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  1. I have been doing some reading on mosasaurs and one thing that I noticed is that "Prognathodon" currii, first described by Christiansen and Bonde in 2002, is from latest Campanian deposits in Israel making it at latest 72 Million years old. However, several papers have reported "P". currii in the Moroccan phosphates (ie. Bardet et. al., 2005; Bardet et. al., 2015) which is 66-67 million years old. Now I am no expert on Mosasaur dentition and I admit the teeth of the Israel "P." currii and Moroccan "P." currii are very a similar looking gumdrop shape, and of course, you cannot simply diagnose species solely on stratigraphy and paleobiogeography, there must be sufficient morphological variation. But I suspect that the two are not conspecific and that there are morphological differences to be identified between the two. IMHO the two "P". currii represent a separate lineage of durophageous prognathodontin mosasaurs comprising at least 2 closely related species which may or may not be congeneric. 4-5 Million years of separation between the Israel holotype and the referred Moroccan material makes me almost certain that it is not just one species remaining in complete stasis. We know that the species turnover rate in Albertan tyrannosaurs is less than a million years. And some species of hadrosaurs, even less. Another example is the genus Homo, it wasn't present more than 3 million years ago, let alone Homo sapiens. Given these lines of reasoning. I think that the Moroccan "P." currii and Israel "P". currii belong at the very least in separate species. I have attached some photos of the Israel Holotype and referred moroccan "P". currii below. Thank you, I look forward to hearing your responses! Note: I put "Prognathodon" in quotation marks because regardless of how many species "P". currii is, it is very distinct from Prognathodon solvayi (the type species). It has been known for some time that the genus Prognathodon is something of a wastebasket genus in serious need of revision. "P". currii holotype (Christiansen and Bonde, 2002): Moroccan "P". currii dentition (Bardet et. al, 2005): Mounted skull of Moroccan "P." currii References: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/27711032_Durophagous_Mosasauridae_Squamata_from_the_Upper_Cretaceous_phosphates_of_Morocco_with_the_description_of_a_new_species_of_Globidens?_tp=eyJjb250ZXh0Ijp7ImZpcnN0UGFnZSI6InB1YmxpY2F0aW9uIiwicGFnZSI6Il9kaXJlY3QifX0 https://www.researchgate.net/publication/265730987_Mosasaurids_Squamata_from_the_Maastrichtian_Phosphates_of_Morocco_Biodiversity_palaeobiogeography_and_palaeoecology_based_on_tooth_morphoguilds https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1671/0272-4634(2002)022[0629%3AANSOGM]2.0.CO%3B2
  2. Weeks ago, I set out writing down every species of mosasaur I could find in literature. The intent was to build my library, so that with every proposed mosasaur species, I could record some affiliated papers and notes of interest for each taxon. Such a database would save me time in the future finding papers and verifying information about the mosasaurs of the world. Some taxa have extremely limited notes, while others have detailed notes. Some I did not address via their holotype paper, because I was not particularly interested in them in the moment, so I just filled in the bare minimum (age and location) using papers that mentioned them. Others I did use their holotype paper, and yet others I used many papers to inform these brief notes. This project then, as a whole, is probably 5% done, but it may still be of use to others in these early stages, since it is all cited (except when opinion is stated). As I develop this project, I will eventually include pictures of skeletal features, important aspects of ID, distribution, phylogenetic relationships, and other points of interest. How to use this thread: Do not treat this thread as gospel. This is more a cited summary of the recent research arena for mosasaurs, which is always subject to change. The main use of this thread comes from the access it gives to papers. I do not have the same opinion of some of the things that are written, but I do feel like it's important to include even things I disagree with for the sake of knowing where research stands at the moment. Also note that temporal (age) range is much more useful than geographic occurrence, since many of these taxa likely lived places they haven't been discovered yet. Just because I don't list a taxon as occurring in a place, doesn't mean they aren't there. Lists of these geographic occurrences here are not comprehensive yet , and I sometimes use just the holotype occurrence. Also note that in some places, I have my own opinions. The purpose of this document was for self-use, so I did not necessarily construct it for others. But, due to the use I already get out of it, I thought I'd share it. My opinions about some of these things regularly change, so again, don't treat them as gospel. On the parent document, all the links are embedded, but many won't transfer to this thread, so pm me for any papers. Everything here that isn't my opinion is cited. Further points: - I chose not to include "Aigialosaurs" in this doc, yet. The description of Dallasaurus made a strong case in suggesting that perhaps Aigialosauridae should be reevaluated. Aigialosaurs historically were distinguished from mosasaurs based on their plesiopedal limbs. To me, that's not good enough to warrant their own family, and I think most aigialosaurs are probably basal to mosasaur subfamilies, as Dallasaurus is to Mosasaurinae. A deeper dive into the world of aigialosaurs will eventually follow this doc. - A cool thread on Moroccoan mosasaurs already exists on this forum, which includes pictures that help with anatomy, something that this doesn't have (yet). That thread is here: If you want a paper that I mention in this thread, shoot me a pm!
  3. When I caught wind of @jnoun11's traveling exhibit coming to Canada, British Columbia of all places, I made sure to book it down to the Vancouver Aquarium immediately! It was the most incredible display of Moroccan fossils I have ever seen and far greater than any permanent museum galleries! Of course I spent most of the time at the mosasaur section, finally getting the chance to see the marine reptiles I work on fully reconstructed in all their glory! The best part was seeing the species of mosasaur @pachy-pleuro-whatnot-odon @Praefectus and I named on display for the whole world! Such a great feeling! The skull of Hainosaurus boubker stood proud along side Thalassotitan atrox and the skeletons of Mosasaurus beaugei, Halisaurus arambourgi and Zarafasaura oceanis (plus some turtles). The murals in the back illustrated the diverse community of the phosphates in an active, warm sea environment which made you feel like you were right there swimming with them! The info boards were great and very informative with a fun "Monster Level" gimmick to show how fierce these predators where in their environments and times! Unfortunately Hain and Thalass were still under their pre-2022 names of Tylosaurus and Prognathodon anceps (plus using their smaller size estimates) which hopefully one day will be updated. I purchased a seasons pass just to revisit this display several times this summer while it is still around! Here are some photos of the mosasaur section (plus Spinosaurus) I took with my good camera!

    Mosasaur Vertebrae ID

    I'm hoping someone out there might be able to ID these vertebrae for me. I'm fairly certain they're mosasaur of some type, but I'm not very familiar with this vertebrate stuff. I'm thinking the other bone is part of a paddle. I found these in the Pierre shale of South Dakota on private property with permission.
  5. swendy

    Mosasaur vs crocodile tooth

    Hi! First time poster looking for help identifying if this tooth is mosasaur, crocodile, or something else. Found on the dredged banks of the Savannah river, near Savannah GA. I was leaning towards Mosasaur from the research I've done but I'm pretty new to identifying things. The root cavity is conical. There is a ridge going vertically from the root to top on the tall side. It's overall pretty conical in shape but the tip appears worn or broken. About 24 mm in length. Thanks in advance! Links to other posts welcome.
  6. Hello, as I was scrolling throug some already sold pieces on different fossil websites, this interesting jaw caught my attention. It was listed as Halisaurus arambourgi, but I've never seen so many teeth so closely packed together in any mosasaur's jaws. Is it really mosasaurian ? Or a fish of some sort ? If so, which species had teeth packed so closely together ? I dont really know, but it kinda reminded me of Xenodens calminechari because of these closely packed teeth tho, but these look completly different from the Holotype of this species. Has anyone an Idea ? @Praefectus, are you able to help here ? Thanks, any help is appreciated ! Sice : 5,4 cm long Formation : Oulad abdun basin, Qued zem, morocco.
  7. Hi, I would like to buy these fossils from Morocco. I think they're fake, I would be very grateful for any opinions. Thanks
  8. ThaDragonSlayer

    Juvenile Tylosaur rostrum

    I found this really cool piece this weekend at the North sulphur river. I believe it's juvenile Tylosaur
  9. Hello, as I recently found out about german mosasaur from the island of Rügen or nothern Germany in common, I've became quite interested in them. Does somebody have any informations or pictures or scientific papers of them ? Or if someone owns one of these teeth, can you show me a picture of it ? They are stupidly rare, there isnt much on the internet about them. Thanks for any informations !
  10. HynerpetonHunter


    Hey guys, in a recent trip to Big Brook in New Jersey I found this broken tooth, which I immediately thought could be part of a mosasaur tooth. What do you guys think? If genus level is identifiable that is also helpful. Sorry for the bad images.
  11. Slow Walker

    skull ID?

    Found a poorly fossilized complete skull in Pierre shale in western SD. Looks like mosasaur or alligator shaped. Can anyone help me ID the species type? The teeth are from the front of mouth. EDIT: The skull is 2ft long. Teeth are 1in long. The skull was in a jacket that I mostly removed along with most of the shale. What you see is the fossil. Since it is poorly fossilized I don't think there is any ID features from the skull other than teeth.
  12. Hello, I saw this moroccan Mosasaur tooth on auction today and im really interested in bidding for it. But before I do this, I wanted to ask for your opinions on it, if you see any plaster which im not able to spot here, and the exact species, as its labeled as Mosasaurus beauigei, but im want this to be confirmed or refuted. Its 11 cm in length , and it was found in Khouribga@Praefectus,@pachy-pleuro-whatnot-odon
  13. Thoughts on these guys? The darker one is about 2.4 centimeters and the lighter one is about 2.7. Both are from Morocco and labeled Thalassotitan atrox. I want to believe but I need some second opinions.
  14. Hello, welcome to my report of this last week fossil hunting in Morocco. I have been this last week in Morocco going to different localities looking for fossils. As I have never done fossil hunting before in morocco, I contacted with Mohand Ihmadi from Ihmadi Trilobites Centre, a local geologist that does fossil hunting tours. I talked to him about all the localities that I would like to visit and we planned a route together. If you ever want to do some fossil hunting in Morocco, I have to recommend getting in touch with Mohand, if you search for him or the center in google, the contact information will appear. I will try to divide this fossil hunting in the main 4 areas that we hunted: KEM KEM BEDS This location is near the dunes, and going there you will have beautiful views. Once you arrive there, you will start seeing the typical Kem Kem colors. First you can try to find microfossils filtering the sand. We also found some workers there, and they let us visit the caves they make to arrive to the layer where they find the fossils. Here is me and my dad in front of the cave entrance. And here more photos inside the cave: In Kem Kem it's very difficult to find the stuff you see online so the normal thing is to find some micro fossils or chunks. This is what we found in and hour or so: Probably if you search harder and during more time, you can find more stuff, but we were more casual about this. And obviously, you can also try to buy the stuff the workers have found. ORDOVICIAN LOCALITY FOR CALYMENE Another locality we visited, was a trilobite locality. A ordovician Locality. Here, with heavy machinery, they extract the first useless layer, and then you can start to manually search for the trilobites. Here, we found several as it's pretty easy. One of them is this next photo: DEVONIAN TRILOBITE LOCATION The other trilobite location was a devonian one. There you can find phacops sp. pretty easily and if you are lucky some other species. Here is the typical limestone where you have to break them, find the trilobite, glued back and prepared it. After this, we went to Mohand workshop and he teached me how to prepare them: We were lucky and found a Paralejurus spatuliformis that he is preparing for me and will send to me. OUED ZEM FORMATION The last stop was the Oued Zem formation. It's the formation where we found most fossils, and it's easy to work with the hammer and find it. It's near the phosphates exploitation ground. And here some of what we found: We visited some more places, but this were the main ones. In conclusion it was an amazing experience and Mohand was the best guide we could have asked for. If you are planning a similar trip to Morocco and have some doubts or questions don't hesitate to ask. And just as an extra. As we all know, all the Moroccan material has a reputation of being restored, composited and altered. And while that is sometimes true, after visiting this places and talking to the diggers there, I bought some pieces from them, without the intermediaries, and they were really honest about what reparations or things they did to the piece. So my conclusion is that a lot of times the international dealers are the ones buying pieces without caring about the state of this ones because a composited/restored piece will be cheaper and they think it will sell at the same price and will make more profit.
  15. Tolmanbridge

    Some More Strange Fossils, Help!

    Just got another lot of Moroccan fossils and these three have me stumped. I know I've seen the first one somewhere before but I can't find anything on it. The shark tooth is similar to one I asked about previously but doesn't have the same ridges as the last one. And the final tooth looks like a mosasaur tooth but has a strange flat section on one side of the tooth. Any assistance in identifying these would be wonderful. Thanks for your help in advance.
  16. Stormywx

    NSR please help identify

    I have a couple of these, this is the best specimen. I think they are from a mosasaur but only because they were found on the NSR. There are two indentions/holes that don't show up that well in the picture. The first picture shows the indention the best, there is a corresponding one on the other side. I apologize the lighting didn't make that more clear. If it helps in identification, I can retake pics.
  17. At the same location as I found a tiny Mosasaur tooth (probably Russelosaurus in Austin Chalk Formation) I just found this little tooth. It seems to have the basic qualifications - curved with ridge on the outside curve but it doesn't have the enamel striations I associate with mosasaur. It really looks more like a crab claw to me, but it doesn't have any other crabby characteristics except for shape and that ridge gives me pause. Are there any fish teeth that look like this? Any thoughts, y'all? 1/4 inch
  18. Othniel C. Marsh

    Ozan Formation Mosasaur Tooth

    I recently came across this mosasaur tooth from the Ozan Formation for sale, and wondered if it would be possible to identify to a genus or species level. It measures around 1.5cm from the tip of the tooth to its base. It is my understanding that @pachy-pleuro-whatnot-odon is something of an expert on marine reptiles. What do you make of the tooth? Thanks in advance for any proposals Othniel
  19. Long overdue to post about some of my NC finds from earlier this year! First up was a very exciting trip to the NC Triassic to look for a variety of plant fossils, which were my first Mesozoic plants. Beautiful white coloring on some of them as well, the matrix is extremely soft (you can easily scrape it with your finger nails) so I've done some experimenting with how to best consolidate them without damaging the visual effect. Not a ton of variety at the site, but they are abundant and sometimes surprisingly well preserved. I have found Otozamites hespera and Otozamites powelli, as well as a few other kinds of plants. I also disturbed a "hibernating" lizard, initially I was concerned that my digging had injured him, but after a some time in the sun he scampered off seemingly no worse for the experience.
  20. I found a Mosasaur jaw in a shop and wanted to know if it appeared legitimate. I have seen others that seem much more fake, but as they are one of the more commonly faked fossils , I thought it would be best to get a second opinion. Sadly I only have one photo.
  21. So I found a few things at Myrtle Beach and I'm looking for some help in ID'ing them. I love looking for fossils but am not sure on things and I love the help I've gotten on this site so far. And any help with these is appreciated. The ruler is in inches. . . . 1: I thought this looked similar to a whale ear bone? Admittedly it could just be a rock but I wanted to post here and get some opinions. Getting photos of something black and shiny can be difficult but I could take more if needed, and maybe find better lighting. 2. At first I though alligator tooth but then I learned that mosasaur teeth have been found in this area also, so now I'm not so sure. Either way I love it. 3. I was thinking dolphin tooth but obviously it's broken so I'm not entirely sure. 4. And I thought I'd throw this one here too. When I saw it in the water I thought I was going to be picking up a cucullaea steinkern, but this is what it was. I thought I remembered seeing something like this online somewhere but I really have no idea, unless it's just a piece of some bone. So there they are. Any information about any of these would be much appreciated. And I could post more photos of any of these.
  22. Fullux

    Pee Dee Mosasaur

    Howdy all, Just bought this mosasaur tooth from the Pee Dee Formation of North Carolina. Seller has IDed it as Prognathodon and I'm wondering if that is valid or if it could be something like Tylosaurus (I looked at tylosaurus teeth from that area and the patterns in the enamel seem to match). Either way I'm overjoyed to finally have a mosasaur tooth from that region of Appalachia's ancient coast.
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