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  1. L.S., Wanted to raise some awareness on TFF because I expect many here will simply love this: A good friend of mine, Iris van Zelst (geophysicist at the German Aerospace Center in Berlin) has developed this really nice card game centred around the geological time scale: QUARTETnary The gameplay is based on the classic game Quartets (similar to Go Fish and Happy Families), where players try to collect as many sets of four cards as they can. In QUARTETnary, each of the sets represents four major events that took place during a specific geological time period. To win the game, you need to create the most complete timeline of Earth history, all the way from its formation 4.567 billion years ago to the appearance of us humans. The cards have been designed by Lucia Perez-Diaz (Earth scientist and freelance illustrator from the UK). The illustrations look amazing and I really like that they adhered to the official colour scheme of the International Commission on Stratigraphy. Iris sent me this nice set of cards for the Proterozoic: The game includes 15 sets of four cards in total (many featuring fossils): one each for the Hadean, Archean and Proterozoic eons, and one each for the 12 periods of the Phanerozoic. I expect QUARTETnary will become a really fun way to learn about and memorize the different geological units and major events in Earth history. Kind regards, Tim
  2. GallinaPinta

    Puerto Rico fossils

    I want to share this amazing experience. This was in San Sebastián, Puerto Rico. The Gozalandia waterfall is one of the most beautiful spots in the island, and because of this, it is a tourist attraction. I always fossil hunted near but I never went to this specific waterfall. I live close by so I went to take a simple dip but I absolutely could not hold back the urge to fossil hunt as soon as I got here. It is absolutely beautiful! After going down the wooden stairs, I immediately started checking out the rock beds. There's even a cave under the waterfall! After just 30 minutes of checking the stones, I found a beautifully preserved echinolampas. This formation is known to preserve fossils from the oligocene and paleogene period according to https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_fossiliferous_stratigraphic_units_in_the_Caribbean#Puerto_Rico and San Sebastián has been my favorite spot to fossil hunt. I always find many beautifully preserved specimens.
  3. L.S., Wanted to share this "mini ecosystem" in fossilized form. The photos below show a rhizome of Osmunda pluma Miller 1967, a member of the royal fern family, from the Paleogene of the Fort Union Group (probably the Sentinel Butte Fm.) near Glenn Ullin in Morton County, North Dakota. On the first photo you can see a central stele surrounded by "eyes", which are cross-sections through the petioles of the leaves of the fern (see for comparison this section made through an extant Osmunda cinnamomea rhizome). More to the top and bottom of the photo, parallel lines are visible. These are the remnants of a woody texture, probably of some kind of gymnosperm (see also the second image, a flatbed scan of the entire slab containing the fern rhizome). According to Miller (1967, p. 143) the fern was growing on a so-called "nurse log": when a tree in the woods falls over and starts to decay, this can provide an excellent opportunity for new plants to grow! See for example these lovely examples of modern nurse logs. Cheers, Tim Fern rhizome of Osmunda pluma Miller 1967 showing central stele and petioles The fern rhizome is embedded in a woody texture, interpreted as a nurse log.
  4. Hello everyone, even though I haven't reached 35 fossils in my collection like I hoped for this year, I still managed to close 2023 with my 34th fossil! The one I'm going to show you today is, in fact, this 34th fossil, which is also the first mammal fossil I've ever owned Species: Merycoidodon sp. (Leidy, 1848) Size: ~3.0 cm long Age: 34-23 mya (Oligocene, stage indet.) Origin: South Dakota's Badlands (USA) About this fossil: a partial lower jaw of this genus, with four nicely preserved teeth. I personally like how, in this specimen, the matrix is still present, which helps to keep the two parts together and just makes the fossil look nicer
  5. Mosasaurhunter

    Shell ID help please

    Hello, I found this fossil shell in kaolin clay. I was wondering if somebody knew what species it was. The kaolin clay is supposed to be Cretaceous and Paleocene age. Thanks in advance.
  6. JakubArmatys

    Enigmatic tooth

    What you guys think about this tooth? For me- it's a Hexanchidae tooth fragment, but it also smillair to Pseudocoracidae. Nasiłów, Poland Greensand, Mastrichtian/Danian
  7. I acquired some Paleogene fossil shark teeth from a Ukrainian fossil hunter/collector and was wondering if anyone here might know what formations these may have come from. They were found on an island in the Dnieper River near/just south of Kyiv. The collector didn't know the specific formation and described them as coming from sand alluvium. From what I can tell, these appear to all be Eocene species, though not being familiar with the local geology, I can't rule out Paleocene for the Otodus obliquus tooth at least. Any ID corrections are of course welcome as well! Otodus obliquus Hexanchus agassizi Jaekelotodus trigonalis Otodus aksuaticus or O. auriculatus
  8. I've been wondering how large teeth from Cretalamna appendiculata-type sharks could get. In their examination/further classification of these sharks, Siversson et al. depict several teeth that are a good deal larger than an inch/25.4 mm, including a first upper anterior of C. borealis that they note may have originally reached 38-40 mm in height (though with a broken tip is shorter than that now). From a marketplace perspective, C. appendiculata type teeth measuring an inch or larger appear somewhat uncommon, though they pop up from time to time. My question for shark teeth experts and collectors on the forum is what's the largest C. appendiculata-type tooth that you know of? Please post photos of any larger teeth in your collections as well. Below are a few large U.S. teeth that I've acquired. From left to right, they are: (1-3) 28.6 mm, 26.3 mm, and 28.0 mm from the Campanian of Russell County, Alabama; (4) 27.9 mm from the Santonian-Campanian of northeast Mississippi; and (5) 28.0 mm from the Maastrichtian of Conway, South Carolina. The tooth on the left would have been even bigger with the tip intact of course!
  9. GallinaPinta

    Conglomerate fossil bone puerto rico

    Hello, I think I found my first serious fossil!! Up until now, I always found invertebrate and plant fossils like echinoids and giant oysters, but recently after fossil hunting last week at my favorite spot, the San Sebastián Limestone, I stumbled upon something absolutely incredible. I was rushing to get home cause it was getting dark and the river was getting pretty cold, but I tripped over this huge stone. I saw the shadow of something stuck and quickly put it in my backpack, swam and crossed the river and bought it home thinking it was some kind of fossilized wood. It is very, very heavy. However, after checking it closely, it looks like it's actually a bone! Those are extremely rare in the island and I've never seen one, so I'm hoping some bone experts can help me properly identify this fossil.
  10. siteseer


    Here's an odd one. I think it's a Parotodus that might be the species, P. oligocaenus, which I have read is valid - something to talk to David Ward about. I bought this around the mid-90's as part of a small lot of teeth from the Suwannee River, Florida. I wasn't sure what it was at the time and Parotodus wasn't an in-demand genus like it is now. The dealer thought this and the other teeth washed out of the Ocala Limestone (Late Eocene). I lost track of this tooth and thought I might've traded it somewhere down the line but found it with another tooth from the same site in a zip-lock in a different box. It measures just over 1 1/8 inches. It looks like some Oligocene Parotodus I've seen. @fossilselachian @MarcoSr @isurus90064 @sixgill pete @Al Dente @sagacious @Northern Sharks
  11. siteseer

    Fossillarry's Mammals

    As Larry familiarizes himself with how to attach photos to his posts, I will be posting for him. Larry is a humble collector of mammals but he is very experienced. He is one of the rare mammal collectors with knowledge of Eocene-Pleistocene groups. Most collectors specialize in Oligocene or Miocene-Pleistocene of North America but he knows a wide variety of forms specializing in ungulates (hoofed mammals of the Perissodactyla and Artiodactyla. He's hunted from California to Nebraska and South Dakota to Texas. The first specimen he'd like to share with the forum is a 2-tooth maxilla section of Cardiolophus, an early tapiroid from the Early Eocene, Willwood Formation of Bighorn Basin, Wyoming. A tapiroid is a perissodactyl (odd-toed ungulate) that currently appears to be part of the lineage that connects to modern tapirs or is likely related to that lineage. Larry might ask me to clarify that further. One thing to remember about Cardiolophus is that it was part of a great radiation of mammals that appeared at the base of the Eocene. It was the time of the earliest horse, tapir, chalicothere, and titanothere.. These animals were very much alike in form and dentition as they descended from a common ancestor in the Late Paleocene. Also attached is a photo of jaw sections of Cardiolophus. Jess
  12. I was looking at some of my Oligocene teeth and took a little extra time with this one. I don't remember when I got it. I've bought from and traded with a few South Carolina dealers and collectors over the years. This one is from the Late Oligocene Chandler Bridge Formation. It measures about 11mm along the slant with fine serrations to the tip. I think it's an early Carcharhinus tooth but would like to hear from other collectors on this one. I was blanking on some names but I've got the call out to some of you. The Late Oligocene is a time before Carcharhinus became the wildly speciose genus we know today and already was by the end of the Miocene. None of the modern species were present in the Oligocene but there appears to have been a small variety of species by that time based on what I've seen from Germany, Pakistan, and South Carolina. This tooth reminds me of C. signatus so I wonder if it could be an early relative. @isurus90064 @MarcoSr @Al Dente @Untitled @sixgill pete @sagacious
  13. mr fossil

    Limestone agate?

    I found this weird rock around limestone of Paleogene age near Khurais east of Riyadh Saudi Arabia. is it a agate? and how does it form. thank you all for your time!
  14. mr fossil

    Fossil ID shells

    Hello! I found these shells in a Paleogene area near Khurais, Saudi Arabia and I was wondering if these species could confirm that they are truly Paleogene aged. I was also wondering why they look rusty colored. thank you for your time!
  15. mr fossil

    Fossil ID barbed tooth?

    Hello! I found these fossils along with other shells and sorts in a Paleocene area near the city Khurais which is 200km east of Riyadh in Saudi Arabia. The area is known for shark teeth and fish bones. what could these barbed bones be?
  16. Marco90

    Mastigusa sp. in amber

    From the album: My collection in progress

    Mastigusa sp. Menge 1854 Location: Sambian Peninsula, Kaliningrad Oblast Age: 56-34 Mya (Eocene, Paleogene) Measurements: 2,1x1,8 cm (amber), 5 mm (length of spider) Kingdom: Animalia Phylum: Arthropoda Subphylum: Chelicerata Class: Arachnida Order: Araneae Suborder: Opisthothelae Family: Hahniidae
  17. Marco90

    Machilidae sp. in amber

    From the album: My collection in progress

    Machilidae unidentified sp. Grassi 1888 Location: Rivne Oblast, Ukraine Age: 56-34 Mya (Eocene, Paleogene) Measurements: 2,8x2,5 cm (amber), 1,7 cm (length of bristletail) Kingdom: Animalia Phylum: Arthropoda Subphylum: Hexapoda Class: Insecta Subclass: Monocondylia Order: Archaeognatha Suborder: Machilida Family: Machilidae
  18. Marco90

    Lithobiidae sp. in amber

    From the album: My collection in progress

    Lithobiidae unidentified sp. Newport 1844 Location: Sambian Peninsula, Kaliningrad Oblast, Russia Age: 56-34 Mya (Eocene, Paleogene) Measurements: 1,9x1,1 cm (amber), 1,1 cm (length of centipede) Kingdom: Animalia Phylum: Arthropoda Subphylum: Myriapoda Class: Chilopoda Order: Lithobiomorpha Family: Lithobiidae
  19. Marco90

    Striatolamia macrota

    From the album: My collection in progress

    Striatolamia macrota Agassiz 1843 Location: Morocco Age: 56-48 Mya (Ypresian, Eocene, Paleogene) Measurements: 1,8x2,8 cm Kingdom: Animalia Phylum: Chordata Subphylum: Vertebrata Class: Chondrichthyes Subclass: Elasmobranchi Superorder: Selachimorpha Order: Lamniformes Family: Odontaspididae
  20. Harry Pristis

    Eocene Perissodactyl

    From the album: TEETH & JAWS

    Plagiolophus (and sister taxa) are palaeotheres, a successful and variable family of perissodactyls (horses, rhinos, tapirs, et. al.) in the Eocene of Western Europe. Not true horses, palaeotheres may be the ancestors of horses. Plagiolophus represents one genus of palaeothere, extinct since the Oligocene. Plagiolophus minor, a browser, was the only member of its family to survive more than fleetingly the mammalian faunal turnover, the "Grande Coupure," which occurred during the earliest Oligocene in Europe. La Debruge is one of about 15 terrestrial faunas (fossil remains of all kinds: plants, aquatic and terrestrial invertebrates, microfossils, vertebrates, mammal footprints) in the Apt-Forcalquier-Manosque basin in the French Alps. (Apt is a small town and is an administrative center of the Vaucluse district.) It is a mostly-paleogene basin with no outflow that accumulated siliciclastic alluvial sediments along with calcareous deposits in fluctuating shallow lakes. The Paleogene of the basin starts in the Late Eocene with a coastal plain to supratidal flat environment temporarily covered by salt lakes or flood plains and progresses further to a truly closed lacustrine drainage basin towards the Early Oligocene. The Oligocene broadly saw the development of a fluctuating fluvial/lake-system with calcareous, clay and siliciclastic deposits. Many mammals and other vertebrate fossil remains are known from this period all over the region. The Neogene (Miocene) saw a return to marine conditions with the Burdigalian transgression, leaving large thicknesses of sediments from erosion of the rising Alp Mountains. The Late Eocene of the basin is known worldwide for the "La Débruge" mammal fauna serving as a reference locality to the European biochronological timescale. The La Debruge reference level zone is Priabonian (37.2 - 33.9 Ma). The La Débruge fauna slightly precedes the Grande Coupure event which saw a renewal of worldwide faunas at the Eocene-Oligocene boundary. The very abundant fossils of the La Débruge fauna were found in an organic-rich deposit indicating a pond-like environment. The sediments are blackish and slightly sandy marls. Contrary to an earlier report, the fossiliferous level contains no lignite. The fossiliferous layer is about 50 cm (~20 inches) thick. Since 1987, the basin has been protected as the Parc Naturel du Luberon.

    © Harry Pristis 2014

  21. I'm finally getting around to posting pictures of this Moroccan shark tooth, which I believe is either a transitional Otodus obliquus or a transitional Palaeocarcharodon orientalis. My original thought was Otodus but @Al Dente flagged in the mailbox thread a few weeks ago that it might be Palaeocarcharodon instead. Any thoughts on this one? The tooth measures 49 mm on the slant and is 39 mm wide across the root.
  22. Balkanatolia: the forgotten continent that sheds light on the evolution of mammals, CNRS News, February 22, 2022 Balkanatolia: the forgotten continent that sheds light on evolution of mammals. UPI, February 22, 2022 Scientists Discover the Long-Lost Continent ‘Balkanatolia’ The landmass existed 40 million years ago and may have facilitated the migration of Asian mammals into Europe. Becky Ferreira, Vice, February 23, 2022 the paper is: Licht, A., Métais, G., Coster, P., Ibilioğlu, D., Ocakoğlu, F., Westerweel, J., Mueller, M., Campbell, C., Mattingly, S., Wood, M.C. and Beard, K.C., 2022. Balkanatolia: The insular mammalian biogeographic province that partly paved the way to the Grande Coupure. Earth-Science Reviews, no.103929. From abstract: “The Grande Coupure corresponds to a major episode of faunal turnover in western Europe around the Eocene- Oligocene boundary that is generally attributed to the influx of multiple clades of Asian mammals. Yours, Paul H.
  23. Hello everyone!)) Need help of paleontologists and paleoichthyologists with identification of eocene shark teeth from Russia. I'm not professional, just a fan and rooky, so I choose possible species options for every tooth, according to books and scientific publications which I have. Hope I make right something at least. Be glad and thankful if somebody will help me figure it out)).
  24. O'Leary, M.A., Bouaré, M.L., Claeson, K.M., Heilbronn, K., Hill, R.V., McCartney, J.A., Sessa, J.A., Sissoko, F., Tapanila, L., Wheeler, E.A. and Roberts, E.M., 2019. Stratigraphy and paleobiology of the Upper Cretaceous-Lower Paleogene sediments from the Trans-Saharan Seaway in Mali. (Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History, no. 436). http://digitallibrary.amnh.org/handle/2246/6950 Warning: the low-resultion PDF is about 204 MB and the high-resolution PDF is about 383 MB. Yours, Paul H.
  25. I_gotta_rock

    Coprolite lovers, Help!

    Serious, experienced replies, please! This 0.5 cm long object is attached to a broken coprolite from the Eocene/Oligocene of NW Nebraska. Trying hard to figure it out. Wrong twexture for a tooth and it doesn't look like a seed, either. I have a guess, but right now a guess is all I have. Any coprolite specialists out there? I know the pictures could be better, but I don't have a microscope out here in the field.
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