from Crete Island. Bulletin of the Geological Society of Greece, 43. Tinelli, C., et al. (2012). Ground penetrating radar and palaeontology: The detection of sirenian fossil bones under a sunflower field in Tuscany (Italy). C.R. Palevol, 11. Voss, M. (2014) On the invalidity of Halitherium schinzii Kaup, 1838 (Mammalia, Sirenia), with comments on systematic consequences. Zoosyst.Evol., 90(1). Voss, M. (2013). Revision of the Halitherium-species complex (Mammalia, Sirenia) from the late Eocene to early Miocene of Central Europe and North America. Ph.D. Dissertation - Humboldt-Universitat zu Berlin. Voss, M. (2008). New finds of Halitherium (Sirenia, Mammalia) from the lower Oligocene of the Rhine area, Germany. N.Jb.Geol.Palaont.Abh., Vol.249/3. Voss, M., S. Sorbi and D.P. Domning (2017). Morphological and systematic re-assessment of the late Oligocene "Halitherium" bellunense reveals a new crown group genus of Sirenia. Acta Palaeontologica Polonica, 62(1). Voss, M., B. Berning and E. Reiter (2016). A taxonomic and morphological re-evaluation of "Halitherium" cristolii Fitzinger, 1842 (Mammalia, Sirenia) from the late Oligocene of Austria, with the description of a new genus. European Journal of Taxonomy, 256. Sirenia - North America Cope, E.D. (1883). On a New Extinct Genus of Sirenia, from South Carolina. Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia, Vol.35. Domning, D.P. and F.L. Frye (1975). Pathology of two fossil sea cows (Mammalia: Sirenia). PaleoBios, Number 18. Domning, D.P. and O.A. Aguilera (2008). Fossil Sirenia of the West Atlantic and Caribbean Region. VIII. Nanosiren garciae, Gen. et Sp.Nov. and Nanosiren sanchezi Sp.Nov. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology, 28(2). Domning, D.P., G.S. Morgan, and C.E. Ray (1982). North American Eocene Sea Cows (Mammalia: Sirenia). Smithsonian Contributions to Paleobiology, Number 52. Gard, L.M., G.E. Lewis and F.C. Whitmore (1972). Steller's Sea Cow in Pleistocene Interglacial Beach Deposits on Amchitka, Aleutian Islands. Geological Society of America Bulletin, Vol.83. Hay, O.P. (1922). Number 2438. Description of a New Fossil Sea Cow from Florida, Metaxytherium floridanum. Proceedings U.S. National Museum, Vol.61, Article 17. MacFadden, B.J., et al. (2004). Diets, habitat preferences, and niche differentiation of Cenozoic sirenians from Florida: evidence from stable isotopes. Paleobiology, 30(2). Reinhart, R.H. (1976). Fossil Sirenians and Desmostylids from Florida and Elsewhere. Bulletin of the Florida Museum of Natural History, Vol.20, Number 4. Reinhart, R.H. (1971). Fossil Sirenia of Florida. The Plaster Jacket, Number 15. (Thanks to Nimravus for pointing this one out!) Simpson, G.G. (1932). Fossil Sirenia of Florida and the Evolution of the Sirenia. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History, Vol.58, Article 8. Voss, M. (2013). Revision of the Halitherium-species complex (Mammalia, Sirenia) from the late Eocene to early Miocene of Central Europe and North America. Ph.D. Dissertation - Humboldt-Universitat zu Berlin. Sirenia - South America/Central America/Caribbean Bianucci, G., et al. (2006). The southernmost sirenian record in the eastern Pacific Ocean, from the Late Miocene of Chile. C.R. Palevol, 5. de Toledo, P.M. and D.P. Domning (1989). Fossil Sirenia (Mammalia: Dugongidae) from the Pirabas Formation (Early Miocene), Northern Brazil. Bol.Mus.Para. Emilio Goeldt, ser. Ciencias de Terra, 1(2). Domning, D.P. (2001). The earliest known fully quadrupedal sirenian. Nature (Letters), Vol.413. Domning, D.P.(2001). Sirenians, seagrasses and Cenozoic ecological change in the Caribbean. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 166. Domning, D.P. and O.A. Aguilera (2008). Fossil Sirenia of the West Atlantic and Caribbean Region. VIII. Nanosiren garciae, Gen. et Sp.Nov. and Nanosiren sanchezi Sp.Nov. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology, 28(2). Sereno, P.C. (1982). An Early Eocene Sirenian from Patagonia (Mammalia, Sirenia). American Museum Novitates, Number 2729. Velez-Juarbe, J., J.I. Noriega and B.S. Ferrero (2012). Fossil Dugongidae (Mammalia, Sirenia) from the Parana Formation (Late Miocene) of Entre Rios Province, Argentina. Ameghiniana, 49(4). General Sirenia Anne, J., et al. (2016). Chemistry of bone remodeling preserved in extant and fossil Sirenia. Metallomics, 8(5). Cabral, F., et al. (2014). A short note on the Sirenia disappearance from the Euro-North African realm during the Cenozoic: a link between climate and Supernovae? Cope, E.D. (1890). The Extinct Sirenia. The American Naturalist, Vol.XXIV, 284. Domning, D.P. and B.L. Beatty (2007). Use of Tusks in Feeding by Dugongid Sirenians : Observations and Tests of Hypotheses. The Anatomical Record, 290. (Thanks to doushantuo for finding this link.) Grekov, V.I. (1958). New information on geographical distribution of the sea cow, Hydromalis stelleri, now extinct. Izv. AN SSSR, Ser.Geograf., Number 2. (Plates not included) Lanyon, J.M. and G.D. Sanson (2006). Degenerate dentition of the Dugong (Dugong dugon), or why a grazer does not need teeth: morphology, occlusion and wear of mouthparts. Journal of Zoology, 268. Sarko, D.K., et al. (2010). Estimating body size of fossil sirenians. Marine Mammal Science, 26(4). Savage, R.J.G. (1976). Review of Early Sirenia. Systematic Zoology, 25. Self-Sullivan, C. Evolution of the Sirenia. Velez-Juarbe, J., D.P. Domning and N.D. Pyenson (2012). Iterative Evolution of Sympatric Seacow (Dugongidae, Sirenia) Assemblages During the Past ~ 26 Million Years. PLoS ONE, 7(2).