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  1. Hello!!! On this topic, I would LOVE to see everybody's mosasaur fossils!!!!!!!!!!!!! Here's my Halisaurus (probably) tooth fossil!
  2. Hi everyone. I am Back again with questions about Mosasaur jaws, only this time, same store, different products. You don’t need to get back too soon as I don’t have anywhere near enough to buy them, but depending on its legitimacy I will save for it.
  3. Hello, I have a question. Is Khinjaria acuta the rarest mosasaur to find in the Moroccan phosphate mines ? I only know that one partial skull has been found of this species so far, and I recently saw that one of the mosa experts had published two photos of a Khinjaria tooth. And now I saw an already sold tooth, that really looked like Khinjaria. Maybe I'll post about it later.
  4. Brevicollis

    Mosasaur tooth ID wanted

    Hello, I saw this already sold tooth and want to know the species it belongs to. It doesnt seem to match with croc, plesiosaur, or fish. The pictures of it are'nt the clearest, but Im able to spot some slight prismarism only at the base. The rest of the tooth has no prismarism, only enamel patterns. I also saw these two pictures of a Khinjaria acuta tooth, and thought when I compared them, that he might be a candidate. @Praefectus The Khinjaria acuta tooth : The tooth this topic is about :
  5. ThePhysicist

    Russellosaurine mosasaur in matrix

    From the album: Eagle Ford Group

    An early mosasaur tooth still in the limestone matrix, after some 90-odd million years.
  6. ThePhysicist

    Russellosaurine mosasaur

    From the album: Eagle Ford Group

    A small tooth from an early (juvenile?) mosasaur.
  7. Shaun-DFW Fossils

    Lower Eagle Ford jaw droppers

    The last 30 days have been great. Not the largest numbers of fossils, but high quality. I went to a highway median lower Eagle Ford exposure in South Grand Prairie, Texas, and another nearby Tarrant formation exposure on 3 occasions in the last few weeks. I have a lot of firsts from these excursions: unknown gastropod absolute unit of an ammonite, a 5.1 pound acanthoceras amphibolum with huge spikes concretion with conlinoceras tarrantense with original shell and septarian veins mosasaur vertebra partial (?) lobster in a pre-broken concretion metiococeras ammonite (rough one but my first) numerous conlinoceras tarrantense ammonites 2-4 inches diameter
  8. Fullux


    Howdy all, Recently picked up this mosasaur tooth from the Khouribga Basin and I'm pretty sure it's a Thalassotitan atrox, but, considering there are over 40 mosasaur genera known from that locality, I'm hoping for a second opinion. Note: both carina are present and have tiny, almost microscopic serrations.
  9. Hi mosasaurs lovers, I looked around on different american fossils web sites , and I found, is nowhere a description or list about different species of Mosasaurs from Morocco . So I'll try humbly to fix it . Feel free to correct me if you see something wrong. The Moroccan phosphate history began in 1921 , Moroccan phosphate mines operate three layers of phosphates . Level 1 : Ypresian phosphate bed Level 2 : Thanetian phosphate bed Level 3 : Maestrichian phosphate bed Level 4 : Maestrichian grey phosphate at Sidi-Chenan quarry, ben guerir and youssoufia Level 5 : Maestrichian, grey phosphate,white bones: ben guerir and youssoufia level 6: Maestrichian, grey phosphate,white bones: ben guerir and youssoufia Most of the material on a market belong to oued zem and sidi -daoui zone; even though you will find them under Khouribga denomination, nothing comes from Khouribga... Of course, mosasaurs belong to the level 3, and 4 different species are studied by scientists of the French Museum of Natural History in Paris . Today the last record of different mosasaurs species is at list 18 and probably 20. (personal opinion ) Listed like below : †Halisaurus. arambourgi .(Bardet, Pereda Suberbiola, Iarochène, Bouya & Amaghzaz, 2005) †Halisaurus.sp not described yet †Halisaurus walkeri .(Lingham-Solier, 1998) ( i used this name temporarily, until one studie about this mosasaur show-up ) †Prognathodon sp Dollo, 1889 †thalassotitan atrox 2022 ex †Prognathodon anceps ex leiodon anceps slender form massive form perhaps sexual dimorphism ( personal opinion ) †Prognathodon solvayi Dollo, 1889 †Prognathodon hudae kaddumi 2009 †Prognathodon. currii (Christiansen & Bonde, 2002) †Eremiasaurus heterodontus , gen. et sp. nov sp ( AR. H. LeBlanc, M. W. Caldwell, and N. Bardet. 2012) †“Mosasaurus" baugei Arambourg 1954 ( Mosasaurus beaugei Arambourg, 1952 (Squamata, Mosasauridae) from the Late Cretaceous phosphates of Morocco Nathalie Bardet , Xabier Pereda Suberbiola , Mohamed Iarochene , Fatima Bouyahyaoui , Baadi Bouya , Mbarek Amaghzaz . 2004 ) †Mosasaurus hoffmanni Mantell, 1829 †hainosaurus boubker, 2022 slender form long premaxillary like tylosaurus proriger massive form short premaxillary like hainosaurus personal constatation † Stelladens mysteriosus (Nicholas R. Longrich , Nour-Eddine Jalil , Xabier Pereda-Suberbiola and Nathalie Bardet 2023) † Gavialimimus almaghribensis, caldwell et al ,2020 ex: Platecarpus ptychodon Arambourg 1954 † Khinjaria acuta, Author:Nicholas R. Longrich,Michael J. Polcyn,Nour-Eddine Jalil,Xabier Pereda-Suberbiola,Nathalie Bardet,1 March 2024 †Globidens. phosphaticus (Bardet, Pereda Suberbiola, Iarochène, Amalik & Bouya, 2005) †Carinodens belgicus ( N. Bardet, X. Pereda Suberbiola, M. Iarochène, M. Amalik, and B. Bouya. 2005) †Carinodens minalmamar. (A.S. Schulp, N. Bardet& B. Bouya. 2009) †Harranasaurus khuludae. (kaddumi.2009) †Globidens simplex (LeBlanc, Aaron. (2019) †Xenodens calminechari (Longrich, N.R.; Bardet, N.; Schulp, A. S.; Jalil, N (2021)) †Carinodens .sp †Carinodens .sp
  10. Weeks ago, I set out writing down every species of mosasaur I could find in literature. The intent was to build my library, so that with every proposed mosasaur species, I could record some affiliated papers and notes of interest for each taxon. Such a database would save me time in the future finding papers and verifying information about the mosasaurs of the world. Some taxa have extremely limited notes, while others have detailed notes. Some I did not address via their holotype paper, because I was not particularly interested in them in the moment, so I just filled in the bare minimum (age and location) using papers that mentioned them. Others I did use their holotype paper, and yet others I used many papers to inform these brief notes. This project then, as a whole, is probably 5% done, but it may still be of use to others in these early stages, since it is all cited (except when opinion is stated). As I develop this project, I will eventually include pictures of skeletal features, important aspects of ID, distribution, phylogenetic relationships, and other points of interest. How to use this thread: Do not treat this thread as gospel. This is more a cited summary of the recent research arena for mosasaurs, which is always subject to change. The main use of this thread comes from the access it gives to papers. I do not have the same opinion of some of the things that are written, but I do feel like it's important to include even things I disagree with for the sake of knowing where research stands at the moment. Also note that temporal (age) range is much more useful than geographic occurrence, since many of these taxa likely lived places they haven't been discovered yet. Just because I don't list a taxon as occurring in a place, doesn't mean they aren't there. Lists of these geographic occurrences here are not comprehensive yet , and I sometimes use just the holotype occurrence. Also note that in some places, I have my own opinions. The purpose of this document was for self-use, so I did not necessarily construct it for others. But, due to the use I already get out of it, I thought I'd share it. My opinions about some of these things regularly change, so again, don't treat them as gospel. On the parent document, all the links are embedded, but many won't transfer to this thread, so pm me for any papers. Everything here that isn't my opinion is cited. Further points: - I chose not to include "Aigialosaurs" in this doc, yet. The description of Dallasaurus made a strong case in suggesting that perhaps Aigialosauridae should be reevaluated. Aigialosaurs historically were distinguished from mosasaurs based on their plesiopedal limbs. To me, that's not good enough to warrant their own family, and I think most aigialosaurs are probably basal to mosasaur subfamilies, as Dallasaurus is to Mosasaurinae. A deeper dive into the world of aigialosaurs will eventually follow this doc. - A cool thread on Moroccoan mosasaurs already exists on this forum, which includes pictures that help with anatomy, something that this doesn't have (yet). That thread is here: If you want a paper that I mention in this thread, shoot me a pm!
  11. When I caught wind of @jnoun11's traveling exhibit coming to Canada, British Columbia of all places, I made sure to book it down to the Vancouver Aquarium immediately! It was the most incredible display of Moroccan fossils I have ever seen and far greater than any permanent museum galleries! Of course I spent most of the time at the mosasaur section, finally getting the chance to see the marine reptiles I work on fully reconstructed in all their glory! The best part was seeing the species of mosasaur @pachy-pleuro-whatnot-odon @Praefectus and I named on display for the whole world! Such a great feeling! The skull of Hainosaurus boubker stood proud along side Thalassotitan atrox and the skeletons of Mosasaurus beaugei, Halisaurus arambourgi and Zarafasaura oceanis (plus some turtles). The murals in the back illustrated the diverse community of the phosphates in an active, warm sea environment which made you feel like you were right there swimming with them! The info boards were great and very informative with a fun "Monster Level" gimmick to show how fierce these predators where in their environments and times! Unfortunately Hain and Thalass were still under their pre-2022 names of Tylosaurus and Prognathodon anceps (plus using their smaller size estimates) which hopefully one day will be updated. I purchased a seasons pass just to revisit this display several times this summer while it is still around! Here are some photos of the mosasaur section (plus Spinosaurus) I took with my good camera!
  12. I have been doing some reading on mosasaurs and one thing that I noticed is that "Prognathodon" currii, first described by Christiansen and Bonde in 2002, is from latest Campanian deposits in Israel making it at latest 72 Million years old. However, several papers have reported "P". currii in the Moroccan phosphates (ie. Bardet et. al., 2005; Bardet et. al., 2015) which is 66-67 million years old. Now I am no expert on Mosasaur dentition and I admit the teeth of the Israel "P." currii and Moroccan "P." currii are very a similar looking gumdrop shape, and of course, you cannot simply diagnose species solely on stratigraphy and paleobiogeography, there must be sufficient morphological variation. But I suspect that the two are not conspecific and that there are morphological differences to be identified between the two. IMHO the two "P". currii represent a separate lineage of durophageous prognathodontin mosasaurs comprising at least 2 closely related species which may or may not be congeneric. 4-5 Million years of separation between the Israel holotype and the referred Moroccan material makes me almost certain that it is not just one species remaining in complete stasis. We know that the species turnover rate in Albertan tyrannosaurs is less than a million years. And some species of hadrosaurs, even less. Another example is the genus Homo, it wasn't present more than 3 million years ago, let alone Homo sapiens. Given these lines of reasoning. I think that the Moroccan "P." currii and Israel "P". currii belong at the very least in separate species. I have attached some photos of the Israel Holotype and referred moroccan "P". currii below. Thank you, I look forward to hearing your responses! Note: I put "Prognathodon" in quotation marks because regardless of how many species "P". currii is, it is very distinct from Prognathodon solvayi (the type species). It has been known for some time that the genus Prognathodon is something of a wastebasket genus in serious need of revision. "P". currii holotype (Christiansen and Bonde, 2002): Moroccan "P". currii dentition (Bardet et. al, 2005): Mounted skull of Moroccan "P." currii References: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/27711032_Durophagous_Mosasauridae_Squamata_from_the_Upper_Cretaceous_phosphates_of_Morocco_with_the_description_of_a_new_species_of_Globidens?_tp=eyJjb250ZXh0Ijp7ImZpcnN0UGFnZSI6InB1YmxpY2F0aW9uIiwicGFnZSI6Il9kaXJlY3QifX0 https://www.researchgate.net/publication/265730987_Mosasaurids_Squamata_from_the_Maastrichtian_Phosphates_of_Morocco_Biodiversity_palaeobiogeography_and_palaeoecology_based_on_tooth_morphoguilds https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1671/0272-4634(2002)022[0629%3AANSOGM]2.0.CO%3B2

    Mosasaur Vertebrae ID

    I'm hoping someone out there might be able to ID these vertebrae for me. I'm fairly certain they're mosasaur of some type, but I'm not very familiar with this vertebrate stuff. I'm thinking the other bone is part of a paddle. I found these in the Pierre shale of South Dakota on private property with permission.
  14. swendy

    Mosasaur vs crocodile tooth

    Hi! First time poster looking for help identifying if this tooth is mosasaur, crocodile, or something else. Found on the dredged banks of the Savannah river, near Savannah GA. I was leaning towards Mosasaur from the research I've done but I'm pretty new to identifying things. The root cavity is conical. There is a ridge going vertically from the root to top on the tall side. It's overall pretty conical in shape but the tip appears worn or broken. About 24 mm in length. Thanks in advance! Links to other posts welcome.
  15. Hello, as I was scrolling throug some already sold pieces on different fossil websites, this interesting jaw caught my attention. It was listed as Halisaurus arambourgi, but I've never seen so many teeth so closely packed together in any mosasaur's jaws. Is it really mosasaurian ? Or a fish of some sort ? If so, which species had teeth packed so closely together ? I dont really know, but it kinda reminded me of Xenodens calminechari because of these closely packed teeth tho, but these look completly different from the Holotype of this species. Has anyone an Idea ? @Praefectus, are you able to help here ? Thanks, any help is appreciated ! Sice : 5,4 cm long Formation : Oulad abdun basin, Qued zem, morocco.
  16. Hi, I would like to buy these fossils from Morocco. I think they're fake, I would be very grateful for any opinions. Thanks
  17. ThaDragonSlayer

    Juvenile Tylosaur rostrum

    I found this really cool piece this weekend at the North sulphur river. I believe it's juvenile Tylosaur
  18. Hello, as I recently found out about german mosasaur from the island of Rügen or nothern Germany in common, I've became quite interested in them. Does somebody have any informations or pictures or scientific papers of them ? Or if someone owns one of these teeth, can you show me a picture of it ? They are stupidly rare, there isnt much on the internet about them. Thanks for any informations !
  19. HynerpetonHunter


    Hey guys, in a recent trip to Big Brook in New Jersey I found this broken tooth, which I immediately thought could be part of a mosasaur tooth. What do you guys think? If genus level is identifiable that is also helpful. Sorry for the bad images.
  20. Slow Walker

    skull ID?

    Found a poorly fossilized complete skull in Pierre shale in western SD. Looks like mosasaur or alligator shaped. Can anyone help me ID the species type? The teeth are from the front of mouth. EDIT: The skull is 2ft long. Teeth are 1in long. The skull was in a jacket that I mostly removed along with most of the shale. What you see is the fossil. Since it is poorly fossilized I don't think there is any ID features from the skull other than teeth.
  21. Hello, I saw this moroccan Mosasaur tooth on auction today and im really interested in bidding for it. But before I do this, I wanted to ask for your opinions on it, if you see any plaster which im not able to spot here, and the exact species, as its labeled as Mosasaurus beauigei, but im want this to be confirmed or refuted. Its 11 cm in length , and it was found in Khouribga@Praefectus,@pachy-pleuro-whatnot-odon
  22. Thoughts on these guys? The darker one is about 2.4 centimeters and the lighter one is about 2.7. Both are from Morocco and labeled Thalassotitan atrox. I want to believe but I need some second opinions.
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