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Found 9 results

  1. I can't find any pictures that focus on Edaphosaurus claws, and I can't zoom in enough on pictures to get a clear visual of any claws, so I can't see any differences between Dimetrodon and Edaphosaurus claws are. They're both really small compared to the bodies, so it's hard to see from full body/skeleton pictures, and they wouldn't be from enough angles to be sure. Someone who has dealt with lots of them, including on articulated specimens, has said that they're almost the same, and as far as he knows, but isn't 100% sure about it, the biggest difference, the only one he is aware of, is that Dimetrodon claws are curved on the bottom, like raptor/general theropod claws, while Edaphosaurus claws, equally sharp, are mostly flat on the bottom, like spino toe claws. Is that the case? Does anyone happen to know?
  2. Dimetrodon sail spine pieces

    From the album Permian era fossils

    Very small fragments of dimetrodons sail spines. From the lower Permian Texas Red Beds, Archer city formation in Archer county
  3. From the album Permian era fossils

    Reverse side of the unidentified Edaphosaurus pogonias bone with an apparent Dimetrodon tooth hole.
  4. Edaphosaurus with large predator bite

    From the album Permian era fossils

    Yet unidentified Edaphosaurus pogonias bone from the Permian era Red Beds site in North Texas, with large unhealed tooth hole from what appears to be a large Dimetrodon's bite, from either the fatal attack, or post-death predation mark.
  5. Hey everyone, this is for anything Sphenacodont--dimetrodon, or otherwise. Collections/pictures/discussions/whatever. This is the splinter thread off of the sphenacodont collections thread, so if anyone would like to bring over anything from the other thread, please feel free. I'm going to bring over some interesting posted info that covered different topics, and with links to interesting and useful info. *some discussions covering other things and animals in relation to sphenacodonts is perfectly fine. For instance, spinosaurus, Permian topics, apex predators, or whatever. As long as it has some relation. Side-tracking is fine, just bring it back home before too long, please. Here's a link to the previous thread. It would be greatly appreciated if you post pictures of any dimetrodon/sphenacodont fossil material you have:)
  6. Dimetrodon tiny teeth

    What is the deal with dimetrodon teeth??? I see them for sale regularly, but they're always MICRO! I even see some still teeny tiny labeled as "large" and "huge"? Even the super rare and expensive ones I've only ever seen a few of, are still less than an inch. Same with claws. I KNOW they have much bigger teeth, and claws, so why are practically dust particle size teeth&claws the only ones found? I know there's many dimetrodon species, but most of them are decent size. At LEAST big enough that even large juveniles should have notably larger parts. Ive never read anything that said that babies/newborns are almost all that's ever found. In fact(this just crossed my mind as im typing) I see sail sections regularly, that all clearly come from adult sized animals. I don't think Ive ever even SEEN small or baby sized sail fragments that come from animals anywhere near as small as all the teeth Ive ever seen. those smaller teeth in these pics may look small in those giant heads, and many pics make them appear smaller cause it's from a side view and the jaw obstructs the lower part of the back teeth from the side. The super rare and expensive teeth Ive seen only a few times ever, were comparable to the smallest teeth in those pictures. And the average size teeth and claws I see are literally fractions of a centimeter. The bottom picture is the average claw size that I see all the time--those dishes are 1.25"!!!!!! in fact, teeth and claws are in those vials of micro-fossils from sifted site debris. whats going on with my 'metros???
  7. Fruitbat's Pdf Library - Pelycosaurs

    These are a few of the pdf files (and a few Microsoft Word documents) that I've accumulated in my web browsing. MOST of these are hyperlinked to their source. If you want one that is not hyperlinked or if the link isn't working, e-mail me at joegallo1954@gmail.com and I'll be happy to send it to you. Please note that this list will be updated continuously as I find more available resources. All of these files are freely available on the Internet so there should be no copyright issues. Articles with author names in RED are new additions since July 29, 2018. Class (Clade) Synapsida Order(?) Pelycosauria Family Caseidae Brocklehurst, N. and J. Fröbisch (2017). A re-examination of the enigmatic Russian tetrapod Phreatophasma aenigmaticum and its evolutionary implications. Fossil Record, 20. Brocklehurst, N., M. Romano and J. Fröbisch (2016). Principal Component Analysis as an Alternative Treatment for Morphometric Characters: Phylogeny of Caseids as a Case Study. Palaeontology, 59(6). LeBlanc, A.R.H. and R.R. Reisz (2014). New Postcranial Material of the Early Caseid Casea broilii Williston, 1910 (Synapsida: Caseidae) with a Review of the Evolution of the Sacrum in Paleozoic Non-Mammalian Synapsids. PLoS ONE, 9(12). Maddin, H.C., C.A. Sidor and R.R. Reisz (2008). Cranial Anatomy of Ennatosaurus tecton (Synapsida: Caseidae) from the Middle Permian of Russia and the Evolutionary Relationships of Caseidae. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology, 28(1). Olson, E.C. (1954). Fauna of the Vale and Choza: 7. Pelycosauria: Family Caseidae. Fieldiana Geology, Vol.10, Number 17. Reisz, R.R. and J. Frӧbisch (2014). The Oldest Caseid Synapsid from the Late Pennsylvanian of Kansas, and the Evolution of Herbivory in Terrestrial Vertebrates. PLoS ONE, 9(4). Reisz, R.R., S.J. Godfrey and D. Scott (2009). Eothyris and Oedalops: Do These Early Permian Synapsids from Texas and New Mexico Form a Clade? Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology, 29(1). Reisz, R.R., et al. (2011). A new large caseid (Synapsida, Caseasauria) from the Permian of Rodez (France), including a reappraisal of "Casea" rutena Sigogneau-Russell & Russell, 1974. Geodiversitas, 33(2). Romano, M. (2017). Long bone scaling of caseid synapsids: a combined morphometric and cladistic approach. Lethaia. Romano, M. Phylogenetic analysis of the Family Caseidae (Synapsida, Caseasauria) with description and morphometric analysis of the new giant caseid Alierasaurus ronchii from the Permian of Sardinia, Italy. Ph.D. Thesis - Universita di Roma. Romano, M. and U. Nicosia (2015). Cladistic Analysis of Caseidae (Caseasauria, Synapsida): Using the Gap-Weighting Method to Include Data Based on Incomplete Specimens. Palaeontology, Vol.58, Part 6. Romano, M. and U. Nicosia (2014). Alierasaurus ronchii, gen.et sp.nov., A Caseid from the Permian of Sardinia, Italy. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology, 34(4). Romano, M., N. Brocklehurst and J. Fröbisch (2017). The postcranial skeleton of Ennatosaurus tecton (Synapsida, Caseidae). Journal of Systematic Palaeontology, 2017. Romano, M., et al. (2017). New material of Alierasaurus ronchii (Synapsida, Caseidae) from the Permian of Sardinia (Italy), and its phylogenetic affinities. Palaeontologia Electronica, 20.2.26A. Ronchi, A., et al. (2011). A huge caseid pelycosaur from north-western Sardinia and its bearing on European Permian stratigraphy and palaeobiogeography. Acta Palaeontologica Polonica, 56(4). Spindler, F., J. Falconnet and J. Fröbisch (2016). Callibrachion and Datheosaurus, two historical and previously mistaken basal caseasaurian synapsids from Europe. Acta Palaeontologica Polonica, 61(3). Stovall, J.W., L.I. Price, and A.S. Romer (1966). The Postcranial Skeleton of the Giant Permian Pelycosaur Cotylorhynchus romeri. Bulletin Museum of Comparative Zoology, Vol.135, Number 1. Family Edaphosauridae Case, E.C. (1918). A Mounted Skeleton of Edaphosaurus cruciger Cope, in the Geological Collection of the University of Michigan. Occasional Papers of the Museum of Zoology - University of Michigan, Number 62. Case, E.C. (1906). On the Skull of Edaphosaurus pogonias Cope. Bulletin American Museum of Natural History, Vol.XXII, Article II. Huttenlocker, A.K., D. Mazierski and R.R. Reisz (2011). Comparative Osteohistology of Hyperelongate Neural Spines in the Edaphosauridae (Amniota: Synapsida). Palaeontology, Vol.54, Part 3. Mazierski, D.M. and R.R. Reisz (2010). Description of a new specimen of Ianthasaurus hardestiorum (Eupelycosauria: Edaphosauridae) and a re-evaluation of edaphosaurid phylogeny. Can.J. Earth Sci., 47. Modesto, S.P. (1995). The Skull of the Herbivorous Synapsid Edaphosaurus boanerges from the Lower Permian of Texas. Palaeontology, Vol.38, Part 1. Modesto, S.P. (1994). The Lower Permian Synapsid Glaucosaurus from Texas. Palaeontology, Vol.37, Part 1. Modesto, S.P. and R.R. Reisz (2011). A new skeleton of Ianthasaurus hardestii, a primitive edaphosaur (Synapsida: Pelycosauria) from the Upper Pennsylvanian of Kansas. Can.J. Earth Sci., 27(6). Modesto, S.P. and R.R. Reisz (1992). Restudy of Permo-Carboniferous synapsid Edaphosaurus novomexicanus Williston and Case, the oldest known herbivorous amniote. Can.J. Earth Sci., 29. Modesto, S.P. and R.R. Reisz (1990). Taxonomic Status of Edaphosaurus raymondi Case. J.Paleont., 64(6). Osborn, H.F. (1907). A Mounted Skeleton of Naosaurus , A Pelycosaur from the Permian of Texas. Bulletin American Museum of Natural History, Vol.XXIII, Article XIV. Reisz, R.R. and D.S. Berman (2011). Ianthasaurus hardestii n.sp., a primitive edaphosaur (Reptilia, Pelycosauria) from the Upper Pennsylvanian Rock Lake Shale near Garnett, Kansas. Can.J. Earth Sci., 23(1). Sumida, S. (1989). New information on the pectoral girdle and vertebral column in Lupeosaurus (Reptilia, Pelycosauria). Can.J. Earth Sci., Vol.26. Family Eothyrididae Brocklehurst, N., et al. (2016). A Re-Description of 'Mycterosaurus' smithae, an Early Permian Eothyridid, and Its Impact on the Phylogeny of Pelycosaurian-Grade Synapsids. PLoS ONE, 11(6). Langston, W. (1965). Oedaleops campi (Reptilia: Pelycosauria) New Genus and Species from the Lower Permian of New Mexico, and the Family Eothyrididae. Bulletin of the Texas Memorial Museum, Number 9. Reisz, R.R., S.J. Godfrey and D.Scott (2009). Eothyris and Oedaleops: Do These Early Permian Synapsids from Texas and New Mexico Form a Clade? Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology, 29(1). Family Ophiacodontidae Berman, D.S., A.C. Henrici and S.G. Lucas (2013). Ophiacodon (Synapsida, Ophiacodontidae) from the Lower Permian Sangre de Cristo Formation of New Mexico. In: The Carboniferous-Permian Transition. Lucas, S.G., et al. (eds). New Mexico Museum of Natural History and Science, Bulletin 60. Berman, D.S., et al. (1995). The Cranial Anatomy and Relationships of the Synapsid Varanosaurus (Eupelycosauria: Ophiacodontidae) from the Early Permian of Texas and Oklahoma. Annals of Carnegie Museum, Vol.64, Number 2. Harris, S.K., S.G. Lucas and J.A. Spielmann (2010). A Partial Skeleton of Ophiacodon navajovicus (Eupelycosauria: Ophiacodontidae) from the Upper Pennsylvanian of Cañon del Cobre, New Mexico. In: Carb-Permian transition in Cañon del Cobre, New Mexico. Lucas, S.G., et al. (eds.), New Mexico Museum of Natural History and Science, Bulletin 49. Romer, A.S. (1961). A large ophiacodont pelycosaur from the Pennsylvanian of the Pittsburgh region. Breviora, 144. Shelton, C. and P.M. Sander (2015). Ophiacodon long bone histology: the earliest occurrence of FLB in the mammalian stem lineage. PeerJ Preprints. Spielmann, J.A. and S.G. Lucas (2010). Re-Evaluation of Ruthiromia elcobriensis (Eupelycosauria: Ophiacodontidae?) from the Lower Permian (Seymouran?) of Cañon del Cobre, Northern New Mexico. In: Carb-Permian transition in Cañon del Cobre, New Mexico. Lucas, S.G., et al. (eds.), New Mexico Museum of Natural History and Science, Bulletin 49. Stephens, J.J. (1964). Ophiacodon from Ohio. The Ohio Journal of Science, 64(3). Family Sphenacodontidae Falconett, J. (2015). A sphenacodontid synapsid Neosaurus cynodus, and related material, from the Permo-Carboniferous of France. Acta Palaeontologica Polonica, 60(1). Reisz, R.R., D.S. Berman and D. Scott (1992). The cranial anatomy and relationships of Secodontosaurus, an unusual mammal-like reptile (Synapsida: Sphenacodontidae) from the early Permian of Texas. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society, 104. Spindler, F., D. Scott and R.R. Reisz (2015). New information on the cranial and postcranial anatomy of the early synapsid Ianthodon schultzei (Sphenacomorpha: Sphenacodontia), and its evolutionary significance. Fossil Record, 18. Subfamily Sphenacodontinae Berman, D.S., et al. (2001). A new species of Dimetrodon (Synapsida: Sphenacodontidae) from the Lower Permian of Germany records first occurrence of genus outside of North America. Can.J. Earth Sci., 38. Brink, K.S. (2015). Case 3695. Dimetrodon Cope, 1878 (Synapsida, SPHENACODONTIDAE): proposed conservation by reversal of precedence with Bathygnathus Leidy, 1853. Bulletin of Zoological Nomenclature, 72(4). Brink, K.S. and R.R. Reisz (2014). Hidden dental diversity in the oldest terrestrial apex predator Dimetrodon. Nature Communications, 5:3269. Brink, K.S. and R.R. Reisz (2012). Morphology of the palate and braincase of Dimetrodon milleri. In: 12th International Symposium on Early Vertebrates/Lower Vertebrates Special Issue, Historical Biology, Vol.24, Number 4. Brink, K.S., et al. (2015). Re-evaluation of the historic Canadian fossil Bathygnathus borealis from the Early Permian of Prince Edward Island. Can.J. Earth Sci., Vol.52. Case, E.C. (1924). A Possible Explanation of Fenestration in the Primitive Reptilian Skull, With Notes on the Temporal Region of the Genus Dimetrodon. Contributions from the Museum of Paleontology - The University of Michigan, Vol.II, Number 1. Case, E.C. (1910). Description of a Skeleton of Dimetrodon incisivus Cope. Bulletin American Musem of Natural History, Vol.XXVIII, Article XIX. Case, E.C. (1904). The Osteology of the Skull of the Pelycosaurian Genus, Dimetrodon. The Journal of Geology, Vol.12, Number 4. Eberth, D.A. (1985). The skull of Sphenacodon ferocior, and comparisons with other sphenacodontines (Reptilia: Pelycosauria). New Mexico Bureau of Mines & Mineral Resources, Circular 190. Fröbisch, J., et al. (2011). A new basal sphenacodontid synapsid from the Late Carboniferous of the Saar-Nahe Basin, Germany. Acta Palaeontologica Polonica, 56(1). Henrici, A.C., et al. (2005). The Carpus and Tarsus of the Early Permian Synapsid Sphenacodon ferox (Eupelycosauria: Sphenacodontidae). In: The Nonmarine Permian. Lucas, S.G. and K.E. Ziegler (eds.), New Mexico Museum of Natural History and Science Bulletin Number 30. Lucas, S.G., et al. (2009). Dimetrodon (Amniota: Synapsida: Sphenacodontidae) from the Lower Permian Abo Formation, Socorro County, New Mexico. New Mexico Geological Society Guidebook, 60th Field Conference, Geology of the Chupadera Mesa Region. Shelton, C.D., et al. (2013). Long bone histology indicates sympatric species of Dimetrodon (Lower Permian, Sphenacodontidae). Earth and Environmental Science Transactions of the Royal Society of Edinburgh, 103. Spielmann, J.A., et al. (2010). Redescription of the Cranial Anatomy of Sphenacodon ferox Marsh (Eupelycosauria: Sphenacodontidae) from the Late Pennsylvanian - Early Permian of New Mexico. In: The Carb-Permian transition in Cancun del Cobre. Lucas, et al. (eds.), New Mexico Museum of Natural History and Science, Bulletin 49. Williston, S.W. (1916). Sphenacodon Marsh, A Permocarboniferous Theromorph Reptile from New Mexico. General Sphenacodontidae Brink, K.S., A.R.H. LeBlanc and R.R. Reisz (2014). First record of plicidentine in Synapsida and patterns of tooth root shape change in Early Permian sphenacodontians. Naturwissenschaften, 10:1. Laurin, M. (1993). Anatomy and Relationships of Haptodus garnettensis, A Pennsylvanian Synapsid from Kansas. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology, 13(2). Spindler, F. (2015). The basal Sphenacodontia - systematic revision and evolutionary implications. Ph.D. Dissertation - Technischen Universitat Bergakademie Freiberg. Family Varanopidae Anderson, J.S. and R.R. Reisz (2004). Pyozia mesenensis, a New Small Varanopid (Synapsida, Eupelycosauria) from Russia: "Pelycosaur" Diversity in the Middle Permian. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology, 24(1). Reisz, R.R. and D.W. Dilkes (2003). Archaeovenator hamiltonensis, a new varanopid (Synapsida: Eupelycosauria) from the Upper Carboniferous of Kansas. Can.J.Earth Sci., 40. Reisz, R.R., M. Laurin and D. Marjanović (2010). Apsisaurus witteri from the Lower Permian of Texas: Yet Another Small Varanopid Synapsid, Not a Diapsid. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology, 30(5). Spindler, F., et al. (2018). First arboreal 'pelycosaurs' (Synaspsida: Varanopidae) from the early Permian Chemnitz Fossil Lagerstätte , SE Germany,  with a review of varanopid phylogeny. Pal.Z., (2018), 5. Subfamily Mycterosaurinae Broom, R. (1930). On a New Primitive Theromorph (Eumatthevia bolli). American Museum Novitates, Number 446. Modesto, S.P., et al. (2011). The last "pelycosaur": a varanopid synapsid from the Pristerognathus Assemblage Zone, Middle Permian of South Africa. Naturwissenschaften, 98. Reisz, R.R. and D.S. Berman (2001). The Skull of Mesenosaurus romeri, A Small Varanopseid (Synapsida: Eupelycosauria) from the Upper Permian of the Mezen River Basin, Northern Russia. Annals of Carnegie Museum, Vol.70, Number 2. Williston, S.W. (1915). A New Genus and Species of American Theromorpha - Mycterosaurus longiceps. The Journal of Geology, Vol.23, Number 6. Subfamily Varanopinae Langston, W. and R.R. Reisz (1981). Aerosaurus wellesi, New Species, A Varanopseid Mammal-Like Reptile (Synapsida: Pelycosauria) from the Lower Permian of New Mexico. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology, 1(1). Maddin, H.C., D.C. Evans, and R.R. Reisz (2006). An Early Permian Varanodontine Varanopid (Synapsida: Eupelycosauria) from the Richards Spur Locality, Oklahoma. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology, 26(4). Modesto, S., et al. (2001). A second varanopseid skull from the Upper Permian of South Africa: implications for Late Permian 'pelycosaur' evolution. Lethaia, Vol.34. Reisz, R.R. and L.A. Tsuji (2006). An Articulated Skeleton of Varanops With Bite Marks: The Oldest Known Evidence of Scavenging Among Terrestrial Vertebrates. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology, 26(4). Reisz, R.R. and M. Laurin (2004). A reevaluation of the enigmatic Permian synapsid Watongia and of its stratigraphic significance. Can.Jour.Earth Sci., 41. Reisz, R.R., D.W. Dilkes and D.S. Berman (1998). Anatomy and Relationships of Elliotsmithia longiceps Broom, A Small Synapsid (Eupelycosauria: Varanopseidae) from the Late Permian of South Africa. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology, 18(3). General Varanopidae Botha-Brink, J. and S.P. Modesto (2007). A mixed-age classed 'pelycosaur' aggregation from South Africa: earliest evidence of parental care in amniotes? Proc.R.Soc. B, 274. Campione, N.E. and R.R. Reisz (2011). Morphology and evolutionary significance of the atlas-axis complex in varanopid synapsids. Acta Palaeontologica Polonica, 56(4). Piñeiro, G., et al. (2003). First Basal Synapsids ("Pelycosaurs") from the Upper Permian-?Lower Triassic of Uruguay, South America. J.Paleont., 77(2). General Pelycosauria Brocklehurst, N. and J. Fröbisch (2014). Current and historical perspectives on the completeness of the fossil record of pelycosaurian-grade synapsids. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 399. Case, E.C. (1907). Revision of the Pelycosauria of North America. Carnegie Institute of Washington. (285 pages) Paton, R.L. (1974). Lower Permian Pelycosaurs from the English Midlands. Palaeontology, Vol.17, Part 3. Pineiro, J., et al. (2003). First Basal Synapsids ("Pelycosaurs") from the Upper Permian - ?Lower Triassic of Uruguay, South America. J.Paleont., 77(2). Reisz, R.R. Pelycosaurian Reptiles from the Middle Pennsylvanian of North America. Masters Thesis - McGill University. Reisz, R.R., M.J. Heaton and B.R. Pynn (1982). Vertebrate Fauna of Late Pennsylvanian Rock Lake Shale Near Garnett, Kansas: Pelycosauria. Journal of Paleontology, Vol.56, Number 3. Van Valkenberg, B. and I. Jenkins (2002). Evolutionary Patterns in the History of Permo-Triassic and Cenozoic Synapsid Predators. Paleontological Society Papers, Vol.8. Watson, D.M.S. (1916). Reconstructions of the Skulls of Three Pelycosaurs in the American Museum of Natural History. Bulletin American Museum of Natural History, Vol.XXXV, Article XXXII.
  8. fish/reptile jaw section?

    I bought this a few years ago at a local show. It was mixed in with a bunch of small Otodus and sand tiger shark teeth. I don't remember if the vendor said where they came from and I didn't write it down, but I think Morocco is likely.
  9. Fruitbat's Pdf Library - Therapsids

    These are a few of the pdf files (and a few Microsoft Word documents) that I've accumulated in my web browsing. MOST of these are hyperlinked to their source. If you want one that is not hyperlinked or if the link isn't working, e-mail me at joegallo1954@gmail.com and I'll be happy to send it to you. Please note that this list will be updated continuously as I find more available resources. All of these files are freely available on the Internet so there should be no copyright issues. Articles with author names in RED are new additions since June 9, 2018. Class (Clade) Synapsida Order Therapsida General "Dicynodonts" Chowdhury, T.R. (1970). Two New Dicynodonts from the Triassic Yerrapalli Formation of Central India. Palaeontology, Vol.13, Part 1. Cox, C.B. (1964). On the Palate, Dentition and Classification of the Fossil Reptile Endothiodon and Related Genera. American Museum Novitates, Number 2171. Nesbitt, S.J. and K.D Angielczyk (2002). New evidence of large dicynodonts in the upper Moenkopi Formation (Middle Triassic) of northern Arizona. PaleoBios, 22(2). Rozefelds, A.C., et al. (2011). New Evidence of Large Permo-Triassic Dicynodonts (Synapsida) from Australia. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology, 31(5). Thulborn, T. and S. Turner (2003). The last dicynodont: an Australian Cretaceous relict. Proc.R.Soc.Lond. B, 270. Suborder Anomodontia Liu, J., B. Rubidge and J.-L. Li (2010). A new specimen of Biseridens qilianicus indicates its phylogenetic position as the most basal anomodont. Proc.R.Soc.B, 277. Superfamily Anomocephaloidea Chinsamy-Turan, A. (2011). Tiarajudens: A significant mammal-like reptile. S.Afr.J.Sci., 107(5/6). Cisneros, J.C., et al. (2015). Tiarajudens eccentricus and Anomocephalus africanus, two bizarre anomodonts (Synapsida, Therapsida) with dental occlusion from the Permian of Gondwana. R.Soc. Open Science, 2. Modesto, S.P., B. Rubidge and J. Welman (1999). The most basal anomodont therapsid and the primacy of Gondwana in the evolution of the anomodonts. Proc.R.Soc.Lond. B, 266. Superfamily Venyukoioidea Family Otsheridae Fröbisch, J. and R.R. Reisz (2011). The postcranial anatomy of Suminia getmanovi (Synapsida: Anomodontia), the earliest known arboreal tetrapod. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society, 162. Clade Chainosauria Infraorder Dicynodontia Family Dicynodontidae Kammerer, C.F., K.D. Angielczyk and J. Frobisch (2011). A Comprehensive Taxonomic Revision of Dicynodon (Therapsida, Anomodontia) and its Implications for Dicynodont Phylogeny, Biogeography, and Biostratigraphy. Society of Vertebrate Paleontology Memoir 11, Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology, Vol.31, Supplement to Number 6. (158 pages) Family Emydopidae Angielczyk, K.D., J. Fröbisch and R.M.H. Smith (2005). On the stratigraphic range of the dicynodont taxon Emydops (Therapsida, Anomodontia) in the Karoo Basin, South Africa. Palaeont.afr., 41. Castanhinha, R., et al. (2013). Bringing Dicynodonts Back to Life: Paleobiology and Anatomy of a New Emydopid Genus from the Upper Permian of Mozambique. PLoS ONE, 8(12). Fourie, H. (1993). A Detailed Description of the Internal Structure of the Skull of Emydops (Therapsida: Dicynodontia). Palaeont.afr., 30. Fröbisch, J. and R.R. Reisz (2008). A New Species of Emydops (Synapsida, Anomodontia) and a Discussion of Dental Variability and Pathology in Dicynodonts. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology, 28(3). Kammerer, C.F., K.D. Angielczyk and J. Fröbisch (2015). Redescription of Digalodon rubidgei, an emydopoid dicynodont (Therapsida, Anomodontia) from the Late Permian of South Africa. Foss.Rec, 18. Family Endothiodontidae Araujo, R., et al. (2018). Endothiodon cf. bathystoma (Synapsida: Dicynodontia) bony labyrinth anatomy, variation and body mass estimates. PLoS ONE, 13(3). Family Geikiidae Kammerer, C.F. and R.M.H. Smith (2017). An early geikiid dicynodont from the Tropidostoma Assemblage Zone (late Permian) of South Africa. PeerJ, 5:e2913. Kammerer, C.F., K.D. Angielczyk and J. Frobisch (2015). Redescription of the Geikiid Pelanomodon (Therapsida, Dicynodontia), With a Reconsideration of 'Propelanomodon'. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology, e1030408. Maisch, M.W. and E.V.I. Gebauer (2005). Reappraisal of Geikia locusticeps (Therapsida: Dicynodontia) from the Upper Permian of Tanzania. Palaeontology, Vol.48, Part 2. Family incertae sedis Boos, A.D.S., et al. (2016). A New Dicynodont (Therapsida: Anomodontia) from the Permian of Southern Brazil and its Implications for Bidentalian Origins. PLoS ONE, 11(5). Cruickshank, A.R.I., N.D.L. Clark and C. Adams (2005). A new specimen of Dicynodon traquairi (Newton)(Synapsida: Anomodontia) from the Late Permian (Tartarian) of northern Scotland. Palaeont.afr., 41. Superfamily Eodicynodontoidea Family Eodicynodontidae Rubidge, B.S., G.M. King and P.J. Hancox (1994). The Postcranial Skeleton of the Earliest Dicynodont Synapsid Eodicynodon from the Upper Permian of South Africa. Palaeontology, Vol.37, Part 2. Superfamily Kingoroidea Family Kingoriidae Fröbisch, J. (2007). The cranial anatomy of Kombuisia frerensis Hotton (Synapsida, Dicynodontia) and a new phylogeny of anomodont therapsids. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society, 150. Fröbisch, J., K.D. Angielczyk and C.A. Sidor (2010). The Triassic dicynodont Kombuisia (Synapsida, Anomodontia) from Antarctica, a refuge from the terrestrial Permian-Triassic mass extinction. Naturwissenschaften, 97. Clade Diictodontia Superfamily Robertoidea Family Pylaecephalidae Agnew, J.D. (1959). Cranio-Osteological Studies in Dicynodon grimbeeki With Special Reference to the Sphenethmoid Region and Cranial Kinesis. Palaeo.afr., 6. (27.4MB) Barry, T.H. (1958). On the Significance of Tuskless Specimens of Dicynodon grimbeeki Broom. Palaeo.afr., V. Sullivan, C. (2000). Cranial Anatomy of the Late Permian Dicynodont Diictodon, and Its Bearing on Aspects of the Taxonomy, Palaeobiology and Phylogenetic Relationships of the Genus. Masters Thesis - University of Toronto. Thackeray, J.F. (1991). Growth increments in teeth of Diictodon (Therapsida). Koedoe, 34(1). Clade Pristerodontia Family Lystrosauridae Colbert, E.H. (1974). Lystrosaurus from Antarctica. American Museum Novitates, Number 2535. Crompton, R.W. and N. Hotton (1967). Functional Morphology of the Masticatory Apparatus of Two Dicynodonts (Reptilia, Therapsida). Peabody Museum of Natural History Postilla, Number 109. King, G.M. and I. Jenkins (1997). The Dicynodont Lystrosaurus from the Upper Permian of Zambia: Evolutionary and Stratigraphical Implications. Palaeontology, Vol.40, Part 1. Surkov, M.V., N.N. Kalandadze and M.J. Benton (2005). Lystrosaurus georgi, A Dicynodont from the Lower Triassic of Russia. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology, 25(2). Family Oudenodontidae Keyser, A.W. (1973). A Re-Evaluation of the Genus Tropidostoma Seeley. Palaeont.afr., 16. Family Pristerodontidae Crompton, R.W. and N. Hotton (1967). Functional Morphology of the Masticatory Apparatus of Two Dicynodonts (Reptilia, Therapsida). Peabody Museum of Natural History Postilla, Number 109. Superfamily Kannemeyeriiformes Family Kannemeyeriidae Case, E.C. (1934). Description of a Skull of Kannemeyeria erithrea Haughton. Contributions from the Museum of Paleontology - The University of Michigan, Vol.IV, Number 7. Cruickshank, A.R.I. (1975). The Skeleton of the Triassic Anomodont Kannemeyeria wilsoni Broom. Palaeont.afr., 18. Liu, J. (2004). Parakannemeyeria chengi Sp.Nov. from Kelamayi Formation of Jimusar, Xinjiang. Vertebrata PalAsiatica, 42(1). Liu, J. and J.-L. Li (2003). A New Material of Kannemeyerid from Xinjiang and the Restudy of Parakannemeyeria brevirostris. Vertebrata PalAsiatica, 41(2). Family Stahleckeriidae Abdala, F., et al. (2013). Strengthening Western Gondwanan correlations: A Brazilian Dicynodont (Synapsida, Anomodontia) in the Middle Triassic of Namibia. Gondwana Research, 23. Bandyopadhyay, S. (1989). The Mammal-Like Reptile Rechnisaurus from the Triassic of India. Palaeontology, Vol.32, Part 2. Kammerer, C.F. (2018). The first skeletal evidence of a dicynodont from the lower Elliot Formation of South Africa. Palaeontologia africana, 52. (40.84 MB) (Thanks to Kasia for pointing me to this one!) Kammerer, C.F., J. Fröbisch and K.D. Angielczyk (2013). On the Validity and Phylogenetic Position of Eubrachiosaurus browni, a Kannemeyeriiform Dicynodont (Anomodontia) from Triassic North America. PLoS ONE, 8(5). Anomodontia incertae sedis Maisch, M.W. (2009). The small dicynodont Katumbia parringtoni (von Heune, 1942) (Therapsida, Dicynodontia) from the Upper Permian Kawinga Formation of Tanzania as gorgonopsian prey. Palaeodiversity, 2. Vega-Dias, C. and C.L. Schultz (2004). Postcranial material of Jachalaria candelariensis Araújo and Gonzaga, 1980 (Therapsida, Dicynodontia), Upper Triassic of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. PaleoBios, 24(1). General Anomodonts Angielczyk, K.D. (2001). Preliminary Phylogenetic Analysis and Stratigraphic Congruence of the Dicynodont Anomodonts (Synapsida: Therapsida). Palaeont.afr., 37. Angielczyk, K.D., et al. (2014). New Dicynodonts (Therapsida, Anomodontia) and Updated Tetrapod Stratigraphy of the Permian Ruhuhu Formation (Songea Group, Ruhuhu Basin) of Southern Tanzania. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology, 34(6). Fröbisch, J. (2008). Global Taxonomic Diversity of Anomodonts (Tetrapoda, Therapsida) and the Terrestrial Rock Record Across the Permian-Triassic Boundary. PLoS ONE, 3(11). Fröbisch, J. (2008). Taxonomic, Phylogenetic and Morphological Diversity of Anomodonts (Tetrapoda, Therapsida). Ph.D. Thesis - University of Toronto. Keyser, A.W. (1972). A Re-Evaluation of the Systematics and Morphology of Certain Anomodont Therapsida. Palaeont.afr., 14. Ruta, M., et al. (2013). Decoupling of morphological disparity and taxic diversity during the adaptive radiation of anomodont therapsids. Proc.R.Soc. B, 280. Toerien, M.J. (1953). The Evolution of the Palate in South African Anomodontia and its Classificatory Significance. Ph.D. Thesis - University of Witwatersrand. Walther, M. and J. Fröbisch (2013). The quality of the fossil record of the anomodonts. C.R. Palevol, 12. Suborder Biarmosuchia Benoit, J., et al. (2017). The bony labyrinth of late Permian Biarmosuchia: palaeobiology and diversity in non-mammalian Therapsida. Palaeont.afr., 52. Day, M.O., B.S. Rubidge and F. Abdala (2016). A new mid-Permian burnetiamorph therapsid from the Main Karoo Basin of South Africa and a phylogenetic review of Burnetiamorpha. Acta Palaeontologica Polonica, 61(4). Kammerer, C.F. (2016). Two unrecognized burnetiamorph specimens from historical Karoo collections. Palaeont.afr., 50. Kruger, A., et al. (2015). Lende chiweta, A New Therapsid from Malawi, And Its Influence on Burnetiamorph Phylogeny and Biogeography. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology, e1008698. Li, J. and Z. Cheng (1997). First Discovery of Eotitanosuchian (Therapsida, Synapsida) of China. Vertebrata PalAsiatica, 35(4). Sidor, C.A. (2015). The first biarmosuchian from the upper Madumabisa Mudstone Formation (Luangwa Basin) of Zambia. Palaeont.afr., 49. Sidor, C.A., J.A. Hopson, and A.W. Keyser (2004). A New Burnetiamorph Therapsid from the Teekloof Formation, Permian of South Africa. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology, 24(4). Smith, R.M.H, B.S. Rubidge and C.A. Sidor (2006). A New Burnetiid (Therapsida: Biarmosuchia) from the Upper Permian of South Africa and its Biogeographic Implications. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology, 26(2). Whitney, M.R. and C.A. Sidor (2016). A New Therapsid from the Permian Madumabisa Mudstone Formation (Mid-Zambezi Basin) of Southern Zambia. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology, e1150767. Suborder Cynodontia Cynodonts - Africa/Middle East Abdala, F. and R.M.H. Smith (2009). A Middle Triassic Cynodont Fauna from Namibia and Its Implications for the Biogeography of Gondwana. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology, 29(3). Abdala, F., P.J. Hancox and J. Neveling (2005). Cynodonts from the Uppermost Burgersdorp Formation, South Africa, and Their Bearing on the Biostratigraphy and Correlation of the Triassic Cynognathus Assemblage Zone. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology, 25(1). Botha, J. and A. Chinsamy (2004). Growth and life habits of the Triassic cynodont Trirachodon, inferred from bone histology. Acta Palaeontologica Polonica, 49(4). Hopson, J.A. (1984). Late Triassic Transversodont Cynodonts from Nova Scotia and Southern Africa. Palaeont.afr., 25. Jenkins, F.A. (1971). The Postcranial Skeleton of African Cynodonts. Peabody Museum of Natural History - Yale University, Bulletin 36. Kemp, T.S. (1980). The Primitive Cynodont Procynosuchus: Structure, Function and Evolution of the Postcranial Skeleton. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London, Series B, Biological Sciences, Vol.288, Number 1027. Sidor, C.A. and R.M.H. Smith (2004). A New Galesaurid (Therapsida: Cynodontia) from the Lower Triassic of South Africa. Palaeontology, Vol.47, Part 3. Cynodonts - Antarctica Colbert, E.H. and J.W. Kitching (1977). Triassic Cynodont Reptiles from Antarctica. American Museum Novitates, Number 2611. Cynodonts - Asia/Malaysia/Pacific Islands Matsuoka, H., N. Kusuhashi and I.J. Corfe (2016). A New Early Cretaceous Tritylodontid (Synapsida, Cynodontia, Mammaliamorpha) from the Kuwajima Formation (Tetori Group) of Central Japan. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology, e1112289. Cynodonts - Europe (including Greenland) Cuny, G. (2004). A Late Triassic Cynodont from Holwell Quarries (Somerset, England). Oryctos, Vol.5. Renesto, S. and S.G. Lucas (2009). Cynodont teeth from the Carnian (Late Triassic) of northern Italy. Acta Palaeontologica Polonica, 54(2). Shapiro, M.D. and F.A. Jenkins (2001). A Cynodont from the Upper Triassic of East Greenland: Tooth Replacement and Double-Rootedness. Bull.Mus.Comp.Zool., 156(1). Tatarinov, L.P. (1968). Morphology and Systematics of the Northern Dvina Cynodonts (Reptilia, Therapsida; Upper Permian). Postilla, Number 126. Cynodonts - North America Hopson, J.A. (1984). Late Triassic Transversodont Cynodonts from Nova Scotia and Southern Africa. Palaeont.afr., 25. Liu, J. and H.-D. Sues (2010). Dentition and Tooth Replacement of Boreogomphodon (Cynodontia: Transversodontidae) from the Upper Triassic of North Carolina, USA. Vertebrata PalAsiatica, 48(3). Lucas, S.G. and W. Oakes (1988). A Late Triassic Cynodont from the American South-West. Palaeontology, Vol.31, Part 2. Sues, H.-D., P.E. Olsen and J.G. Carter (1999). A Late Triassic Cynodont from the Newark Supergroup of North Carolina. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology, 19(2). Cynodonts - South America/Central America/Caribbean Abdala, F. and A.M. Sa-Teixeira (2004). A transversodontid cynodont of African affinity in the South American Triassic. Palaeont.afr., 40. Abdala, F. and A.M. Ribeiro (2003). A new transversodontid cynodont from the Santa Maria Formation (Ladinian-Carnian) of southern Brazil, with a phylogenetic analysis of Gondwanan transversodontids. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society, 139. Abdala, F. and A.M. Ribeiro (2000). A new therioherpetid cynodont from the Santa Maria Formation (middle Late Triassic), southern Brazil. Geodiversitas, 22(4). Abdala, F., M.C. Barberena and J. Dornelles (2002). A New Species of the Transversodontid Cynodont Exaeretodon from the Santa Maria Formation (Middle/Late Triassic) of Southern Brazil. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology, 22(2). Abdala, F., S. Dias-da-Silva and J.C. Cisneros (2002). First Record of Non-Mammalian Cynodonts (Therapsida) in the Sanga Do Cabral Formation (Early Triassic) of Southern Brazil. Palaeont.afr., 38.de Olveira, T.V. and C.L. Schultz (2016). Functional morphology and biomechanics of the cynodont Trucidocynodon riograndensis from the Triassic of Southern Brazil: Pectoral girdle and forelimb. Acta Palaeontologica Polonica, 61(2). Liu, J. and J. Powell (2009). Osteology of Andescynodon (Cynodontia: Transversodontidae) from the Middle Triassic of Argentina. American Museum Novitates, Number 3674. Martinelli, A.G. and G.W. Rougier (2007). On Chaliminia musteloides (Eucynodontia: Trithelodontidae) from the Late Triassic of Argentina, and a Phylogeny of Ictidosauria. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology, 27(2). Martinelli, A.G., M.B. Soares and C. Schwanke (2016). Two New Cynodonts (Therapsida) from the Middle-Early Late Triassic of Brazil and Comments on South American Probainognathians. PLoS ONE, 11(10). Martinelli, A.G., M. De La Fuente, and F. Abdala (2009). Diademodon tetragonus Seeley, 1894 (Therapsida, Cynodontia) in the Triassic of South America and Its Biostratigraphic Implications. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology, 29(3). Melo, T.P., A.G. Martinelli and M.B. Soares (2017). A New Gomphodont Cynodont (Traversodontidae) from the Middle-Late Triassic Dinodontosaurus Assemblage Zone of the Santa Maria Supersequence, Brazil. Palaeontology, 2017. Oliveira, E.V. (2006). Reevaluation of Therioherpeton cargnini Bonaparte & Barberena, 1975 (Probainognathia, Therioherpetidae) from the Upper Triassic of Brazil. Geodiversitas, 28(3). (Link updated thanks to Orohippus!) Soares, M.B., A.G. Martinelli and T.V. Oliveira (2014). A new prozostrodontian cynodont (Therapsida) from the Late Triassic Riograndia Assemblage Zone (Santa Maria Supersequence) of Southern Brazil. Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências, 86(4). Soares, M.B., F. Abdala and C. Bertoni-Machado (2011). A sectorial toothed cynodont (Therapsida) from the Triassic Santa Cruz do Sul fauna, Santa Cruz Formation, Southern Brazil. Geodiversitas, 33(2). Soares, M.B., C.L. Schultz and B.L.D. Horn (2011). New information on Riograndia guaibensis Bonaparte, Ferigolo & Ribeiro, 2001 (Eucynodontia, Trithelodontidae) from the Late Triassic of southern Brazil: anatomical and biostratigraphic implications. Anais da Academica Brasileira de Sciencias, 83(1). Veiga, F.H., J. Botha-Brink and M.B. Soares (2018). Osteohistology of the non-mammaliaform traversodontids Protuberum cabralense and Exaeretodon riograndensis from southern Brazil. Historical Biology, 2018. General Cynodontia Barghusen, H.R. (1968). The Lower Jaw of Cynodonts (Reptilia, Therapsida) and the Evolutionary Origin of Mammal-Like Adductor Jaw Musculature. Peabody Museum of Natural History, Postilla Number 116. Damiani, R., et al. (2003). Earliest evidence of cynodont burrowing. Proc.R.Soc. B, 270. Hopson, J.A. and J.W. Kitching (1972). A Revised Classification of Cynodonts. Palaeont.afr., 14. Liu, J. and P. Olsen (2010). The Phylogenetic Relationships of Eucynodontia (Amniota: Synapsida). J.Mammal.Evol., 17. Liu, J. and F. Abdala (2014). Chapter 15. Phylogeny and Taxonomy of the Transversondontidae. In: Early Evolutionary History of the Synapsida. Kammerer, C.F., K.D. Angielczyk and J. Fröbisch (eds.), Vertebrate Paleobiology and Paleoanthropology Series, Springer Science+Business Media, Dordrecht. Ruta, M., et al. (2013). The radiation of cynodonts and the ground plan of mammalian morphological diversity. Proc.R.Soc. B, 280. Suborder Dinocephalia Atayman, S., B.S. Rubidge and F. Abdala (2009). Taxonomic re-evaluation of tapinocephalid dinocephalians. Palaeont.afr., 44. Benoit, J., et al. (2017). Synchrotron scanning reveals the palaeoneurology of the head-butting Moschops capensis (Therapsida, Dinocephalia). PeerJ, 5:e3496. Boos, A.D.S., et al. (2015). A tapinocephalid dinocephalian (Synapsida, Therapsida) from the Rio do Rasto Formation (Parana Basin, Brazil): Taxonomic, ontogenetic and biostratigraphic considerations. Journal of South American Earth Sciences, 63. Cisneros, J.C., et al. (2012). Carnivorous dinocephalian from the Middle Permian of Brazil and tetrapod dispersal in Pangaea. PNAS, Vol.109, Number 5. Day, M.O., et al. (2015). Youngest dinocephalian fossils extend the Tapinocephalus Zone, Karoo Basin, South Africa. South African Journal of Science, 111(3/4). Güven, S., B.S. Rubidge and F. Abdala (2013). Cranial morphology and taxonomy of South African Tapinocephalidae (Therapsida: Dinocephalia): the case of Avenantia and Riebeeckosaurus. Palaeont.afr., 48. Jiang, S. and S.-a. Ji (2014). New specimens of Stenocybus acidentatus (Therapsida: Dinocephalia) from the Middle Permian Dashankou Fauna of China. Acta Geologica Sinica, Vol.38, Number 3. Kruger, A. (2014). Ontogeny and Cranial Morphology of the Basal Carnivorous Dinocephalian, Anteosaurus magnificus from the Tapinocephalus Assemblage Zone of the South African Karoo. Masters Dissertation - University of the Witwatersrand. Modesto, S.P., et al. (2001). A dinocephalian therapsid fauna on the Ecca-Beaufort contact in Eastern Cape Province, South Africa. South African Journal of Science, 97. Rowe, T. and J.A. van den Heever (1986). The hand of Anteosaurus magnificus (Dinocephalia: Therapsida) and its bearing on the origin of the mammalian manual phalangeal formula. Suid-Afrikaanse Tydskrif vir Wetenskap, Vol. 82. Rubidge, B.S. (1991). A New Primitive Dinocephalian Mammal-Like Reptile from the Permian of South Africa. Palaeontolgy, Vol.34, Part 3. Suborder Gorgonopsia Araujo, R., et al. (2017). Aspects of gorgonopsian paleobiology and evolution: insights from the basicranium, occiput, osseous labyrinth, vasculature, and neuroanatomy. PeerJ, 5:e3119. Boonstra, L.D. (1965). The Girdles and Limbs of the Gorgonopsia of the Tapinocephalus Zone. Annals of the South African Museum, 48. Boonstra, L.D. (1935). On the South African Gorgonopsian Reptiles Preserved in the American Museum of Natural History. American Museum Novitates, Number 772. Brink, A.S. and J.W. Kitching (1953). Studies on New Specimens of the Gorgonopsia. Broom, R. (1913). 3.- On a Nearly Perfect Skull of a New Species of the Gorgonopsia. Annals of the South African Museum, 12. Colbert, E.H. (1948). The Mammal-Like Reptile Lycaenops. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History, Vol.89, Article 6. Kammerer, C.F. (2017). Rediscovery of the holotype of Clelandina major Broom, 1948 (Gorgonopsia: Rubidgeinae) with implications for the identity of this species. Palaeont.afr., 52. Kammerer, C.F. (2016). Systematics of the Rubidgeinae (Therapsida: Gorgonopsia). PeerJ, 4:e1608. Kammerer, C.F. and V. Masyutin (2018). 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New whaitsioids (Therapsida: Therocephalia) from the Teekloof Formation of South Africa and therocephalian diversity during the end-Guadalupian extinction. PeerJ, 5:e3868. (41.8MB) Huttenlocker, A.K. and J. Botha-Brink (2014). Bone microstructure and the evolution of growth patterns in Permo-Triassic therocephalians (Amniota, Therapsida) in South Africa. PeerJ, 2:e325. Huttenlocker, A.K. and J. Botha-Brink (2013). Body size and growth patterns in the therocephalian Moschorhinus kitchingi (Therapsida, Eutheriodontia) before and after the end-Permian extinction in South Africa. Paleobiology, 39(2). Huttenlocker, A.K. and C.A. Sidor (2012). Taxonomic revision of therocephalians (Therapsida: Theriodontia) from the Lower Triassic of Antarctica. American Museum Novitates, Number 3738. Kammerer, C.F. and V. Masyutin (2018). A new therocephalian (Gorynychus masyutinae gen. et sp.nov.) from the Permian Kotelnich locality, Kirov Region, Russia. PeerJ, 6:e4933. (Thanks to Scylla for pointing me to this one!) (80.1MB) Liu, J. and F. Abdala (2017). The tetrapod fauna of the upper Permian Naobaogou Formation of China: 1. Shiguaignathus wangi gen. et sp.nov., the first akidnognathid therocephalian from China. PeerJ, 5:e4150. (40.8MB) Liu, J. and F. Abdala (2017). Therocephalian (Therapsida) and chroniosuchian (Reptiliomorpha) from the Permo-Triassic transitional Guodikeng Formation of the Dalongkou Section, Jimsar, Xinjiang, China. Vertebrata PalAsiatica, 55(1). Maisch, M.W. (2017). Re-assessment of Silphoictoides ruhuhuensis von Heune, 1950 (Therapsida, Therocephalia) from the Late Permian of Tanzania: one of the most basal baurioids known. Palaeodiversity, 10. Schaeffer, B. (1941). The Pes of Bauria cynops Broom. American Museum Novitates, Number 1103. Sigurdsen, T. (2006). New features of the snout and orbit of a therocephalian therapsid from South Africa. Acta Palaeontologica Polonica, 51(1). General Therapsida Benoit, J., et al. (2016). The sixth sense in mammalian forerunners: Variability of the parietal foramen and the evolution of the pineal eye in South African Permo-Triassic eutheriodont therapsids. Acta Palaeontologica Polonica, 61(4). Huttenlocker, A.K. (2014). Body Size Reductions in Nonmammalian Eutheriodont Therapsids (Synapsida) during the End-Permian Mass Extinction. PLoS ONE, 9(2). Jacobs, L.L., et al. (2005). Therapsids from the Permian Chiweta Beds and the Age of the Karoo Supergroup in Malawi. Palaeontologia Electronica, Vol.8, Issue 1. Kemp, T.S. (2009). Phylogenetic interrelationships and pattern of evolution of the therapsids: testing for polytomy. Palaeont.afr., 44. Kemp, T.S. (2006). The origin and early radiation of the therapsid mammal-like reptiles: a palaeobiological hypothesis. European Society for Evolutionary Biology. Rubidge, B.S. and C.A. Sidor (2001). Evolutionary Patterns Among Permo-Triassic Therapsids. Annu.Rev.Ecol.Syst. 2001, 32. Surkov, M.V., et al. (2007). 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