Jump to content

Search the Community

Showing results for tags 'triassic'.

More search options

  • Search By Tags

    Type tags separated by commas.
    Tags should be keywords or key phrases. e.g. carcharodon, pliocene, cypresshead formation, florida.
  • Search By Author

Content Type


  • Fossil Discussion
    • General Fossil Discussion
    • Fossil Hunting Trips
    • Fossil ID
    • Is It Real? How to Recognize Fossil Fabrications
    • Partners in Paleontology - Member Contributions to Science
    • Questions & Answers
    • Fossil of the Month
    • Member Collections
    • A Trip to the Museum
    • Paleo Re-creations
    • Collecting Gear
    • Fossil Preparation
    • Member Fossil Trades Bulletin Board
    • Member-to-Member Fossil Sales
    • Fossil News
  • Gallery
  • Fossil Sites
    • Africa
    • Asia
    • Australia - New Zealand
    • Canada
    • Europe
    • Middle East
    • South America
    • United States
  • Fossil Media
    • Members Websites
    • Fossils On The Web
    • Fossil Photography
    • Fossil Literature
    • Documents


  • Anson's Blog
  • Mudding Around
  • Nicholas' Blog
  • dinosaur50's Blog
  • Traviscounty's Blog
  • Seldom's Blog
  • tracer's tidbits
  • Sacredsin's Blog
  • fossilfacetheprospector's Blog
  • jax world
  • echinoman's Blog
  • Ammonoidea
  • Traviscounty's Blog
  • brsr0131's Blog
  • brsr0131's Blog
  • Adventures with a Paddle
  • Caveat emptor
  • -------
  • Fig Rocks' Blog
  • placoderms
  • mosasaurs
  • ozzyrules244's Blog
  • Sir Knightia's Blog
  • Terry Dactyll's Blog
  • shakinchevy2008's Blog
  • MaHa's Blog
  • Stratio's Blog
  • Phoenixflood's Blog
  • Brett Breakin' Rocks' Blog
  • Seattleguy's Blog
  • jkfoam's Blog
  • Erwan's Blog
  • Erwan's Blog
  • Lindsey's Blog
  • marksfossils' Blog
  • ibanda89's Blog
  • Liberty's Blog
  • Liberty's Blog
  • Back of Beyond
  • St. Johns River Shark Teeth/Florida
  • Ameenah's Blog
  • gordon's Blog
  • West4me's Blog
  • West4me's Blog
  • Pennsylvania Perspectives
  • michigantim's Blog
  • michigantim's Blog
  • lauraharp's Blog
  • lauraharp's Blog
  • micropterus101's Blog
  • micropterus101's Blog
  • GPeach129's Blog
  • nicciann's Blog
  • Olenellus' Blog
  • nicciann's Blog
  • maybe a nest fossil?
  • Deep-Thinker's Blog
  • Deep-Thinker's Blog
  • bear-dog's Blog
  • javidal's Blog
  • Digging America
  • John Sun's Blog
  • John Sun's Blog
  • Ravsiden's Blog
  • Jurassic park
  • The Hunt for Fossils
  • The Fury's Grand Blog
  • julie's ??
  • Hunt'n 'odonts!
  • falcondob's Blog
  • Monkeyfuss' Blog
  • cyndy's Blog
  • pattyf's Blog
  • pattyf's Blog
  • chrisf's Blog
  • chrisf's Blog
  • nola's Blog
  • mercyrcfans88's Blog
  • Emily's PRI Adventure
  • trilobite guy's Blog
  • xenacanthus' Blog
  • barnes' Blog
  • myfossiltrips.blogspot.com
  • HeritageFossils' Blog
  • Fossilefinder's Blog
  • Fossilefinder's Blog
  • Emily's MotE Adventure
  • farfarawy's Blog
  • Microfossil Mania!
  • A Novice Geologist
  • Southern Comfort
  • Eli's Blog
  • andreas' Blog
  • Recent Collecting Trips
  • retired blog
  • Stocksdale's Blog
  • andreas' Blog test
  • fossilman7's Blog
  • Piranha Blog
  • xonenine's blog
  • xonenine's Blog
  • Fossil collecting and SAFETY
  • Detrius
  • pangeaman's Blog
  • pangeaman's Blog
  • pangeaman's Blog
  • Jocky's Blog
  • Jocky's Blog
  • Kehbe's Kwips
  • RomanK's Blog
  • Prehistoric Planet Trilogy
  • mikeymig's Blog
  • Western NY Explorer's Blog
  • Regg Cato's Blog
  • VisionXray23's Blog
  • Carcharodontosaurus' Blog
  • What is the largest dragonfly fossil? What are the top contenders?
  • Hihimanu Hale
  • Test Blog
  • jsnrice's blog
  • Lise MacFadden's Poetry Blog
  • BluffCountryFossils Adventure Blog
  • meadow's Blog
  • Makeing The Unlikley Happen
  • KansasFossilHunter's Blog
  • DarrenElliot's Blog
  • jesus' Blog
  • A Mesozoic Mosaic
  • Dinosaur comic
  • Zookeeperfossils
  • Cameronballislife31's Blog
  • My Blog
  • TomKoss' Blog
  • A guide to calcanea and astragali
  • Group Blog Test
  • Paleo Rantings of a Blockhead
  • Dead Dino is Art
  • The Amber Blog
  • TyrannosaurusRex's Facts
  • PaleoWilliam's Blog
  • The Paleo-Tourist
  • The Community Post
  • Lyndon D Agate Johnson's Blog
  • BRobinson7's Blog
  • Eastern NC Trip Reports
  • Toofuntahh's Blog
  • Pterodactyl's Blog
  • A Beginner's Foray into Fossiling
  • Micropaleontology blog
  • Pondering on Dinosaurs
  • Fossil Preparation Blog
  • On Dinosaurs and Media
  • cheney416's fossil story
  • jpc
  • Red-Headed Red-Neck Rock-Hound w/ My Trusty HellHound Cerberus
  • Red Headed
  • Paleo-Profiles
  • Walt's Blog
  • Between A Rock And A Hard Place
  • Rudist digging at "Point 25", St. Bartholomä, Styria, Austria (Campanian, Gosau-group)
  • Prognathodon saturator 101


  • Calendar


  • Annelids
  • Arthropods
    • Crustaceans
    • Insects
    • Trilobites
    • Other Arthropods
  • Brachiopods
  • Cnidarians (Corals, Jellyfish, Conulariids )
    • Corals
    • Jellyfish, Conulariids, etc.
  • Echinoderms
    • Crinoids & Blastoids
    • Echinoids
    • Other Echinoderms
    • Starfish and Brittlestars
  • Forams
  • Graptolites
  • Molluscs
    • Bivalves
    • Cephalopods (Ammonites, Belemnites, Nautiloids)
    • Gastropods
    • Other Molluscs
  • Sponges
  • Bryozoans
  • Other Invertebrates
  • Ichnofossils
  • Plants
  • Chordata
    • Amphibians & Reptiles
    • Birds
    • Dinosaurs
    • Fishes
    • Mammals
    • Sharks & Rays
    • Other Chordates
  • *Pseudofossils ( Inorganic objects , markings, or impressions that resemble fossils.)

Found 378 results

  1. Oldest Flying Fish Fossil Found In China

    Father of flying fish found in China, palaeontologists say PhysOrg, October 31, 2012 http://phys.org/news...ntologists.html Flying Fish Evolved To Escape Marine Reptile Predators, Fossil Research Suggests, Hufffington Post, Oct. 31, 2012 http://www.huffingto..._n_2048889.html Oldest flying fish fossil found in China, Nature News, October 31, 2012. http://www.nature.co...n-china-1.11707 Xu, G.-H., L.-J. Zhao, K.-Q. Gao and F.-X. Wu, 2012, A new stem-neopterygian fish from the Middle Triassic of China shows the earliest over-water gliding strategy of the vertebrates. Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, Published online before print October 31, 2012. doi:10.1098/rspb.2012.2261 http://rspb.royalsoc.../rspb.2012.2261 best wishes, Paul H.
  2. Awesome fossil of the earliest found flying fish, Potanichthys xingyiensis: http://www.bbc.co.uk/nature/20095637
  3. Wasson Bluff (Parrsboro)

    Taken from a June 2011 trip - http://redleafz.blogspot.ca I've since gone to that site so many times I can't remember. This location is as rich in fossil material as it is in minerals. Enjoy! Wasson Bluff - Parrsboro, Nova Scotia Every year the Fundy Geological Museum (FGM) hosts curatorial walks of the many sites located in the Parrsboro area in Nova Scotia. Saturday June 11th the FGM organized a curatorial walk of the Wasson Bluff located a few minutes east of Parrsboro, on Two Islands Road. I had gone only once before last Summer. I was happy to go back as I wanted to find out all the information I could get from Wasson Bluff. Wasson Bluff is a very special place, as the earliest dinosaurs have been discovered in this area. This area has seen the smallest dinosaur foot prints ever found, some of Canada's oldest dinosaurs ever found, and important signs and clues of the ever changing landscape and makeup of the Earth. The curatorial walks are free, and that weekend being tourism week, the admittance to the Fundy Geological Museum exhibit was also free. Me and my friend Craig, along with some other fellas had some time to spare before the walk, so we checked it out. It is well worth it as they have a lot of interactive games and displays, and wonderful specimens on display. By the time we were done the museum, there was still about an hour left before the tour, so we asked for directions on local eats. The friendly staff helped us by pointing out local restaurants not too far in town. We opted for one that was at the end of a street next to the museum on Pier road. The tiny restaurant, the Harbour View, was a home cooking style seafood restaurant and it didn't disappoint. The food was great and the service was good. View of the bay from the restaurant. Wasson Bluff is located further west of the FGM on Two Islands road. It takes a little bit less than 15 minutes. Here's a few pics from the walk: Getting ready for the hike. My friend Craig on the left. The welcome sign at the Wasson Bluff entrance. Hopping down the steep trail. Easier down than up as I would learn coming back up. Finally on the beach! View of Clarke Head. The tip of the cliff is darker basalt/volcanic rock. The gray/greenish-like part of the cliffs is gypsum/salt-like sediments, remains of bodies of water that vanished a long time ago. From there to where I was standing were the different faults and strata that make up the general landscape of this part of Wasson Bluff. Ken Adams, our interpreter, and also the FGM's curator. (Two Islands in the background) Close to the beach entrance you'd get these strata of sandstone and mudstone. These look similar to the carboniferous strata you'd encounter at beaches like Joggins. The sandstone show animal tracks and natural weathering. Ichnofossils (animal tracks) made by ancient animals. Cliff made up of volcanic rock. Sedimentary mud filled with clastic basalt rocks and bone fragments. Clastic basalt fragments in sedimentary silt, signs of the work of continents moving apart. Bone fragment in sedimentary matrix. The picture above seem to show sedimentary mud that would have squeezed in fractures of this volcanic rock, creating the look that we're seeing here. If I remember right, magma would have solidified (could have been underwater), and at a later period silt like mud would have made its way, filling any cavity it could propagate into. The green algae show the level of the tides. Bone fragment in Triassic age rock. In the background you have your greyish volcanic rock. In the foreground you have a mix of wind blown reddish sandstone to other types found in aquatic environment. This is the start of what they call Wasson Bluff, famous site of the many dinosaur bones, some deemed at least the oldest in Canada. The sandstone that bear the multitude of bone fragments are usually the ones that show clastic basalt, as they usually indicate some type of aquatic environment, like watering holes. From what I can remember this would have been a valley where animals would make their way. Several events happened to have retained the animals where they are, to later be unearthed by scientists. Such remains are displayed at the FGM for people to view. The Triassic rock shows cavities where animal specimens had been found and unearthed. The cliff face changes all the time, so there is always a chance to find something. What I found fascinating is that we have this type of site in our own backyard, at our doorstep. There is always that awe factor where you're thinking, some of the oldest animals have walked where you have walked. The features you can find in the earth, the traces of animals long gone, the pieces of a puzzle that help define the history of not just the locality, but the global picture of how things were at one point in time. I have enjoyed Parrsboro and I'm convinced that anybody that goes there would enjoy it. Cheers!
  4. This is my first official Triassic fossil - a tooth (or fish fin) and some associated (poor quality) tissue/bone pieces found in a late afternoon exploration of some rocky outcroppings in Montgomery County, PA. Both halves of the impression are included. The impression/cast are very faint and some of the definition is in jeopardy of being lost since the material powdered and flaked off a bit as it dried, and is less defined now than when I first brought it home and took the first images. Here are some views of the full shale piece and surrounding smooth area with a small skin or tissue fragment at the top: You can see the smooth area around the fossil "tooth or fin" in the positive and negative halves of the shale - which is medium grey in color and about 20 centimeters long. I chiseled open the shale while I was exploring a steep vertical outcropping. What led me to crack this particular piece of shale was a nearby small assortment of what appeared to be dessicated bones and fragments and the shale color was different from the surrounding red shale. I'm including images here of the "bone fragments" and associated material which appear to be fossilized organic material: This closeup has some impressions/pockets that may help with identification: . Update (Oct 23): There is a growing consensus that this may be a fish fin (or scale) - considering that this appears to be attached to a smooth section, and there is a bit of "skin" at the top left, this interpretation makes sense. I agree that I should remove more substrate to see what else can be revealed. Thanks to Fossildude19 for providing links to the Triassic Teeth chart and to a few experts I contacted off-line to get their opinion. The best thing about this find - regardless of the faint impressions, difficult ID and the crumbling possible bone and skin - is that this was found in an area where finds are few and far between, in Triassic sediments that are really scarce in Pennsylvania, because glaciers basically scraped and eroded most of the Triassic and Jurassic geological formations down to older (Ordovician, Devonian, Carboniferous) layers. I wasn't expecting to find anything and this was revealed just as the sun was going down, using the last half hour of daylight and came from inspecting an anomalous shale color in the formation. This suggests that it is worth our time to check out more Triassic formations in our home county/southeastern Pennsylvania. We are totally "clueless" about Triassic fossils (more comfortable with Carboniferous ferns) but since the Passaic and Lockatong formations are scattered in several places within 20 minutes of our home, we are making a few short trips to see what we might run across. Nancy and I remain interested primarily in Devonian and Carboniferous fossils and sites, however our first venture into Triassic territory holds some promise.
  5. 'Dawning of the Dinosaurs', by Harry Thurston, came out in the mid-90s and highlights the discoveries made in the Parrsboro region, where Canada's oldest dinosaurs were found at Wassons Bluff. Amidst the many volcanic basalt, there are these red sandstone cliffs that contain buried treasures from the Triassic. Parrsboro was also the location where the world's smallest dinosaur footprints were found by Eldon George in the mid-80s. What is also fascinating about the dinosaur skeletons are the state they are in: many have been fracture by faulting, giving them the name 'quake dinos'. Other animals of interest were some of the biggest crocodiles that ever lived! The research is still ongoing at Wassons Bluff and still yield many interesting specimens. http://www.nimbus.ca/
  6. A Weekend Visit to A Road Cut Near Our Home Nan was busy this weekend so I drove to a road cut on Route 422 south of Pottstown, PA - about 5 miles from our house. I had been told by a friend at the Delaware Valley Paleo Society that there wouldn't be any fossils here - from the geological record, I think this is part of the Gettysburg-Newark Lowland Formation which is described online as late Triassic. The shale is red with some green and gray mixed in here and there. Telling me that there wouldn't be any fossils here was a challenge I couldn't resist. So I decided to see if I could find anything in this very barren but geologically interesting formation. What I found were fossils and impressions of a tree and twigs that resemble Siggilaria (which were extinct by the Triassic I believe), and a few other trace fossils and what I assume are some mineralizations that look like leaves but probably aren't. I wonder what kind of tree this bark pattern represents...any ideas? The roadside exposure is a very steep slope covered with golf ball sized rubble and lots of larger rock formations protruding, here and there. The roadcuts are located along Route 422 several miles south of Pottstown, Pennsylvania. I studied everything that was visible, cracking lots of rocks to see what might be hidden. Nothing, no marine fossils, not even a freshwater clam. I began to feel that this might have been a dry area, or mostly dry area. Then I came across a narrow cascade of rubble that had eroded off the steep wall and noticed some red shale pieces that looked like smooth bark of some kind. On closer inspection, I discovered several pieces (many were fragmented) that turned out to be a grooved bark pattern. In the first fossil (1.1, 1.2 and 1.3 with backview and closeup - see below) you can see: a) the bark pattern which resembles Siggilaria including one branch node (the round circle) and you can also see at the top where the bark ridges begin to branch into a diamond shaped pattern. Although this is supposed to be a Triassic formation, the tree bark has a Carboniferous look, but I'm not familiar with Triassic trees. Here are the images of the bark sample: BARK 1.1 BARK 1.2 BARK 1.1 Back View BARK 1.1 CLOSE Bark 2.1 and 3.1, and Fossil 4a(front) and 4b (back) - These are additional samples of what appear to be bark and branches/twigs: BARK 2.1 BARK 3.1 FOSSIL 4a Front FOSSIL 4b Back Twig 5 - Here is what appears to be a twig and twig impression: TWIG 5 Not sure what this is: FOSSIL 6 I assume these are mineralizations (dendrites) that look like leaf impressions but are chemical, not fossils - note the shale color is different from the red shale above (labeled Mineralization 1 and 2): MIN1 MIN2 Anyway, I guess my point is that I visited a road cut that is close to home, easy to access, and where I was told there should be no fossils. I found quite a lot to look at and ponder, and best of all, despite being parked on the roadside for 3 hours, I wondered if I would receive a visit from curious police but not at all so I felt very comfortable, except for the times when I climbed some very steep sections and found it a bit tricky to make my way back down the steep crumbly slope (I got down by choosing a section that had small samplings and used those as grips on the way down). I'm still not sure what else might be here or at other roadcuts but I have a hunch that this must be what fossil hunting in "dry" tree and plant areas might be like, since all the sources claim that not many dry forests were preserved as fossils because there wasn't much mud in the dry areas and they almost needed to be buried in a rockslide or freak flood to be preserved. Paleobotanists also suggest that the fossil record is heavily weighted toward wetland plants and trees so anything that comes from what was originally "dry" forest or meadow is worth inspecting.
  7. I bought this specimen many years ago on an exhibition. It was labeled "Saurichthys" (100 % wrong). All I know is that it's from the Karoo Supergroup of Madagascar. Since the Karoo Supergroup spans a lot of time (upper carboniferous until lower jurassic), it makes it especially difficult to asign the fossil to the "correct" order or family of tetrapods. I don't think it's possible to identify the genus, but I would be glad to know the order. araucaria1959
  8. Had my husband drop myself and Bella the Labradoodle off near an area I had heard there were fossils. I walked down to the cliff and a piece had eroded out. It was full of partially weathered plant fossils, which I am fairly sure are Dicroidium, a Mesozoic seed fern. There was also a seed/cupule that I have posted in the ID thread for an accurate appraisal, check it out, it's gorgeous and shimmers in the light! Ok I will stop gushing now, here are the pics XD
  9. Triassic Seed/cupule?

    Found this gorgeous little fella today in some Triassic sediment that had eroded out of a cliff near here. It was in a layer that also had a lot of Dicroidium leaves. I thought it might be a cupule, just looking for an accurate ID. Cheers,
  10. Picked this strange looking item out of a gray mudstone/shale layer within the Narrabeen Group (second picture). Should be Triassic in age. It broke into 3 pieces as I removed it but inside was a beautiful arrangement of black, white and red minerals. It also has small round 'nodules' on the left part (seen as the small dark circles), and appears to have 'veins' on the right. Any thoughts on what it is would be greatly appreciated. Cheers, Susan
  11. Here are a couple of finds from the Southern Highlands. The rock is very fragile and the fossiliferous layers are incredibly thin. Most of the material I've found has been fragments, but these are the nicest bits. I believe the second one to be Dicroidium cupules. If anyone is interested in this site or the fossils feel free to PM me.
  12. Fossils in the First Days by Randall Irmis (Scientist at Work - Notes From the Field) New York Times, August 31, 2012, http://scientistatwo...the-first-days/ Separating the Dinosaurians From the Crocodilians by Randall Irmis (Scientist at Work - Notes From the Field) New York Times, August 29, 2012, http://scientistatwo...e-crocodilians/ Best wishes, Paul H.
  13. I found another new site for Triassic petrified wood in Pennsylvania. I am sure this location has never been hunted. The following specimens are very similar to what I've found elsewhere in PA Triassic. Scale bar is 4 inches (10+ cm).
  14. We found these fossils in a Triassic formation in Pennsylvania and they look like fossil skin - as you can see, the two separate specimens that are smooth and shiny with some texture - plus one end view which could show fossilized blood vessels. UPDATE: The early opinion seems to be that these are trace fossils, possibly algae, but not "skin." This is a GREAT example of how "false fossils" can be so confusing - and another reason to celebrate the Internet for putting so many professional and amateur paleo-enthusiasts online to sort out these issues!!!
  15. I found more petrified (silicified) wood at a new site in the Triassic Newark Supergroup of S.E. Pennsylvania. Almost all specimens show good grain patterns and are a nice dark chocolate color. Yummy. Attached is a photo of the larger specimens that I collected. The scale bar is 4 inches. (I have posted other similar pet wood photos in previous topics.)
  16. Need Help With Tooth Id

    Hi folks, Going through a large collection of estate fossil photos I found a picture of this tooth (sorry I can't get a better picture). I am sure most of you are saying Carcharodontosaurus which was my first guess also, the only reason why I have reason to doubt this initial identification and think it might be something else is because it is in a box with almost 1000 other teeth, verts, scutes and bones all from the late Triassic of New Mexico/Arizona (unfortunately the previous owner kept no records of anything in his collection and I believe it was all self collected). My question is did this guy just pick up a Carch tooth at a rock show for $100 or did he collect a large Archosaur tooth in fantastic condition and not bother to label it. Probably going to be hard to id from the photo but I am as always very interested in peoples thoughts. Thanks
  17. http://thislandpress...ed-in-oklahoma/ After re-examining a few old fossils sites un-touched since the 1930's, Scientists have found a new cache of dinosaur bones in Black Mesa, Oklahoma (not to be confused with a fictional research facility in New Mexico). Black Mesa has been a very productive locality, with several tons of dinosaur fossils having been removed from the area. I wonder if they allow volunteers to help.
  18. For Those Into Petrified Wood

    Hello all, This is a paper that my adviser just had published on early boring activity of beetles. Pretty good read if your into petrified wood or early insects. http://www.plosone.org/article/info%3Adoi%2F10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0031668
  19. Pa Triassic Wood

    I found some more petrified wood in the Triassic Newark supergroup in Pennsylvania. 2 big chunks, a light chocolate brown color. And many smaller pieces. The photos are in these first 3 posts. This first, largest specimen measures 16x12x6 inches (41x30x15 centimeters). (Inch and centimeter scales are on the ruler in the photos.)
  20. The Tuvalian Substage Of The Triassic Hallstatt Limestone In Austria Written by Andreas Spatzenegger Dear Fossil Forum members! This report will introduce you to the Tuvalian substage (uppermost Carnian/ Triassic) of the so called Hallstatt limestone in Austria. View above the Hallein-Berchtesgaden Triassic area to the Watzmann and the Hochkalter mountains. The name of this substage was chosen by "Old master" Mojsisovics from the mediaeval name of the hill ridge/salt mine area between the rivers Salzach and Königseeache in the borderland between Bavaria (Germany) and the county of Salzburg (Austria). Originally this term was of Roman source (Mons Tuval) but it was preserved in this area to our days (e.g. ruin of the castle Tuval) The wordTuval has probably Hebraeic roots and mean "rich" or "blessed" earth because of the saltmines of this area. The ammonites of the family Tropitidae (Mojsisovics 1875) are characteristic for the whole Tuvalian. Typically important genera of this family are: Discotropites, Gymnotropites, Margaritropites, Paratropites, Pleurotropites and Tropites s. s. A few other genera not listed above belong also to this family but I will not list them here because this report should not get too long. Representative for the Tropitidae is shown a picture of Tropites subbullatus, the zone ammonite of the alpine Tuvalian II, from the old Monographic work of Mojsisovics „Das Gebirge um Hallstatt. 1893, Taf. CVI," Tropites subbullatus (Fr. v. Hauer) 1849 Division of the Tuvalian In the North American literature (after Tozer) the Tuvalian is split into three Zones. It starts with the Dilleri Zone, the Welleri Zone and the Macrolobatus Zone on the top. Characteristic for the Dilleri zone is the arising of the genus Tropites together in co-existence with later members of the genus Neoprotrachyceras sp.(Spirogmoceras SILBERLING) In the Welleri zone Neoprotrachyceras sp. disappear and Tropites becomes a very common faunal element. The Macrolobatus zone is named after Klamathites macrolobatus an endemic ammonite of the North American strata. Other genera of this zone are comparable to the time frame of the latest Tuvalian and the earliest Norian of the Alps. In the Hallstatt (Tethys) realm the following Division is made. Dilleri Zone= Tuvalian I (literature gives little evidence for this zone) Subbullatus Zone = Tuvalian II (corresponds in most parts to the north American Welleri Zone) Anatropites Zone= Tuvalian III (corresponds in parts to the North American Macrolobatus Zone) In the Alps normally you can observe in the field only Tuvalian II and Tuvalian III, but one has to ask the question if there are all three North American Zones included in these two alpine Zones. In my opinion there is less evidence for a time gap in the lower Tuvalian of the Alpine strata. Visibly stronger condensation in this generally condensed limestone occurs frequently in the upper Tuvalian III. E.g. Discotropites sandlingense is in North America a clear Dilleri faunal element but in the Alps it is ranged into Tuvalian II (Welleri Zone). The same is done with the genus Traskites sp. (corresponding to alpine Sandlingites sp.). Some ammonites of the upper part of the Macrolobatus Zone are also ranged to the first zone of the alpine Norian stage. I think the correlation of the North American scheme with the Alpine scheme probably doesn't fit exactly. It is very difficult to range a Tuvalian fauna exactly. Probably Tuvalian 1 is recognizable in the Alps only by the composition of the faunal spectrum (the quantity of some special genera). In some „lenses", Trachysagenites sp. Sagenites inermis, Sandlingites sp. occur very frequently together with scarce Tropites sp. and Sirenites sp. and with very rarely Neoprotrachyceras cf. thyrae. Therefore it seems important to me to get a survey of a Tuvalian fauna in a lens or fissure filling. A good way to do this is to write a fossil list of each block found. The best way, in my opinion, is to prep out and expose as many ammonoids as possible and leave them on the block. In this way one can recognize later possible errors and study the sedimentary features of this block. Marking down and upside should be done if possible. Even on small pieces you can recognize a current setting with this method. A small slab (6cm) with some current deposited Pamphagosirenites sp.(Tuvalian 2) The transition (proved with ammonoids) from Tuvalian to the Norian is confirmed by science only in one location in the Hallstatt limestone. This bedded profile of a Tuvalian fauna which is overlain by a Norian fauna comes from the "Feuerkogel". In this abandoned, fully filled place the lower transition from the Julian to the Tuvalian was also evident in parts. The next Picture shows the geologic transition of the Carnium/Norian border from another area. Between Carnium and Norium are some lenses of a strongly condensed limestone bed which yield ammonites of the late Tuvalian. The latest Tuvalian and lowermost Norian are confirmed there only by microfossils. The rock wall at this place consists of grey limestone which begins in the aonoides/austriacum zone. Scarce ammonite lenses in this limestone point to the Tuvalian 1. In the Tuval ranged area the limestone succession is bedded as in the Norian part. In the Tuvalian part of the picture a bedding angle as in the Norian part of the picture is visible. The Tuvalian marked succession consists of a sparitic, biotic rich limestone with interfaced Halobia beds. In my opinion this is a larger area of an internal bedded lens/hollow rather than a fissure filling. Discotropites plinii, Tuvalian III, from the above shown Carnian/Norian transition There exist/existed four classic historical locations within the Hallstatt limestone which yield a Tuvalian ammonite fauna The historical location on the Millibrunnkogel/Vordersandling, the historical Tropites location on the Raschberg and the „Tuval" area round about Hallein/Berchtesgaden. The latest newly discovered location (at the beginning of the 20th. Century) was the Tropites location on the world famous Feuerkogel. The whole area there is a strictly protected place and the locations there are buried under tons of collecting debris. Within the last hundred years of Triassic research in the Alps no new Tuvalian location was discovered. This fact shows how really scarce ammonite bearing Tuvalian rock occurrences are in the Hallstatt limestone. Tuvalian fauna collected at the location "Vordersandling". Size of the embedded Tropites sp. is 1cm. Fragments of Tropites sp. found at the historical location on the Raschberg. Size of the Tropites shell parts ca. 2cm Block with Tuvalian fauna from the Hallein/Berchtesgaden area. Size of the Pinacoceras rex at the left on the Block is 6cm Basinal layers/beds of the Tuvalian After the Julian Aonoides/austriacum beds (lenses) a distinct ammonite faunal change appears in the following Tuvalian. Most of the dominant Julian genera disappear at the uppermost Julian. In the Tuvalian roughly 20 new ammonoid genera appear. One trigger for this big faunal change in the Tethys realm was the Carnian Pluvial Event (Reingraben Event). The lenses and layers of the aonoides and austriacum zone were deposited during this time span on the Hallstatt deep swells. A possible (in controversial discussion) rise in temperature of the seawater column at the end of the Julian was the last step of the faunal change. The last subzone of the Julian is the so called „Sirenites horizon" which is difficult to recognize and determine. Sirenites sp.2cm from a possible transition level between Julian and Tuvalian Deformed part of the fossil lens where this fauna comes from. Visible is the plastic deformation of the rock which resulted from motions in an early diagenetic phase. Small slab collected at this lens. Beside frequent Sirenites sp. and Arcestes sp., Megaphyllites and Neoprotrachyceras are visible. I found a fissure filling of clear Julian age in a tectonically stressed limestone succession below this above mentioned limestone. Remarkable in this location was a clear preponderance of Arcestes sp. which differentiates this location from other Julian locations where normally Joannites sp. is the dominant leiostrake (ammonoids with a smooth shell) genera. Sageceras haidingeri from this above mentioned Julian location with the preponderance of Arcestes. Tuvalian Sometimes historical literature speaks of the beds with Tropites subbullatus. This feature is often close to my own impressions. In the case of ammonite bearing limestone, nearly the same Lithology is visible at all different locations. Mostly a succession of grey to red limestone beds which include bivalve beds, rough sparitic and biogenic layers can be observed. Embedded in this succession are fissures and lenses yielding ammonites in micritic fillings. The faunal compositions of each ammonite lens in this limestone succession changes slightly depending on the level within the succession. Generally the embedded ammonites are mostly small and often of a spherical form. Therefore it is difficult to recognise if it is a real fissure filling or a lens (because of the lens shaped cross section). Piece from a „fissure filling" with Trachysagenites erinaceus on the top Some of you may ask where the difference is. The most important feature of a lens is the recognition of a nearly normal deposition in which the lens is embedded. In clear fissure fillings this is not given. A fissure can strike through several much older layers in every concievable way and angle. So it is a matter of fact that all transitions between lenses and fissures are also possible. One can imagine that it is often the personal impression of an author which tends to decide. In the case of talus blocks it is nearly impossible to determine whether a lens or fissure is given because the lateral transition is mostly lacking. Tuvalian talus block. Fissure filling or lens? . Tuvalian deposits in which bedded ammonite layers are visible occur very scarcely. The ammonites within are mostly bigger and often preserved with body chamber. The typical hash feature of other Tuvalian lenses is lacking there. The ocean current and the composition of the paleo seafloor lead to the different deposition of the Tuvalian locations. If one looks carefully one can imagine the direction of the paleo current in the following picture. Most apertures of the ammonites look downwards and the small orthicone ammonoid points in the direction of the paleo current. This untypical Tuvalian fossil slab with Tropites torquillus (big ammonite) was found in a big lens/layer location. Prep work was done from the lower side. The high biotic parts of normal Tuvalian rock are mostly lacking in such big lenses. The ammonites at this location are dissolved on the upper side and were embedded in a strongly condensed limestone succession which laterally runs out after several meters. Also the ammonites were bigger and preserved with body chamber in such big lenses. Some layers are enriched with crinoid stem fragments. Rock from above mentioned location with a visible curve of an ammonite. Tuvalian slab showing a juvenile Discotropites sandlingense from a typical Tuvalian hash lens. How to find the historical locations? Searching for old locations in historical literature has its own thrill. Finding such spots after having completed preparatory research is a very pleasant and pleasing experience. I found the historical location on the Raschberg Mountain, which was unknown to me, years ago after a long search in the field. The old location was only visible through a small man made hollow on the ground which was only discernable with a large amount of fantasy. Because of the fitting of the surrounding limestone with other Tuvalian locations known by me, I looked closer and thereby discovered it. Such adventures make geological history alive and one gets plenty of experience and knowledge. Old hand-made drilling hole at an historical Tuvalian location. This is visible by the oval cross-section of the hole, which was created by the continual pendulating of the driller-chisel by hand. Smaller pieces can still be found at the historical locations. But only when the location is well known and when one is willing to hike for a few hours. The most important rule for collecting this limestone is the fact that there are no rules! Everything is possible. The whole Tuvalian can be only a few meters thick at one point and then a few steps farther on its thickness can multiply enormously. Thickening and thinning out of limestone beds within very short distances are the normal case. The paleo relief of this former Triassic ocean floor was too narrow spaced and too differentiated for the deposition of an undisturbed succession of limestone. Therefore a correct stratigraphic succession exists only on paper. This was a modest view into my special world of collecting. I hope you enjoyed reading it. I thank Fossil Forum member Ludwigia for correcting my uncivil kind of English. Regards Andreas Literature: KRYSTYN, L. Zur Ammoniten und Conodonten-Stratigraphie der Hallstätter Obertrias(Salzkammergut, Österreich), Verh.Geol. B.-A., Wien 1973 KRYSTYN, L. und SCHLAGER, W., 1971 : Der Stratotyp des Tuval. — Annales Inst. Geol. Publ. Hungarici,. 54(2), 591-605, 5 Abb., Budapest MOJSISOVICS, E. 1893: Die Cephalopoden der Hallstätter Kalke, Abhandlungen der Kaiserlich-Königlichen Geologischen Reichsanstalt, II Band, Wien 1893 TOZER, E. T. 1994. Canadian Triassic ammonoid Faunas. Geological Survey of Canada Bulletin, 467, 1–663. The Global Triassic.- New Mexico Museum of Natural History and Science Bulletin, 41, 59-67. ... Hornung, T., Spatzenegger, A. & Joachimski M.M. (2007): Multistratigraphy of condensed ammonoid beds of the …
  21. "Petrified", permineralized, silicified wood from Triassic Newark supergroup in Pennsylvania. Probably Araucarioxylon; same genus as in Arizona Petrified Forest national park. Some specimens have dark lignite on surface. For scale: silver discs in photo are USA quarter coins (0.995 inch or 2.42 centimeters in diameter).
  22. The Zones of Austrotrachyceras austriacum and Trachyceras aonoides, Triassic/Karnium/Julium of the Alps Written by Andreas Spatzenegger Dear Fossil Forum members! This report will introduce you to the ammonite-zones of Trachyceras aonoides and Trachyceras austriacum within the Hallstatt limestone in Austria. Both zones are ammonoid zones of the Julian, which is the lower stage of the Carnian. These two zones are comparable with the North American Desatoyense (in most parts), Obesum and Nanseni zone of the lower Carnian. During a long lasting time of collecting every collector gets plenty of pictures which will be worth showing to a broader collecting community. In this report I will show you a few of these rare in situ pictures and in contrast pictures of prepared stuff. All exclusively from these zones of the Triassic Hallstatt limestone. Fig.1 A snap shot of a typical Triassic area of the "Salzkammergut" in Austria. Everyone should stop just looking at the ground. The fantastic landscape opens everyone's heart for sure. All rock, visible on the picture, is of Triassic age and could bear fossils. But it is much more difficult to find some fossils there in reality. The main parts of this limestone do not generally bear fossils (except microfossils). In the Alpine Triassic "Hallstatt limestone" ammonites are generally not so common. The limestone is only partly enriched in some places with ammonoids, in so called "lenses" and fissure fillings. Often very small in size and therefore soon exploited.I have been search for 15 years in this limestone. The pictures shown here are highlights of 15 years of intensive collecting. In this limestone no prominent layers or horizons exist which can guarantee you shall find fossils. The next point is the alpine area. Hiking for hours to reach a location and perhaps find nothing isn't also everyones affair. Hallstatt limestone deep swell facies originate from a stagnating and minimal rate of sedimentation. In the "Hallstatt limestone" the fossil lenses of the aonoides and austriacum zone were deposited in depressions / hollows or fissures of the former sea floor, which were the result of a highly mobile palaeomorphology and of a very strong condensation for a long time span. The thickness of the layers can reach from almost zero to a few meters. Only in some places the conditions were right for depositing fossils. To find these spots is the high art of collecting in this limestone. Such spots (hollows/depressions) of the paleo seafloor were enriched with ammonoids, bivalves, crinoid ossicles and other fossils by deep water currents. Because of the common lens shape (in cross-section) of these fossil accumulations they are now called fossil "lenses". This term was introduced by Mojsisovics in the 19th century. Sometimes a more or less prominent marl layer (so called Reingraben shales=Carnian pluvial event) can separate the aonoides and the austriacum zone. In paleobasin areas the marls of the Reingraben shales can substitute the limestone facies of this time interval. The Ammonites within these lenses are mostly very well preserved by ferromanganese encrusting. Also observable is often a current alignment. In some spots I found big Johannites sp., Orthoceras sp. and big Nautiloids at the beginning of a lens, followed by middle sized ammonoids with sculpture(Trachyceras, Cladiscites, etc) in the more central part and at the end only Pompeckjites layeri (=smaller Carnian Pinacoceratidae) which were sloping towards each other. Fig.2.pdf - Adobe Reader.bmp Fig.2 Trachyceras aonoides MOJS, 1869 Fig.3.pdf - Adobe Reader (Small).bmp Fig.3 Trachyceras (Austrotrachyceras) austriacum MOJS Austriacum-Zone, Feuerkogel, Mojs. Tafel 184, Fig 1 Fig.4 Outcrop of a fossil lens from the aonoides zone with visible ammonoid cross-sections and layers. The vertical fissures are of tectonic origin and it is often very helpful in collecting such spots because the thickness of such "lens" layers can reach up to 1m. Natural picture size is 50x30cm Fig.5 Nautilus sp. of the aonoides zone. You can imagine how difficult it is to find something in this mossy and overgrown rock. I found this location only by searching for the right rock feature of this zone. This helped me to border off a smaller area in which I looked very closely with my nose on the ground until I hit this lens. The years before I passed this place about 10 times or more but I didn't recognise even a trace of an ammonite there. Fig.6 Ammonoids from the outcrop described above. The ammonoids come from the stratigraphically lower part of the aonoides zone. Exactly dated with conodonts. The polished Nautilus corresponds to the outcrop picture shown above. Fig.7 Prepared block with big Nautilus bullatus MOJS.( 25 cm) on the left side. A rough rule says that the greyer the limestone colour the worse is the preservation. But this must not be the case for every location. You can also imagine that the palaeo current came from the upper right side of the picture. Fig.8 Big Nautilus galeatus MOJS. (28cm) with Johannites sp. from another ammonoid lens where big ammonoids were frequent but not so well preserved. A few pictures of another lens in the same formation found two years later roughly 100m distant. Fig.9 My former collecting buddy "Harry" (in action), working on a tectonically steeply tilted limestone succession of the aonoides+austriacum zone. Both zones were condensed at this spot to only 40cm. Harry stopped collecting 3 years ago because of personal reasons. We were thick as thieves for over 10 years long. Fig.10 View of the lens on which friend Harry is working. The ammonoids in there were very well preserved. This was the middle part of the above mentioned lens with the very scarce sculptured ammonites mostly known only from books. Fig.11 Three Austrotrachyceras cf. austriacum from this part of the lens. Snapshots of another dig in the aonoides zone. Fig.12 "It will be good" Fig.13 "It is good" a few minutes later Fig.14 Block of the austriacum zone after 2 hours of preparation Fig.15 The same limestone block after finished preparation Fig.16 Only washed block from a lens of the aonoides zone. Fig.17 The same block prepared from its back side. Diameter of the big Johannites (right) is 23cm A few other common(ammonite) faunal elements of these zones The following ammonoid species are the "normal" finds of these zones, so to speak. Mostly all ammonite species shown below reach throughout these two zones and became extinct at the end of the Julian. Fig.18.pdf - Adobe Reader (Small).bmp Fig.18 Pinacoceras (Pompeckjites) layeri HAUER, Syntypus MOJSISOVICS,E.v.1902. Abh.k.k.Geol.Reichsanst.(Suppl.-Band), 6/ 1 Fig.19 Mojsvarites(Monophyllites) agenor (MÜNSTER 1834) on the right side and Pinacoceras layeriHAUER on the left side. Fig.20 Hypocladiscites subtornatus MOJS. (upon right) with Mojsvarites agenor left side. Hypocladiscites subtornatus reaches up to the Tuvalian which is the uppermost Carnian stage, Fig.21.pdf - Adobe Reader (Small).bmp Fig.21 Joannites cymbiformis WULFEN Joannites klipsteini cf. MOJSISOVICS Fig.22 This picture shows several Joannites cymbiformis WULFEN and Joannites klipsteini cf. MOJSISOVICS Fig.23 Arcestes gaytani (KLIPSTEIN 1843)gsoriginal MOJSISOVICS,E.v.1875. Abh.k.k.Geol.Reichsanst., 6/1, 2.Lief. Fig. 24 Simonyceras simonyi HAUER The division of the alpine upper triassic is mainly based on trachyostrake (sculptured) ammonoids such as Trachyceras sp., Sirenotrachyceras sp., Neoprotrachyceras sp. because these ammonite species show mostly short-lived occurrences. Fig.25 Sirenotrachyceras subfurcatum from the aonoides zone Fig.26 Sirenotrachyceras hadwigae with Coroceras naso(right upon) and small Trachyceras sp. from the aonoides Zone. I think this report is long enough and I should stop writing now. I hope you enjojed reading this report and I was able to give you some insights on this stage and into my favourite collecting field. Unfortunly there are less Triassic ammonoid collectors here on the fossil forum. It would be nice to discuss the differences of the Tethyan to the Northamerican Triassic ammonoid faunas with other collectors. The Anisian and Ladinian stage, which are well developed in North America, are unfortunately not very common in the Hallstatt realm at all. Friendly regards Andreas Literature: KRYSTYN, L. Zur Ammoniten und Conodonten-Stratigraphie der Hallstätter Obertrias(Salzkammergut, Österreich), Verh.Geol. B.-A., Wien 1973 KRYSTYN, L. und SCHLAGER, W., 1971 : Der Stratotyp des Tuval. — Annales Inst. Geol. Pubi. Hungarici,. 54(2), 591-605, 5 Abb., Budapest MOJSISOVICS, E. 1893: Die Cephalopoden der Hallstätter Kalke, Abhandlungen der Kaiserlich-Königlichen Geologischen Reichsanstalt, II Band, Wien 1893 TOZER, E. T. 1994. Canadian Triassic ammonoid Faunas. Geological Survey of Canada Bulletin, 467, 1–663. The Global Triassic.- New Mexico Museum of Natural History and Science Bulletin, 41, 59-67. ... Hornung, T., Spatzenegger, A. & Joachimski M.M. (2007): Multistratigraphy of condensed ammonoid beds of the …
  23. These are a few of the pdf files (and a few Microsoft Word documents) that I've accumulated in my web browsing. MOST of these are hyperlinked to their source. If you want one that is not hyperlinked or if the link isn't working, e-mail me at joegallo1954@gmail.com and I'll be happy to send it to you. Please note that this list will be updated continuously as I find more available resources. All of these files are freely available on the Internet so there should be no copyright issues. Articles with author names in RED are new additions since June 7, 2018. General Papers in Paleontology Archaean Eon Allwood, A.C., et al. (2009). Controls on development and diversity of Early Archaean stromatolites. PNAS, Vol.106, Number 24. Altermann, W. and J. Kazmierczak (2003). Archaean microfossils: a reappraisal of early life on Earth. Research in Microbiology, 154. Awramik, S.M. (1992). The oldest records of photosynthesis. Photosynthesis Research, 33. Brasier, M., et al. (2006). A fresh look at the fossil evidence for early Archaean cellular life. Phil.Trans.R.Soc.Lond. B, 361. Brasier, M., et al. (2004). Earth's Oldest (~3.5 Ga) Fossils and the 'Early Eden Hypothesis': Questioning the Evidence. Origins of Life and Evolution of the Biosphere, 34. Brocks, J.J., et al. (1999). Archaean Molecular Fossils and the Early Rise of Eukaryotes. Science, Vol.285. Knauth, L.P. (2005). Temperature and salinity history of the Precambrian ocean: implications for the course of microbial evolution. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 219. Moorbath, S. (2005). Oldest rocks, earliest life, heaviest impacts, and the Hadean-Archaean transition. Applied Geochemistry, 30. Sankaran, A.V. (2002). The controversy over early-Archaean microfossils. Current Science, Vol.83, Number 1. Schopf, J.W. (2006). Fossil evidence of Archaean life. Phil.Trans.R.Soc. B, 361. Schopf, J.W. (1993). Microfossils of the Early Archaean Apex Chert: New Evidence of the Antiquity of Life. Science, Vol.260. Schopf, J.W., et al. (2007). Evidence of Archaean life: Stromatolites and microfossils. Precambrian Research, 158. Sharma, M. and Y. Shukla (2009). The evolution and distribution of life in the Precambrian eon - Global perspective and the Indian record. J.Biosci., 34. Stueken, E.E., D.C. Catling and R. Buick (2012). Contributions to late Archaean sulphur cycling by life on land. Nature Geoscience, published on-line. Waldbauer, J.R., D.K. Newman and R.E. Summons (2011). Microaerobic steroid biosynthesis and the molecular record of Archaean life. PNAS, Vol.108, Number 33. Proterozoic Eon Ediacaran Period Barroso, F.R.G., et al. (2014). First Ediacaran Fauna Occurrence in Northeastern Brazil (Jairabas Basin, ?Ediacaran-Cambrian): Preliminary Results and Regional Correlation. Annals of the Brazilian Academy of Sciences, 86(3). Bottjer, D.J. (2002). 2. Enigmatic Ediacara Fossils: Ancestors or Aliens? In: Exceptional Fossil Preservation. Bottjer, D.J., et al. (eds.), Columbia University Press, New York. Clapham, M.E., G.M. Narbonne and J.G. Gehling (2003). Paleoecology of the oldest known animal communities: Ediacaran assemblages at Mistaken Point, Newfoundland. Paleobiology, 29(4). Droser, M.L. and J.G. Gehling (2015). The advent of animals: The view from the Ediacaran. PNAS, Vol.112, Number 16. Droser, M.L., J.G. Gehling, and S.R. Jensen (2006). Assemblage palaeoecology of the Ediacara biota: The unabridged edition?. Palaeoecology, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 232. Dzik, J. The Verdun Syndrome: Simultaneous Origin of Protective Armor and Infaunal Shelters at the Precambrian-Cambrian Transition. Dzik, J. (2003). Anatomical Information Content in the Ediacaran Fossils and Their Possible Zoological Affinities. Integr.Comp.Biol., 43. Gehling, J. (2015). First Fossil Animals - Ediacara Fauna of South Australia. Flinders Ranges Treasures. Glaessner, M.F. and M. Wade (1966). The Late Precambrian Fossils from Ediacara, South Australia. Palaeontology, Vol.9, Part 4. Grazhdankin, D. (2004). Patterns of distribution in the Ediacaran biotas: facies versus biogeography and evolution. Paleobiology, 30(2). Jensen, S. and T. Palacios (2016). The Ediacaran-Cambrian trace fossil record in the Central Iberian Zone, Iberian Peninsula. Comunicacoes Geologicas, 103, Especial 1. Knoll, A.H., et al. (2006). The Ediacaran Period: a new addition to the geologic time scale. Lethaia, Vol.39. Knoll, A.H., et al. (2004). A New Period for the Geologic Time Scale. Science, Vol.305. Liu, A.G. (2011). Reviewing the Ediacaran fossils of the Long Mynd, Shropshire. Proceedings of the Shropshire Geological Society, 16. Meert, J.G., et al. (2010). Glaciation and ~770 Ma Ediacara (?) Fossils from the Lesser Karatau Microcontinent, Kazakhstan. Gondwana Research, xx-xxxx. Narbonne, G.M. (2005). The Ediacara Biota: Neoproterozoic Orgin of Animals and Their Ecosystems. Annu.Rev. Earth Planet.Sci., 33. Narbonne, G.M. (2004). Modular Construction of Early Ediacaran Complex Life Forms. Science, Vol.305. Narbonne, G.M. and J.G. Gehling (2003). Life after snowball: The oldest fossil Ediacaran fossils. Geology, Vol.31, Number 1. O'Brien, S.J. and A.F. King (2004). Ediacaran Fossils from the Bonavista Peninsula (Avalon Zone), Newfoundland: Preliminary Descriptions and Implications for Regional Correlation. Current Research (2004) Newfoundland Department of Mines and Energy, Geological Survey Report 04-1. Peterson, K.J., B. Waggoner and J.W. Hagadorn (2003). A Fungal Analog for Newfoundland Ediacaran Fossils. Integr.Comp.Biol., 43. Peterson, K.J., et al. (2008). The Ediacaran emergence of bilaterians: congruence between the genetic and the geological fossil records. Phil.Trans.R.Soc. B, 363. Retallack, G.J. (2013). Ediacaran life on land. Nature, Vol.493. Retallack, G.J. (1994). Were the Ediacaran fossils lichens? Paleobiology, 20(4). Schiffbauer, J.D., J.W. Huntley and G.R. O'Neil (2016). The Latest Ediacaran Wormworld Fauna: Setting the Ecological Stage for the Cambrian Explosion. GSA Today, Vol.26, Number 11. Seilacher, A., D. Grazhdankin and A. Legouta (2003). Ediacaran biota: The dawn of animal life in the shadow of giant protists. Palaeontological Research, Vol.7, Number 1. Wood, R. and A. Curtis (2015). Extensive metazoan reefs from the Ediacaran Nama Group, Namibia: the rise of benthic suspension feeding. Geobiology, 13. Phanerozoic Eon Paleozoic Era General Paleozoic Brett, C.E. and S.E. Walker (2002). Predators and Predation in Paleozoic Marine Environments. Paleontological Society Papers, Vol.8. Eldredge, N. (1971). The Allopatric Model and Phylogeny in Paleozoic Invertebrates. Evolution, Vol.25, Number 1. Schonlaub, H.-P. and H. Heinisch (1994). The Classic Fossiliferous Palaeozoic Units of the Eastern and Southern Alps. IUGS Subcomm. Silurian Stratigraphy, Field Meeting 1994, Bibl.Geol. B.-A., 30. Smith, M.P., P.C.J. Donoghue and I.J. Sansom (2002). The spatial and temporal diversification of Early Palaeozoic vertebrates. In: Palaeobiogeography and Biodiversity Change: the Ordovician and Mesozoic-Cenozoic Radiations. Crame, J.A. and A.W. Owen (eds.), Geological Society, London, Special Publications, 194. Ye, H., et al. (1996). Late Paleozoic Deformation of Interior North America: The Greater Ancestral Rocky Mountains. AAPG Bulletin, Vol.80, Number 9. Cambrian Period Blair, J.E. and S.B. Hedges (2004). Molecular Clocks Do Not Support the Cambrian Explosion. Molecular Biology and Evolution, Vol.22, Number 3. Davidek, K., et al. (1998). New uppermost Cambrian U-Pb date from Avalonian Wales and age of the Cambrian-Ordovician boundary. Geol.Mag., 135(3). Dzik, J. (2005). Behavioral and anatomical unity of the earliest burrowing animals and the cause of the "Cambrian Explosion". Paleobiology, 31(3). Hagadorn, J.W. Chengjiang: Early Record of the Cambrian Explosion. Hagadorn, J.W. (2002). 4. Burgess Shale: Cambrian Explosion in Full Bloom. Jacobs, D.K., et al. (2005). Terminal addition, the Cambrian radiation and the Phanerozoic evolution of bilaterian form. Evolution & Development, 7:6. Kirschvink, J.L. and T.D. Raub (2003). A methane fuse for the Cambrian explosion: carbon cycles and true polar wander. C.R. Geoscience, 335. Landing, E., et al. (2000). Cambrian-Ordovician boundary age and duration of the lowest Ordovician Tremadoc Series based on U-Pb zircon dates from Avalonian Wales. Geol.Mag., 137(5). Lieberman, B.S. (2008). The Cambrian radiation of bilaterians: Evolutionary origins and palaeontological emergence; earth history change and biotic factors. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 258. Marshall, C.R. (2006). Explaining the Cambrian "Explosion" of Animals. Annu.Rev. Earth Planet.Sci., 34. Mitchell, R.N., et al. (2015). Was the Cambrian Explosion Both an Effect and an Artifact of True Polar Wander? American Journal of Science, Vol.315. Morris, S.C. (2006). Darwin's dilemma: the realities of the Cambrian 'explosion'. Phil.Trans.R.Soc. B, 361. Morris, S.C. (2000). The Cambrian "explosion": Slow-fuse or megatonnage? PNAS, Vol.97, Number 9. Morris, S.C. (1993). Ediacaran-Like Fossils in Cambrian Burgess Shale-Type Faunas of North America. Palaeontology, Vol.36, Part 3. Peng, S., L.E. Babcock and R.A. Cooper (2012). Chapter 19. The Cambrian Period. In: The Geologic Time Scale 2012. F.M. Gradstein, et al. (eds.), Elsevier B.V. Phoenix, C. (2009). Cellular differentiation as a candidate "new technology" for the Cambrian Explosion. Journal of Evolution and Technology, 20(2). Plotnick, R.E., S.Q. Dornbos and J. Chen (2010). Information landscapes and sensory ecology of the Cambrian Radiation. Paleobiology, 36(2). Shu, D.-G. (2008). Cambrian explosion: Birth of tree of animals. Gondwana Research, 14. Shu, D.-G., et al. (2009). The earliest history of the deuterostomes: the importance of the Chengjiang Fossil-Lagerstatte. Proc.R.Soc. B, published online. Valentine, J.W. (2002). Prelude to the Cambrian Explosion. Annu.Rev. Earth Planet.Sci., 30. Valentine, J.W., et al. (1999). Fossils, molecules and embryos: new perspectives on the Cambrian explosion. Development, 126. von Bloh, W., C. Bounama and S. Franck (1963). Cambrian explosion triggered by geosphere-biosphere feedbacks. Geophysical Research Letters, Vol.30, Number 18. Yang, B. (2014). Cambrian small shelly fossils of South China and their application in biostratigraphy and palaeobiogeography. Ph.D. Dissertation - Freie Universitat Berlin. Zhang, X.-L. and D.-G. Shu (2013). Causes and consequences of the Cambrian explosion. Science China - Earth Sciences, 57(5). Zhang, Z. and G.A. Brock (2018). New evolutionary and ecological advances in deciphering the Cambrian explosion of animal life. Journal of Paleontology, 92(1). Ordovician Period Brocke, R., et al. (1995). First Appearance of Selected Early Ordovician Acritarch Taxa from Peri-Gondwana. In: Ordovician Odyssey: Short Papers for the Seventh International Symposium on the Ordovician System. Cooper, J.D., M.L. Droser and S.C. Finney (eds.), The Pacific Section Society for Sedimentary Geology (SEPM), Fullerton, California, USA. cocks, L.R.M. (1985). The Ordovician-Silurian Boundary. Episodes, Vol.8, Number 2. Connolly, S.R. and A.I. Miller (2002). Global Ordovician faunal transitions in the marine benthos: ultimate causes. Paleobiology, 28(1). Cooper, R.A., G.S. Nowlan and S.H. Williams (2001). Global Stratotype Section and Point for base of the Ordovician System. Episodes, Vol.24, Number 1. Elliot Smith, M., B.S. Singer and T. Simo (2011). A time like our own? Radioisotopic calibration of the Ordovician greenhouse to icehouse transition. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 311. Farrell, U.C., et al. (2009). Beyond Beecher's Trilobite Bed: Widespread pyritization of soft tissues in the Late Ordovician Taconic foreland basin. Geology, 37. (Thanks to piranha for finding this one!) Finnegan, S., S. Peters and W.W. Fischer (2011). Late Ordovician-Early Silurian Selective Extinction Patterns in Laurentia and Their Relationship to Climate Change. In: Ordovician of the World. Gutierrez-Marco, J.C., I. Rabano and D. Garcia-Bellido (eds.), Cuadernos del Museo Geominero, 14. Fortey, R.A. and L.R.M. cocks (2003). Palaeontological evidence bearing on global Ordovician-Silurian continental reconstructions. Earth-Science Reviews, 61. Havlicek, V. (1989). Climatic changes and development of benthic communities through the Mediterranean Ordovician. Sbor.geol. ved, Geologie 44. Melott, A.L., et al. (2004). Did a gamma-ray burst initiate the late Ordovician mass extinction? International Journal of Astrobiology, 3(1). Miller, A.I. and S.R. Connolly (2001). Substrate affinities of higher taxa and the Ordovician Radiation. Paleobiology, 27(4). Miller, A.I. and S. Mao (1995). Association of orogenic activity with the Ordovician radiation of marine life. Geology, Vol.23, Number 4. Niocaill, C.M., B.A. van der Pluijm and R. Van der Voo (1997). Ordovician paleogeography and the evolution of the Iapetus ocean. Geology, Vol.25, Number 2. Rasmussen, C.M.O. and D.A.T. Harper (2011). Interrogation of distributional data for the End Ordovician crisis interval: where did disaster strike? Geological Journal, published on-line in Wiley Online Library. Silurian Period Calner, M. (2008). Silurian global events - at the tipping point of climate change. In: Mass extinctions. A.M.T. Elewa (ed.), Springer-Verlag, Berlin and Heidelberg. Calner, M. (2005). A Late Silurian extinction event and anachronistic period. Geology, Vol.33, Number 4. Cronin, T.C. (1971). A Study of the Silurian System and a Silurian Reef in West Texas and Southern New Mexico. Masters Thesis - Texas Tech University. Woodcock, N.H. (2000). Chapter 1. Introduction to the Silurian. In: British Silurian Stratigraphy. Palmer, D., et al. (eds.),Geological Conservation Review Series, No.19, Joint Nature Conservation Committee. Devonian Period Anderson, J. (2008). Reconstructing the Aftermath of the Late Devonian Alamo Meteor Impact in the Pahranagat Range, Southeastern Nevada. Masters Thesis - Idaho State University. Brame, R.I. (2001). Revision of the Upper Devonian in the Central-South Appalachian Basin: Biostratigraphy and Lithostratigraphy. Ph.D. Dissertation - Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University. Brett, C.E. and G.C. Baird (1996). Middle Devonian sedimentary cycles and sequences in the northern Appalachian Basin. Geological Society of America, Special Paper 306. (Thanks to xonenine for finding this one). Elliott, D.K., et al. (2000). Middle and Late Devonian vertebrates of the western Old Red Sandstone Continent. Cour.Forsch.-Inst. Senckenberg, 223. George, D. and A. Blieck (2011). Rise of the Earliest Tetrapods: An Early Devonian Origin from Marine Environment. PLoS ONE, 6(7). (Read on-line or download a copy.) Marynowski, L., M. Rakocinski and M. Zaton (2007). Middle Famennian (Late Devonian) interval with pyritized fauna from the Holy Cross Mountains (Poland): Organic geochemistry and pyrite framboid diameter study. Geochemical Journal, Vol.41. Sandberg, C.A., J.R. Morrow and W. Ziegler (2002). Late Devonian sea-level changes, catastrophic events and mass extinctions. Geological Society of America, Special Paper 356. Stigall, A.L. (2010). Invasive Species and Biodiversity Crises: Testing the Link in the Late Devonian. PLoS ONE, 5(12). (Read on-line or download a copy.) Ziegler, W. and G. Klapper (1985). Stages of the Devonian System. Episodes, Vol., Number 2. Carboniferous Period Heckel, P.H. and G. Clayton (2006). The Carboniferous System. Use of the New Official Names for the Subsystems, Series and Stages. Geologica acta, Vol.4, Number 003. Permian Period Basu, A.R., et al. (2003). Chondritic Meteorite Fragments Associated with the Permian-Triassic Boundary in Antarctica. Science, Vol.302. Benton, M.J. and R.J. Twitchett (2003). How to kill (almost) all life: the end-Permian extinction event. Trends in Ecology and Evolution, Vol.18, Number 7. Bottjer, D.J., et al. (2008). Understanding mechanisms for the end-Permian mass extinction and the protracted Early Triassic aftermath and recovery. GSA Today, Vol.18, Number 9. Gastaldo, R.A., et al. (2009). The terrestrial Permian-Triassic boundary event bed is a nonevent. Geology, Vol.37, Number 3. Kiehl, J.T. and C.A. Shields (2005). Climate simulation of the latest Permian: Implications for mass extinction. Geology, Vol.33, Number 9. Knoll, A.H., et al. (2007). Paleophysiology and end-Permian mass extinction. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 256. Lucas, S.G. (2004). A global hiatus in the Middle Permian tetrapod fossil record. Stratigraphy, Vol.1, Number 1. Marusek, J.A. (2004). The Great Permian Extinction Debate. Lunar and Planetary Science, XXXV. Retallack, G.J., et al. (2006). Middle-Late Permian mass extinctions on land. GSA Bulletin, Vol.118, Numbers 11-12. Shen, S.Z., et al. (2006). End-Permian mass extinction pattern in the northern peri-Gondwanan region. Palaeoworld, 15. Stephenson, M.H., L. Angiolini and M.J. Leng. The Early Permian fossil record of Gondwana and its relationship to deglaciation: a review. Virgili, C. (2008). The Permian-Triassic transition: Historical review of the most important ecological crises with special emphasis on the Iberian Peninsula and Western-Central Europe. Journal of Iberian Geology, 34(1). Mesozoic Era Triassic Period Cisneros, J.C., et al. (2010). Spondarthritis in the Triassic. PLoS ONE, 5(10). (Read on-line or download a copy.) Fraser, N.C. (1992). Late Triassic Faunal Successions of Central Pangaea. Virginia Journal of Science, Vol.43, Number 1B. Lucas, S.G., et al. (2007). Global Triassic Tetrapod Biostratigraphy and Biochronology: 2007 Status. In: The Global Triassic. Lucas, S.G. and J.A. Spielmann (eds.), New Mexico Museum of Natural History and Science Bulletin 41. Michalik, J., et al. (2010). Climate change at the Triassic/Jurassic boundary in the northwestern Tethyan realm, inferred from sections in the Tatra Mountains (Slovakia). Acta Geologica Polonica, Vol.60, Number 4. Ochev, V.G. and M.A. Shishkin (1989). On the Principles of Global Correlation of the Continental Triassic on the Tetrapods. Acta Palaeontologica Polonica, Vol.34, Number 2. Olsen, P.E., et al. (2002). Ascent of Dinosaurs Linked to an Iridium Anomaly at the Triassic-Jurassic Boundary. Science, Vol.296. Olsen, P.E., et al. (2002). Continental Triassic-Jurassic boundary in central Pangaea: Recent progress and discussion of an Ir anomaly. Geological Society of America, Special Paper 356. Spray, J.G., S.P. Kelley and D.B. Rowley (1998). Evidence for a late Triassic multiple impact event on Earth. Nature, Vol.392. Tanner, L.H., S.G. Lucas and M.G. Chapman (2004). Assessing the record and causes of Late Triassic extinctions. Earth-Science Reviews, 65. Tucker, M.E. and M.J. Benton (1982). Triassic Environments, Climates and Reptile Evolution. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 40. Jurassic Period Munnecke, A., H. Westphal and M. Kolbl-Ebert (2008). Diagenesis of plattenkalk: examples from the Solnhofen area (Upper Jurassic, southern Germany). Sedimentology, 55. Palfy, J., et al. (2007). Triassic-Jurassic boundary events inferred from integrated stratigraphy of the Csovar section, Hungary. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 244. Svensen, H., et al. (2007). Hydrothermal venting of greenhouse gases triggering Early Jurassic global warming. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 256. Turner, C.E. and F. Peterson (2004). Reconstruction of the Upper Jurassic Morrison Formation extinct ecosystem - a synthesis. Sedimentary Geology, 167. van de Schootbrugge, B., et al. (2005). Early Jurassic climate change and the radiation of organic-walled phytoplankton in the Tethys Ocean. Paleobiology, 31(1). Cretaceous Period Alegret, L., et al. (2002). The Cretaceous/Tertiary boundary: sedimentology and micropalaeontology at El Mulato section, NE Mexico. Terra Nova, Vol.14, Number 5. Alvarez, W., et al. (1992). Proximal impact deposits at the Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary in the Gulf of Mexico: A restudy of DSDP Leg 77 Sites 536 and 540. Geology, Vol.20. Arenillas, I., et al. (2006). Chicxulub impact event is Cretaceous/Paleogene boundary in age: New micropaleontological evidence. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, XX. Baraboshkin, E.Y., A.S. Alekseev and L.F. Kopaevich (2003). Cretaceous palaeogeography of the North-Eastern Peri-Tethys. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 196. Bennington, J.B. and S. Hesselbarth. Sediment analysis of a Stratigraphic Sequence across the K/T Boundary, Manasquan River Basin, NJ. 17th Annual Long Island Geologists Conference, Stony Brook, New York. Bice, K.L., B.T. Huber and R.D. Norris (2003). Extreme polar warmth during the Cretaceous greenhouse? Paradox of the late Turonian 18O record at Deep Sea Drilling Project Site 511. Paleoceanography, Vol.18, Number 2. Bice, K.L., et al. (2006). A multiple proxy and model study of Cretaceous upper ocean temperatures and atmospheric CO2 concentrations. Paleoceanography, Vol.21. Bottke, W.F., D. Vokrouhlicky and D. Nesvorny (2007). An asteroid breakup 160 Myr ago as the probable source of the K/T impactor. Nature, Vol.449. Bralower, T.J., I.P. Silva and M.J. Malone (2002). New evidence for abrupt climate change in the Cretaceous and Paleogene. GSA Today. Bralower, T.J., C.K. Paull and R.M. Leckie (1998). The Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary cocktail: Chicxulub impact triggers margin collapse and extensive sediment gravity flows. Geology, Vol.26, Number 4. Bryan, S.E., et al. (1997). Early Cretaceous volcano-sedimentary successions along the eastern Australian continental margin: Implications for the break-up of eastern Gondwana. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 153. Campbell, C.E., F.E. Oboh-Ikuenobe and T.L. Eifert (2008). Megatsunami deposit in the Cretaceous-Paleogene boundary interval of southeastern Missouri. The Geological Society of America, Special Paper 437. Christensen, W.K., et al. (2000). The base of the Maastrichtian. Bulletin of the Geological Society of Denmark, Vol.47. Claeys, P., W. Kiessling and W. Alvarez (2002 Distribution of Chicxulub ejecta at the Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary. Geological Society of America, Special Paper 356. Goto, K., et al. (2004). Evidence for ocean water invasion into the Chicxulub crater at the Cretaceous/Tertiary boundary. Meteoritics & Planetary Science, 39, Number 7. Kauffman, E.G. (1984). Paleobiogeography and Evolutionary Response Dynamic in the Cretaceous Western Interior Seaway of North America. In: Jurassic-Cretaceous Biochronology and Paleogeography of North America. Westermann, G.E.G. (ed.), Geological Association of Canada, Special Paper 27. Keller, G. (2001). The end-Cretaceous mass extinction in the marine realm: year 2000 assessment. Planetary and Space Science, 49. Keller, G., et al. (2007). Chicxulub impact predates K-T boundary: New evidence from Brazos, Texas. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 255. Keller, G., et al. (2004). More evidence that the Chicxulub impact predates the K/T mass extinction. Meteorics & Planetary Science, 39, Number 7. Keller, G., et al. (2003). Multiple impacts across the Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary. Earth-Science Reviews, 62. Lindgren, J., et al. (2011). Microspectroscopic Evidence of Cretaceous Bone Proteins. PLoS ONE, 6(4). (Read on-line or download a copy.) MacLeod, N. (in press). Cretaceous. In: Encyclopedia of Geology. Selley, R.C., L.R.M. cocks and I.R. Plimer (eds.), Academic Press, London. MacLeod, N., et al. (1997). The Cretaceous-Tertiary biotic transition. Journal of the Geological Society, Vol.154. Matsui, T., et al. (2002). Generation and propagation of a tsunami from the Cretaceous-Tertiary impact event. Geological Society of America, Special Paper 356. McCarthy, D. (2005). Biogeographical and geological evidence for a smaller, completely-enclosed Pacific Basin in the Late Cretaceous. Journal of Biogeography, 32. Meyers, P.A. and B.R.T. Simoneit (1989). Global comparisons of organic matter in sediments across the Cretaceous/Tertiary boundary. Organic Geochemistry, Vol.16, Numbers 4-6. Myers, C.E. and B.S. Lieberman (2010). Sharks that pass in the night: using Geographical Information Systems to investigate competition in the Cretaceous Western Interior Seaway. Proc.R.Soc.B. Nicholls, E.L. and A.P. Russell (1990). Paleobiogeography of the Cretaceous Western Interior Seaway of North America: the vertebrate evidence. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 79. Noonan, B.P. and P.T. Chippindale (2006). Vicariant Origin of Malgasy Reptiles Supports Late Cretaceous Antarctic Land Bridge. The American Naturalist, Vol.168, Number 6. Nordt, L., S. Atchley and S. Dworkin (2003). Terrestrial Evidence for Two Greenhouse Events in the Late Cretaceous. GSA Today. Ocampo, A., V.Vadja and E. Buffetaut. Unravelling the Cretaceous-Paleogene (KT) Turnover, Evidence from Flora, Fauna and Geology. Pascual, R. and E.O. Jaureguizar (1992). Evolutionary pattern of land mammal faunas during the Late Cretaceous and Paleocene in South America: a comparison with the North American pattern. Ann.Zool. Fennici, 28. Racki, G., et al. (2011). The weathering-modified iridium record of a new Cretaceous-Palaeogene site at Lechowka near Chelm, SE Poland, and its palaeogeobiologic implications. Acta Palaeontologica Polonica, 56(1). Savrda, C.E. (1993). Ichnosedimentologic evidence for a noncatastrophic origin of Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary sands in Alabama. Geology, Vol.21. Schulte, P., et al. (2010). The Chicxulub Asteroid Impact and Mass Extinction at the Cretaceous-Paleogene Boundary. Science, Vol.327. Schulte, P., et al. (2006). The Cretaceous-Paleogene (K-P) boundary at Brazos, Texas: Sequence, stratigraphy, depositional events and the Chicxulub impact. Sedimentary Geology, 184. Tada, R., et al. A Giant Tsunami Deposit at the Cretaceous-Tertiary Boundary in Cuba. Catastrophic Events Conference. Tsakas, S.C. and J.R. David (1987). Population ge).netics and the Cretaceous extinction. Genet.Sel.Evol., 19(4). Weber, R.D. and D.K. Watkins (2007). Evidence from the Crow Creek Member (Pierre Shale) for an impact-induced resuspension event in the late Cretaceous Western Interior Seaway. Geology, Vol.35, Number 12. Wolbach, W.S., S. Widicus and S. Moecker. Is the Soot Layer at the K/T Boundary Really Global? Lunar and Planetary Science, XXIX. Yancey, T.E. (1996). Stratigraphy and Depositional Environments of the Cretaceous-Tertiary Boundary Complex and Basal Paleocene Section, Brazos River, Texas. Transactions of the Gulf Coast Association of Geological Societies, Vol.XLVI. Cenozoic Era Paleogene Period Paleocene Epoch Alegret, L., M.A. Kaminski and E. Molina (2004). Paleoenvironmental Recovery After the Cretaceous/Paleogene Boundary Crisis: Evidence from the Marine Bidart Section (SW France). Palaios, Vol.19. Alroy, J. (1999). The Fossil Record of North American Mammals: Evidence for a Paleocene Evolutionary Radiation. Syst.Biol., 48(1). Clemens, W.A. (2010). Were Immigrants a Significant Part of the Earliest Paleocene Mammalian Fauna of the North American Western Interior? Vertebrata PalAsiatica, 48(4). Gingerich, P.D. (2010). Mammalian Faunal Succession Through the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM) in Western North America. Vertebrata PalAsiatica, 48(4). Higgins, J.A. and D.P. Schrag (2006). Beyond methane: Towards a theory for the Paleocene-Eocene thermal maximum. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 245. ######, J.J. and M.E. Collinson (2012). Mammalian Faunal Turnover Across the Paleocene-Eocene Boundary in NW Europe: The Roles of Displacement, Community Evolution and Environment. Austrian Journal of Earth Sciences, Vol.105/1. ######, J.J. and D. Dashzeveg (2003). Evidence for direct mammalian faunal interchange between Europe and Asia near the Paleocene-Eocene boundary. Geological Society of America, Special Paper 369. Katz, M.E., et al. (1999). The Source and Fate of Massive Carbon Input During the Latest Paleocene Thermal Maximum. Science, Vol.286. McInerney, F.A. and S.L. Wing (2011). The Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum: A Perturbation of Carbon Cycle, Climate and Biosphere with Implications for the Future. Annu.Rev. Earth Planet.Sci., 39. Scheibner, C. and R.P. Speijer (2008). Decline of coral reefs during late Paleocene to early Eocene global warming. eEarth, 3. Zachos, J.C., et al. (2005). Rapid Acidification of the Ocean During the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum. Science, Vol.308. Eocene Epoch Coccioni, R., et al. (2000). Marine biotic signals across a late Eocene impact layer at Massignano, Italy: evidence for long-term environmental perturbations? Terra Nova, Vol.12, Number 6. Pusz, A.E., et al. (2009). Stable isotopic response to late Eocene extraterrestrial impacts. Geological Society of America, Special Paper 452. Salamy, K.A. and J.C. Zachos (1999). Latest Eocene - Early Oligocene climate change and Southern Ocean fertility: inferences from sediment accumulation and stable isotope data. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 145. Schubert, B.A., et al. (2012). A summertime rainy season in the Arctic forests of the Eocene. Geology, in Press. Woodburne, M.O., G.F. Gunnell and R.K. Stucky (2009). Land Mammal Faunas of North America Rise and Fall During the Early Eocene Climatic Optimum. Denver Museum of Nature & Science Annals, Number 1. Oligocene Epoch Alegret, L., et al. (2008). Effects of Oligocene climatic events on the foraminiferal record from Fuente Caldera section (Spain, western Tethys). Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 269. De Man, E. and S. Van Simaeys (2004). Late Oligocene Warming Event in the southern North Sea Basin: benthic foraminifera as paleotemperature proxies. Netherlands Journal of Geosciences, 83(3). Kappelman, J., et al. (2003). Oligocene mammals from Ethiopia and faunal exchange between Afro-Arabia and Eurasia. Nature, Vol.426. Neogene Period Miocene Epoch Bohme, M. (2003). The Miocene Climatic Optimum: evidence from ectothermic vertebrates of Central Europe. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 195. Harzhauser, M. and W.E. Piller (2004). Integrated stratigraphy of the Sarmatian (Upper Middle Miocene) in the western Central Paratethys. Stratigraphy, Vol.1, Number 1. Hoffmeister, A.P. and M. Kowalewski (2001). Spatial and Environmental Variation in the Fossil Record of Drilling Predation: A Case Study from the Miocene of Central Europe. Palaios, Vol.16. Janis, C.M., J. Damuth and J.M. Theodor (2004). The species richness of Miocene browsers, and implications for habitat type and primary productivity in the North American grassland biome. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 207. Latorre, C., J. Quade and W.C. McIntosh (1997). The expansion of C4 grasses and global change in the late Miocene: Stable isotope evidence from the Americas. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 146. Lewis, A.R., et al. (2007). Major middle Miocene global climate change: Evidence from East Antarctica and the Transantarctic Mountains. GSA Bulletin, Vol.119, Numbers 11-12. Liu, L., J.T. Eronen and M. Fortelius (2009). Significant mid-latitude aridity in the middle Miocene of East Asia. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 279. Pliocene Epoch Baskin, J.A. and R.G. Thomas (2007). South Texas and the Great American Interchange. Gulf Coast Association of Geological Societies Transactions, Vol.57. Draut, A.E., et al. (2003). Climate stability during the Pliocene warm period. Paleoceanography, Vol.18, Number 4. Federov, A.V., C.M. Brierly and K. Emanuel (2010). Tropical cyclones and permanent El Nino in the early Pliocene epoch. Nature, Vol.463. Haywood, A.M. and P.J. Valdes (2004). Modelling Pliocene warmth: contribution of atmosphere, oceans and cryosphere. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 218. Haywood, A.M., et al. (2001). Modelling Middle Pliocene Warm Climates of the USA. Palaeontologia Electronica, Vol.4, Issue 1. Ravelo, A.C., P.S. Dekens and M. McCarthy (2006). Evidence for El Nino-like conditions during the Pliocene. GSA Today, Vol.16, Number 3. Repenning, C.A. (1990). Of Mice and Ice in the Late Pliocene of North America. Arctic, Vol.43, Number 4. Robinson, M.M. (2009). New quantitative evidence for extreme warmth in the Pliocene Arctic. Stratigraphy, Vol.6, Number 4. Tziperman, E. and B. Farrell (XXXX). The Pliocene equatorial temperature - lessons from atmospheric superrotation. Paleoceanography, Vol.???. Van Couvering, J.A., et al. (2000). The base of the Zanclean Stage and of the Pliocene Series. Episodes, Vol.23, Number 3. Webb, S.D. (2006). The Great American Biotic Interchange: Patterns and Processes. Ann. Missouri Bot.Gard., 93. Weigelt, E., L. Dupont and G. Uenzelmann-Neben (2008). Late Pliocene climate changes documented in seismic and palynology data at the southwest African Margin. Global and Planetary Change, 63. Quaternary Period Pleistocene Epoch Balco, G. and C.W. Rovey (2010). Absolute chronology for major Pleistocene advances of the Laurentide Ice Sheet. Geology, Vol.38, Number 9. Barnosky, A.D. and E.L. Lindsey (2010). Timing of Quaternary megafaunal extinction in South America in relation to human arrival and climate change. Quaternary International, 217. Barnosky, A.D., et al. (2004). Exceptional record of mid-Pleistocene vertebrates helps differentiate climatic from anthropogenic ecosystem perturbations. PNAS, Vol.101, Number 25. Clark, P.U., et al. (2006). The middle Pleistocene transition: characteristics, mechanisms, and implications for long-term changes in atmospheric pCO2. Quaternary Science Reviews, 25. Diniz-Filho, J.A.F. (2004). Macroecological Analyses Support an Overkill Scenario for Late Pleistocene Extinctions. Braz.J.Biol., 64(3A). Dupont, L.M., et al. (2001). Mid-Pleistocene environmental change in tropical Africa began as early as 1.05 Ma. Geology, Vol.29, Number 3. ######, A.S. (2004). An outline of North American deglaciation with emphasis on central and northern Canada. (Thanks to oxytropidoceras for finding this one!) Gerhart, L.M. Discoveries at Rancho La Brea and the Debate over Late Pleistocene Extinction. Gibbons, R. (2004). Examining the Extinction of the Pleistocene Megafauna. Surj., Anthropological Sciences. Gingerich, P.D. (1984). Pleistocene Extinctions in the Context of Origination-Extinction Equilibria in Cenozoic Mammals. In: Quaternary Extinctions: A Prehistoric Revolution. Martin, P.S. and R.G. Klein (eds.), University of Arizona Press. Glasser, N.F., et al. (2006). Evidence from the Rio Bayo valley on the extent of the North Patagonian Icefield during the Late Pleistocene-Holocene transition. Quaternary Research, Vol.65. Grayson, D.K. (2007). Deciphering North American Pleistocene Extinctions. Journal of Anthropological Research. Hofreiter, M. and J. Stewart (2009). Ecological Change, Range Fluctuations and Population Dynamics during the Pleistocene. Review - Current Biology, 19. Johnson, C.N. and G.J. Prideaux (2004). Extinctions of herbivorous mammals in the late Pleistocene of Australia in relation to their feeding ecology: no evidence for environmental change as cause of extinction. Austral. Ecology, 29. Johnson, E. (1986). Late Pleistocene and Early Holocene Vertebrates and Paleoenvironments on the Southern High Plains, U.S.A. Geographie physique et Quaternaire, Vol.40, Number 3. LaViolette, P.A. (2009). The Cause of the Megafaunal Extinction: Supernova or Galactic Core Outburst? The Starburst Foundation. Lawing, A.M. and P.D. Polly (2011). Pleistocene Climate, Phylogeny and Climate Envelope Models: An Integrative Approach to Better Understanding Species' Response to Climate Change. PLoS ONE, 6(12). (Read on-line or download a copy.) Lessa, E.P. and R.A. Farina (1996). Reassessment of Extinction Patterns Among the Late Pleistocene Mammals of South America. Palaeontology, Vol.39, Part 3. Loehle, C. (2007). Predicting Pleistocene climate from vegetation in North America. Climate of the Past, 3. Louys, J., D. Curnoe and H. Tong (2007). Characteristics of Pleistocene megafauna extinctions in Southeast Asia. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 243. Lyons, S.K., F.A. Smith and J.H. Brown (2004). Of mice, mastodons and men: human-mediated extinctions on four continents. Evolutionary Ecology Research, 6. Ripple, W.J. and Van Valkenberg, B. (2010). Linking Top-down Forces to the Pleistocene Megafaunal Extinctions. Bioscience, Vol.60, Number 7. Ruban, D.A. (2009). The survival of megafauna after the end-Pleistocene impact: a lesson from the Cretaceous/Tertiary boundary. Geologos, 15(2). St-Onge, D.A. (1987). The Sangamonian Stage and the Laurentide Ice Sheet. Geographie physique et Quaternaire, Vol.41, Number 2. Surovell, T.A., et al. (2009). An independent evaluation of the Younger Dryas extraterrestrial impact hypothesis. PNAS, Vol.106, Number 43. Vizcaino, S.F., R.A. Farina and J.C. Fernicola (2009). Young Darwin and the Ecology and Extinction of Pleistocene South American Fossil Mammals. Revista de la Asociacion Geologica Argentina, 64(1). Waguespack, N.M. (2007). Why We're Still Arguing About the Pleistocene Occupation of the Americas. Evolutionary Anthropology, 16. Whitney-Smith, E. (2001). Second-Order Predation and Pleistocene Extinctions: A System Dynamics Model. Ph.D. Dissertation - George Washington University. Whitney-Smith, E. The Evolution of an Ecosystem: Pleistocene Extinctions. Wroe, S. and J. Field (2006). A review of the evidence for a human role in the extinction of Australian megafauna and an alternative interpretation. Quaternary Science Reviews, 25. Other General Paleontology Papers Babcock, L.E. (2005). Asymmetry in the fossil record. European Review, Vol.13, Supp. Number 2. Bassett, M.G., L.E. Popov and L.E. Holmer (2004). The Oldest-Known Metazoan Parasite? J.Paleont., 78(6). Bengston, S. (2002). Origin and Early Evolution of Predation. Paleontological Society Papers, Vol.8. Benton, M.J. (2005). Vertebrate Paleontology. Third Edition. Blackwell Publishing. (Entire book!) (Thanks to doushantuo for locating this one!) Benton, M.J. and P.C.J. Donoghue (2007). Paleontological Evidence to Date the Tree of Life. Mol.Biol.Evol., 24(1). Bisulca, C., et al. (2012). Variation in the Deterioration of Fossil Resins and Implication for the Conservation of Fossils in Amber. American Museum Novitates, Number 3734. Bryant, H.N. and A.P. Russell (1992). The role of phylogenetic analysis in the inference of unpreserved attributes of extinct taxa. Phil.Trans.R.Soc.Lond.B, 337. Cartwright, P. and A. Collins (2007). Fossils and phylogenies: integrating multiple lines of evidence to investigate the origin of early major metazoan lineages. Integrative and Comparative Biology, Vol.47, Number 5. Dietl, G.P. and P.H. Kelley (2002). The Fossil Record of Predator-Prey Arms Races: Coevolution and Escalation Hypotheses. Paleontological Society Papers, Vol.8. Donoghue, P.C.J. and M.A. Purnell (2009). The Evolutionary Emergence of Vertebrates From Among Their Spineless Relatives. Evo.Edu. Outreach. Dzik, J. (2002). Chapter 11.3 Early diversification of organisms in the fossil record. In: Fundamentals of Life. Editions scientifiques et medicales, Elsevier SAS. Dzik, J. (1999). Chapter 13. Evolutionary Origin of Asymmetry in Early Metazoan Animals. In: Advances in BioChirality. Palyi, G., C. Zucchi and L. Caglioti (eds.), Elsevier Science S.A. Emlen, D.J. (2008). The Evolution of Animal Weapons. Annu.Rev.Ecol.Evol.Syst., 39. Fedonkin, M.A. (2003). The origin of the Metazoa in the light of the Proterozoic fossil record. Paleontological Research, Vol.7, Number 1. Gans, C. (1989). Stages in the Origin of Vertebrates: Analysis by Means of Scenarios. Biol.Rev., 64. Ghaffar, A., M.A. Khan and M. Akhtar (2009). Predator-Prey Relationship (Cervidae & Carnivora) and its Impact on Fossil Preservation from the Siwaliks of Pakistan. The Journal of Animal & Plant Sciences, 19(1). Harris, J.D. (2004). Confusing Dinosaurs With Mammals: Tetrapod Phylogenetics and Anatomical Terminology in the World of Homology. The Anatomical Record Part A, 218A. Heim, N.A. (2008). The Spatial Structure of Biodiversity in the Fossil Record: Contrasting Global, Continental, and Regional Responses to Climate Change. Ph.D. Dissertation - The University of Georgia. Holland, N.D. and J. Chen (2001). Origin and early evolution of the vertebrates: new insights from advances in molecular biology, anatomy, and paleontology. Bioessays 23.2. Hunt, G. (2010). Evolution in Fossil Lineages: Paleontology and The Origin of Species. The American Naturalist, Vol. 176 Supplement. Jablonski, D. (2005). Evolutionary Innovations in the Fossil Record: The Intersection of Ecology, Development and Macroevolution. Journal of Experimental Zoology (Mol.Dev.Evol.), 304B. Kowalewski, M. (2002). The Fossil Record of Predation: An Overview of Analytical Methods. Paleontological Society Papers, Vol.8. Labandeira, C.C. (2007). The origin of herbivory on land: Initial patterns of plant tissue consumption by arthropods. Insect Science, 14. Labandeira, C.C. (2002). Paleobiology of Predators, Parasitoids, and Parasites: Death and Accomodation in the Fossil Record of Continental Invertebrates. Paleontological Society Papers, Vol.8. Lawver, L.A., et al. Intercontinental Dispersal Routes for South American Land Mammals: Paleogeographic Restraints. Long, J.A. and M.S. Gordon (2004). The Greatest Step in Vertebrate History: A Paleobiological Review of the Fish-Tetrapod Transition. Physiological and Biochemical Zoology, 77(5). McMillan, M.E., C.L. Angevine and P.L. Heller (2002). Postdepositional tilt of the Miocene-Pliocene Ogallala Group on the western Great Plains: Evidence of late Cenozoic uplift of the Rocky Mountains. Geology, Vol.30, Number 1. Morris, S.C. (1993). The fossil record and the early evolution of the Metazoa. Nature, Vol.361. Motani, R. (2009). The Evolution of Marine Reptiles. Evo.Edu. Outreach, 2. Nudds, J. and P. Selden (2008). Fossils explained 56. Fossil-Lagerstatten. Geology Today, Vol.24, Number 4. Peters, S.E. and N.A. Heim (2010). The geological completeness of paleontological sampling in North America. Paleobiology, 36(1). Pojeta, J. and D.A. Springer (2001). Evolution and the Fossil Record. American Geological Institute/The Paleontological Society. Racki, G. (2012). The Alvarez impact theory of mass extinction: limits to its applicability and the "great expectations syndrome". Acta Palaeontologica Polonica, 57(4). Raia, P. and S. Meiri (2006). The Island Rule in Large Mammals: Paleontology Meets Ecology. Evolution, 60(8). Schultze, H.-P. (1995). The Origin of Tetrapods - Past and Present Hypotheses. Vertebrata PalAsiatica, 33(4). Shu, D. (2003). A paleontological perspective of vertebrate origin. Chinese Science Bulletin, Vol.48, Number 8. Sole, R.V. and M. Newman. Patterns of extinction and diversity in the fossil record. Staples, L.W. (1965). Zeolite Filling and Replacement in Fossils. The American Mineralogist, Vol.50. Steele, T.E. (2003). Using Mortality Profiles to Infer Behavior in the Fossil Record. Journal of Mammalogy, 84(2). Taylor, P.D. and M.A. Wilson (2003). Palaeoecology and evolution of marine hard substrate communities. Earth-Science Reviews, 62. Trammer, J. (2011). Differences in global biomass and energy use between dinosaurs and mammals. Acta Geologica Polonica, Vol.61, Number 2. Vermeij, G.J. (2016). Gigantism and Its Implications for the History of Life. PLoS ONE, 11(1). Weishampel, D.B. and D.B. Norman (1989). Vertebrate herbivory in the Mesozoic; Jaws, plants, and evolutionary metrics. Geological Society of America, Special Paper 238. Wood, R. (1998). The Ecological Evolution of Reefs. Annu.Rev.Ecol.Syst., 29. Young, G.C. (2008). Early Evolution of the Vertebrate Eye - Fossil Evidence. Evo.Edu. Outreach, 1. Astropaleontology (Exopaleontology) Cady, S.L., et al. (2003). Morphological Biosignatures and the Search for Life on Mars. Astrobiology, Vol.3, Number 2. Farmer, J. (1998). Thermophiles, early biosphere evolution, and the origin of life on Earth: Implications for the exobiological exploration of Mars. Journal of Geophysical Research, Vol.103, Number E12. Hoover, R.B. (1997). Meteorites, Microfossils and Exobiology. SPIE, Vol.3115. McMahon, S., et al. (2018). A Field Guide to Finding Fossils on Mars. Journal of Geophysical Research: Planets, 123. (Thanks to Oxytropidoceras for pointing this out!) Newsom, H.E., et al. (2001). Search for life on Mars in surface samples: Lessons from the 1999 Marsokhod rover field experiment. Journal of Geophysical Research, Vol.106, Number E4. Preston, L.J. and M.J. Genge (2010). The Rhynie Chert, Scotland, and the Search for Life on Mars. Astrobiology, Vol.10, Number 5. Schopf, J.W., et al. (2012). Gypsum-Permineralized Microfossils and Their Relevance to the Search for Life on Mars. Astrobiology, Vol.12, Number 7. Wacey, D., N. McLoughlin and M.D. Brasier (2009). Looking Through Windows Onto the Earliest History of Life on Earth and Mars. In: From Fossils to Astrobiology. Sekbach, J. and M. Walsh (Eds.), Springer COLE book series. Walter, M.R. and D.J. Des Marais (1993). Preservation of Biological Information in Thermal Spring Deposits: Developing a Strategy for the Search for Fossil Life on Mars. Icarus, 101. Wierzchos, J. and C. Ascaso (2002). Microbial fossil record of rocks from the Ross Desert, Antarctica: implications in the search for past life on Mars. International Journal of Astrobiology, 1(1).
  24. Ammonites from the Zone of Cyrtopleurites bicrenatus, Nor/Alaunium1 of the Hallstatt limestone Written by Andreas Spatzenegger Fig. 0 The „Hohe Dachstein" mountain with fresh fallen snow in spring; The Dachstein is the highest mountain in the Salzkammergut area and the so called Dachstein limestone is named after this mountain. Below the glacier, the partly forest covered mountain is named „Hirlatz". This is the type locality of the liassic „Hirlatz limestone". Down below the Hirlatz mountain, not visible on the picture, lays the small town Hallstatt on the lake of the same name. A period of the Bronze Age is named after this town with its old salt mines above on the "Salzberg". The Hallstatt limestone is named after this town too. Two old historical locations exist there above the salt mines. These are the historical location of the Sommeraukogel and the Steinbergkogel from where the first description of this limestone and its ammonoids come. Dear Fossil Forum members A long lasting search for a new outcrop in which the very scarce bicrenatus Zone/Alaun 1 is exposed came to an end a few years ago. Of course there are several old historical locations where this zone was exposed but after 150 years of exploration, there is not really much to find there at present. I was happy to find a new location where this scarce zone was exposed, but I had never dreamed of finding such a good one. It all started very unspectacularly and unexpectedly. Years ago I walked downhill from another fossil location in this area with a heavy rucksack on my back. It was a beautiful day and I wanted to take some landscape pictures of this area. I put down my rucksack and walked a few steps beside the path. As I was taking the pictures I looked down on the rock on which I stood. A very small cross-section of an orthicone ammonoid and a shell part of a bigger ammonite was visible. Both very unspectacular like other common cross-sections I often saw in this limestone. My hammer was in the rucksack but I was too lazy to go back to the path and fetch it. So I went further downwards and then drove home. One week later I was in this area again. At noon my rucksack was full and I went prospecting for the rest of the day. My first way was to this ominous block which had been haunting my thoughts the whole week long. I put the chisel on the block, one blow with my hammer and I recognised with one look that I had found something really special. The ammonoid shell was a part of the weathered body chamber of a Clydonautilus noricus 30cm in diameter. But this wasn't the best part of this block. I recognised that this block was a part of a 20 cm thick layer full of ammonites. The discovery of such a big spot I knew only from reports of the historical locations around the 19th century. The layer was totally undisturbed and untouched when I found it. No old traces of working were visible. Nevertheless Mojsisovics has pictured ammonites from this area, fitting to this facies and layer, in his work "Das Gebirge um Hallstatt". I assumed that the in Mojs. pictured Ammonites either originated from a fallen block or that this layer had a second outcrop in this area hitherto unknown to me. If this layer would have been known in the time of Mojsisovics it would have been totally exploited like the outcrop on the Sommeraukogel where former collectors exploit the fossil bearing limestone up to a height of 6m. Fig. 1 „Corner stone of this location", Clydonautilus noricus with a partly strongly weathered body chamber. The mossy crack on the picture is the last Septum. Fig.2 Dug out block with ammonites of this outcrop. The glove shows the natural size. The weight is 30-40 kg roughly all in all a full rucksack. Fig.3 The whole fossil layer consists of several intern layers which are dissected by manganese crusts. These crusts have strongly condensated origin. This explains also the frequent ammonoids shells. Also visible is a current parallel alignment of the ammonoid shells. The blocks shown are 10-15cm thick and bear Ammonites also inside the limestone. I whistled for my colleague who was also collecting near to me in this area. Together we did a first examination of the whole outcrop. Stratigraphically we weren't sure at this moment what time this layer belonged to because we had only found ammonites without sculpture. At this time we had only scratched a little on this location but we did already have a presumption at that moment about what stratigraphic time it may have been . Fig. 4 The most frequent ammonite on this location is Placites sp. in for this genus, enormous sizes up to 10cm. Our next tour was directed at this location to collect there professionally. After a while the first Cyrtopleurites part occurred and we got confirmation of our former presumption. The other tours of this year brought us if at all possible to this location to collect some more at this outcrop. If anyone should think that we have tons of material from this location at home, one and a half hours walking up to this location and a same long way down restricted the material to one rucksack a trip. It makes no sense to carry more than 50 kg downhill in this wilderness. Everybody who has carried 40-50 kg down on his back for one and a half hours knows what I mean and knows where his physical limit is. After preparation, one third of this weight is left over. The other material is thumb stone and halves or badly preserved ammonites. Now some ammonoids from this location Fig. 5 Cyrtopleurites cf. socius as found, 7cm in diameter Fig. 6 Cyrtopleurites altissimus as found. The orange circle is the cap of my drinking bottle. Fig. 7 Prepared block with C. altissimus. From 15cm thickness prepared down to 6cm and roughly 5 to 6 badly preserved ammonites destroyed by prepping. Fig. 8 Detail view of Cyrtopleurites altissimus, 9cm Remarkable are crinoid roots on some ammonite shells. This leads to the presumption that the sedimentation rate was very low. The ammonoids shells lay on the seafloor for a long time without being covering by sediments and were settled by crinoid larvae. On the hardgrounds, now indicated by manganese crusts, such roots are also visible. Ossicles of these small crinoids are visible frequently inside the red limestone. The average diameter is 5mm. This is well visible on picture 7 and 8. It is also visible that the Palaeo current comes from upper right in relation to the picture. The ammonites on the left side of the picture overlap each other and on the venter of the Cyrtopleurites a crinoid root stem settled with its well visible central channel. Fig. 9 Maybe current whirls, which occur on the sloping embedded ammonoids shells, helped the crinoid larvae to settle down preferably on such places in the shadow of the current. Fig.10 Visible is a Crinoid root on the last septa of a big Cladiscites neortus. Diameter of the root is 3 mm. This shows us forensic evidence of the settlement of the crinoid larvae after the death of this ammonite. Rhacophyllites sp. is frequent with two different species. Big specimens are mostly preserved without body chamber. Fig.11 Rhacophyllites neojurensis, 14cm Diameter Fig. 12 Rhacophyllites debilis HAUER, 13cm. More evolute and less thick than R. neojurensis. The yellow colour is due to the preparation of this ammonite from its underside. Generally this is the better preserved side but it isn't prepareable often. Fig.13 Didymites cf. subglobus with Rhacophyllites neojurensis and Placites sp. Diameter of the big Didymites is 7cm. On the left side is shown a Didymites of the same species in Venter view. Didymites occurs only in this Zone in the Hallstatt limestone and is very easy to confuse, in Form and shape, with Arcestes sp. But it has a very typical suture line which excludes confusion. Fig.14 Arcestes cf. dicerus, Diameter 6cm Fig. 15 Items after rough preparation The preparation of these ammonoids is only possible mechanically. I work with rough and fine air chisels. After preparation I finish the ammonites with stone fluat to protect them against the acid. Then I remove drops of the stone fluat from the mother rock and treat the rock with acid until it shows its natural colour again. Then, if necessary, cover the ammonites a second time and then it's finished. Fig. 16 Slab with Drepanites hyatti MOJS. (7cm), Rhacophyllites neojurensis and Arcestes sp. Provisional list of Ammonoids and Nautiloids: Arcestes cf. didymus MOJSISOVICS. Arcestes dicerus MOJS. Stenarcestes cf. diogenis MOJS. Cyrtopleurites bicrenatus (HAUER1846) C. altissimus MOJS. C. socius MOJS. 1893 C. sp. Cladiscites neortus MOJS. C. beyrichi WELTER1914 C. quadratus MOJS. Didymites tectus MOJS. D. globus QUENSTEDT D. subglobus MOJS. D. quenstedti MOJS. Drepanites hyatti MOJS. Drepanites sp. Heraclites robustus (HAUER 1855) Hauerites cf. rarestriatus HAUER Orthoceras sp. Pinacoceras cf. parma MOJS. Placites oxyphyllum MOJS. Placites sp. Clydonautilus noricus MOJSISOVICS Gonionautilus quenstedti HAUER Nautilus. sp. (2) undet. Rhacophyllites neojurensis (QUENSTEDT) R. debilis HAUER Microfossils: Conodonts: I thank Mister Michael Henz member of the German "steinkern forum" for working (dissolving, sorting and identification), on the conodonts of this fossil layer. The internet community makes it possible that collectors of the alpine Triassic and collectors of the German „Muschelkalk" can both work together very easily. I am very glad to have this contact. For the future I hope for a further collaboration, maybe in more interesting stratigraphic levels to both sides, like the Anisium or lower Ladinium. We do not know for sure if our conodont nomenclature is up to the latest scientific level. The conodonts were identified through the works of Kozur and Huckriede. Material was dissolved only from the main fossil layer. Because of the lack of Neogondolella hallstattensis we presume that there is no part of the stratigraphic lower Juvavites magnus zone in our fossil layer condensed in too. The result of the stratigraphic occurrence of both, ammonites and conodonts fit perfectly to the ammonoid-zone of the Cyrtopleurites bicrenatus/Alaunian I. Table 1: 1a: Metapolygnathus spatulatus spatulatus, side view. 1b: Metapolygnathus spatulatus spatulatus, down side. 1c: Metapolygnathus spatulatus spatulatus, upper side. 2a: Metapolygnathus spatulatus spatulatus, upper side. 2b: Metapolygnathus spatulatus spatulatus, down side. 2c: Metapolygnathus spatulatus spatulatus, side view. 3a: Metapolygnathus spatulatus spatulatus, upper side. 3b: Metapolygnathus spatulatus spatulatus, side view. 4a: Metapolygnathus abneptis abneptis, down side. 4b: Metapolygnathus abneptis abneptis, upper side view. 4c: Metapolygnathus abneptis abneptis, side view. Table 2 1a: Metapolygnathus spatulatus spatulatus, juvenile, upper side. 1b: Metapolygnathus spatulatus spatulatus, juvenile, upper side. 1c: Metapolygnathus spatulatus spatulatus, juvenile, side view. 2a: Metapolygnathus spatulatus spatulatus, juvenile, lower side. 2b: Metapolygnathus spatulatus spatulatus, juvenile, upper side. 2c: Metapolygnathus spatulatus spatulatus, juvenile, side view. 3a: Metapolygnathus spatulatus spatulatus, lower side. 3b: Metapolygnathus spatulatus spatulatus, upper side. 3c: Metapolygnathus spatulatus spatulatus, side view. 4a: Neogondolella navicula, upper side. 4b: Neogondolella navicula, lower side. 4c: Neogondolella navicula, side view. 5a: Metapolygnathus spatulatus spatulatus, upper side. 5b: Metapolygnathus spatulatus spatulatus, upper side. 5c: Metapolygnathus spatulatus spatulatus, side view. Fig.17 Drilling holes for magneto-stratigraphic aims, drilled most probably by the University of Vienna. At the end I should mention that work on this location has ended long ago. Good material can be gained only by very great efforts because the layer runs steep into solid mother rock. I hope you enjoyed this report and that I was able to give you a small insight into my special regional collecting field, the pelagic Triassic ammonites of the Alps. Kind regards Andreas Literature: HUCKRIEDE, R. (1958): Die Conodonten der mediterranen Trias und ihr stratigraphischer Wert. — Pal. Z., 32, 141-175, Stuttgart. KOZUR, H. & MOCK, R. (1972): Neue Conodonten aus der Trias der Slowakei und ihre stratigraphische Bedeutung. — Geol. Paläont. Mitt. Innsbruck, 2, 1—20, Innsbruck KOZUR, H(1973): Die Bedeutung der Conodonten für stratigraphische und paläogeographische Untersuchungen in der Trias. — Mitt. Ges. Geol. Bergbaustud., 212, 777—810, Innsbruck. KRYSTYN, L. Zur Ammoniten und Conodonten-Stratigraphie der Hallstätter Obertrias(Salzkammergut, Österreich), Verh.Geol. B.-A., Wien 1973 KRYSTYN, L., SCHÄFFER, G. & SCHLAGER, W. (1971b): Der Stratotypus des Nor.- Annales Inst. Geol. Publ. Hungar., 54, 2, 607-629, 7 Abb., Budapest MOJSISOVICS, E. 1893: Die Cephalopoden der Hallstätter Kalke, Abhandlungen der Kaiserlich-Königlichen Geologischen Reichsanstalt, II Band, Wien 1893 MOJSISOVICS, E. 1896: Beiträge zur Kenntniss der obertriadischen Cephalopoden Faunen des Himalaya, Denkschriften der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften Mathematisch–naturwissenschaftliche Classe, 63, 575–701. Wien 1896, TATZREITER, F. 1981, Ammonitenfauna und Stratigraphie im höheren Nor(Alaun, Trias) der Tethys aufgrund neuer Untersuchungen in Timor, Denkschr. Österr. Akad. Wiss., math.-naturwiss. KI., 121, Wien 1981, Springer Verlag TATZREITER, F. 1985. Zur Kenntnis der obertriadischen (Nor; Alaun, Sevat) trachyostraken Ammonoideen Jb. Geol. B.-A. ISSN 0016-7800 Band 128 Heft 2 S.219-226 Wien, Oktober 1985, 8 Abbildungen TATZREITER,F. 1984: Bericht über paläontologische Untersuchungen in Hallstätterkalken auf Blatt 76 Wr. Neustadt und 96 Bad Ischl. - Jb. Geol. B.-A., 128/2, Wien 1985 TOZER, E. T. 1994. Canadian Triassic ammonoid faunas. Geological Survey of Canada Bulletin, 467, 1–663.
  25. The columbianus Zone/Alaunium 2/ Norium/Upper Triassic in the so called "Hallstatt Limestone" of the Northern Calcareous Alps in Austria Dear Fossil Forum members! This pictured report about the ammonite bearing Triassic Hallstatt limestone will be the first one of a continuous series of reports. Since the beginning of the geological research in the Northern Calcareous Alps of Austria in the 19th century, about 500 species of Triassic ammonites have been described from the Hallstatt limestone by Mojsisovics, Hauer, Diener and other authors. The most important person in the development of the first Alpine Triassic ammonoid biostratigraphy was the Austrian palaeontologist Edmund von Mojsisovics. When viewing his classical monographs one is overwhelmed by the stunning Lithographics created by the artists of the late 19th century. Every recent serious triassic ammonoid researcher includes these old works in the standard literature of triassic ammonoids. Unfortunely his ammonoid bio-chronostratigraphic scale had some mistakes (changed zones) especially the incorrect stratigraphic position of some ammonoid zones in the Norian stage. It was the merit of E.T. Tozer to discover this weakness and to correct it. Hallstatt limestone facies is a type of triassic Ammonitico Rosso facies which also occurs in several other locations all over the world. The Hallstatt Limestone Facies of Austria consists typically of red to grey –coloured, in some parts abundantly fossiliferous limestones locally interbedded with marls. Also strongly condensed successions are common. Fossils mostly do not occur in continuous layers but in so called lenses and fissure fillings. The most common fossils are Ammonoids and Nautiloids, but Crinoids ossicles, Bivalves, Conodonts and Gastropods also occur. In this report I will introduce you to the Triassic ammonoid zone of the Alaunium 2 /Norium/ Upper Triassic of the Hallstatt formation. The stratigraphic level lower Alaunium 1 will be shown in a future report. Fig.1 A very beautiful view of a tectonic border. The Valley in front marks the tectonic border between the mainly Triassic Hallstatt unit und the Tirolikum unit of the Totengebirgs nappe. The highest mountain shown on the picture is the "Loser". The well bedded limestone in the summit area are of Jurassic age. This is in turn resting on Triassic "Dachstein" limestone that ends roughly in the middle of the picture. The name of this stage was chosen by Mojsisovics after the Celtic folk of the Alauns. In historical times this tribe lived in the forelands of the calcareous Alps in the area of the later Roman province Noricum. Zone ammonite of the Alaunium 2, outside of the Tethys realm, is Mesohimavatites columbianus Mc LEARN, well known from the boreal Triassic of British Columbia in Canada. In the Tethys realm the whole Alaunium is split into three subdivisions. Alaunium 1 = Bicrenatus -Zone, Alaunium 2 = (instead Columbianus) Hogarti- Zone, Alaunium 3 = (instead Columbianus) Macer -Zone The subzones I-IV shown in the timescale below were established after bed by bed collections in the well-bedded erratic limestone blocks of Timor by the Austrian geologist Franz Tatzreiter. Fig.2 In the Hallstatt limestone of the northern calcareous Alps, Himavatites sp. occurs very scarcely. It is impossible to use this genus for Stratigraphic aims on new detected locations. A normal collector could use the following rough scheme to insert ammonoids in the right stratigraphic subzone. But notice that strong condensation, fissure filling etc. can blur this schema. For a newbie collector it is much more difficult to find some fossils there at all. To place them into the right ammonoid zone is the easier part of the exercise. Rough scheme, to place ammonoids into the right subzones of the Alaunium 2 in the Hallstatt limestone. Subzone I+II: Distichites (especiallys in II) but no Halorites, Subzone III: Halorites starts, Distichites can be found too, but ends in this subzone, Subzone IV: Halorites frequent, main zone of „catenate Halorites" especially in the later time of this subzone. In the upper sphere of subzone 3 and in the lower sphere of subzone 4 Halorites sp. is a very common faunal element. In locations which expose this time interval Halorites is more common than other leiostraca (=ammonoids without sculpture) ammonoids like Arcestes sp. The often used term Halorites horizon (KRYSTYN, L., 1973) points that out exactly. Representative for the family of the Haloritidae, is shown Halorites ramsaueri (QUENST.),.Sommeraukogel, MOJSISOVICS (Bd. II), Wien 1893, Tafel 71, 76 und 77. Fig.3 The venter views laterally right show the variability of the end living chamber (after pictures by MOJSISOVICS Bd. II, Wien 1893) of Halorites ramsaueri QUENST. The right venter view could also be termed as a Halorites macer. The difference between H. macer and H. ramsaueri is not clear due to the great variability of these two species and is totally questionable in my opinion. Fig.4 Catenohalorites catenatus BUCH form MOJSISOVICS (Bd. II), Wien 1893 To the genus „Catenohalorites" count all species of Halorites, which show the chain like („catenat") arranged nodes of the inner whorls on the phragmocon too. (The inner whorls are more or less catenat by all Halorites sp.) Historical locations Beside the well known historical location of the Sommeraukogel, which exposed all four subzones, there are several other historical locations. For example: Hallein, Hoher Student, Leisling, Pötschenhöhe, Rossmoos and Röthelstein. Years ago I was lucky to find a talus block in an area of such an historical location. Later in this report I will show the ammonoids of this block. Two new faunas shown here in this report came from locations hitherto not yet described. Fauna 1 The first new location is in an area where the normal succession of limestone is penetrated by fractures with fissure filling and reworked horizons. One reworked horizon (not for sure yet, it could also be an untypical fissure filling) shows a Halorites fauna. Two nearby located, clear fissure fillings show a faunal association with Distichites but without Halorites. A shell fragment of a Himavatites sp. in the Distichites fissure may confirm the higher hogarti zone. One highlight of the Halorites location was the discovering of a Bambanagites MOJS. 1896. This is the first evidence of this genus in the Hallstatt realm. So far Bambanagites is yet only known from the Halorites limestone of the Bambanag- succession on Niti- Pass (Himalaya) in India, described by MOJSISOVICS with two species (B. schlagintweiti MOJS. and B. dieneri MOJS) In Dieners work, „Fauna of the Tropites-Limestone of Byans", another species, B. kraffti DIENER, is described. The Venter of B. kraffti is very sharp with only weak waves on the flank. Further research on Bambanagites (member of the family Pinacoceratidae) resulted in no other location/occurrence than the above mentioned location in India. Maybe Bambanagites occurs also in the Triassic of Timor. I haven't found any citation but judging by the frequent occurrence of fauna of alaunian ammonites there, it could be possible to find some. Fig 5 Bambanagites cf. dieneri MOJS. a first evidence in the Hallstatt limestone of the eastern Alps, possibly a worldwide first evidence outside the type locality in India. Fig.6 Bambanagites Dieneri, MOJSISOVICS 1896 .Cephalopoden der oberen Trias des Himalaya Taf. XVIII, Fig. 3 - 6. The impression of the Bambanagites sp. is on the backside of this slab with Halorites cf. macer MOJS.(8cm) on the following picture Fig.7 Halorites cf. macer MOJS. found in the location together with Bambanagites Fig.8 Halorites sp. with very prominent nodes on the venter Fig.9 Washed block from this location, with visible Halorites sp. Several other ammonoid species are also visible on this block which are frequent in the Alaunium 2. Rhacophyllites neojurensis QUENST. , Placites sp,, Halorites div. sp., Arcestes sp., Leislingites sp., Megaphyllites sp., Paracladiscites multilobatus BRONN., Steinmannites hoernesi HAUER, Alloclionites ares MOJS It is further worth a mention about the occurrence of the Ammonite genus. cf. Psamateiceras in this location. Natural picture size is 45cm. Other important ammonoid species of the macer zone A beautiful, conspicuous faunal element of the macer zone is Steinmannites sp. With different species this genus shows its maximum in this zone and was found relatively frequently in this location within the Halorites location. Fig.10 Steinmannites hoernesi (HAUER) from the Halorites-area in compairson with a Fig.11 cf. Eosteinmannites sp. from the Distichites-area of this location. Fig.12 ? cf. Pseudosirenites sp.(3cm) or cf. Mesohimavatites sp. from the Halorites-area Fig.13 Paracladiscites multilobatus BRONN. (5cm) Another frequent faunal element of the Alaunium 2 is Paracladiscites multilobatus BRONN. This species differs from Cladiscites and Hypocladiscites by the absence of the spiral striations. Only fine radial growth lines are visible on the shell. The genus Paracladiscites reaches throughout the whole columbianus- Zone up to the zone of Sagenites reticulatus/Cochloceras/Paracochloceras (Sevat2) Distichites Fig.14 Distichites megacanthus MOJS. from the Distichites area of this location. Fig.15 Venter view of Distichites megacanthus MOJS. Diameter is 19 cm; this is rather the growth limit of this species. Distichites sp. is easy to determine by the two bulges following the venter furrow Fig.16 Distichites cf. kmetyi (8cm) of this location Distichites were found in different species at this location but very scarcely. From 30-40 other ammonite's roughly one piece of Distichites sp. was found. Most common ammonites are Placites and Arcestes. Fig.17 Rhacophyllites neojurensis QUENST. (7cm) from the Distichites-area Rhacophyllites sp. runs up to the Sevat Fauna 2 The second new location comes from another area and is also a reworked horizon. This horizon is associated to a small tectonic fault which strikes through the surrounding normal-bedded limestone at a low angle. This zone of weakness may have already been active at the time of the limestone sedimentation and may have worked as a trap for fossils. The stratigraphic lower part (compared to the surrounding limestone beds) of this horizon bears big Halorites cf. ramsaueri embedded in micritic red limestone which was tectonically stressed. In the stratigraphic younger part of this horizon, compared to the normal-bedded surrounding limestone beds, sparitic fissure filling is given in which abundant small ammonoids and gastropods are embedded. According to the occurrence of scarce Sagenites sp. small catenate Halorites and small Hydrozoans, this sparitic part of the fissure filling dates into the subzone IV (after Tatzreiter). Fig.18 Cross-section of a Rhacophyllites neojurensis QUENST. In situ picture from the white sparitic filled stratigraphic upper part of the fissure. Natural size of the picture ca.30x25cm The left side of the picture shows how unspectacular the weathered rock looks, although the mossy vegetation has been removed before by hand. Fig.19 Gastropoda and Halorites-core (1cm), embedded in white calcite. Fig. 20 Slab with Steinmannites hoernesi HAUER, Paracladiscites multilobatus BRONN, Arcestes sp., Placites sp. und Leislingites sp., within white calcite embedded red limestone lithoclasts of the stratigraphic upper part of the fissure. Slab size is 16cm Fig.21 Visible Halorites sp. end body chamber from the stratigraphic lower part of this fissure. Fig.22 Block from the tectonically stressed area of this fissure. Well visible are the calcitically healed slip movements in this rock which show us a "frozen" moment during the lithification of this limestone. Now to the aforementioned talus block of an historical location. After the first blow of the hammer a Halorites was visible. By finding an Amarassites cf. semiplicatus HAUER I was able to date the fauna of this block into the Subzone III afterTatzreiter. Fig.23 Amarassites cf. semiplicatus HAUER (5cm) from the above mentioned talus block of an historical location. Fig.24 Halorites sp., freshly split talus block. Natural picture size ca.20cm At the end of my report some pictures of another Alaunian 3 Fauna. From this location I have less material. The faunal composition differs a little bit from the above mentioned locations. New to this location is cf. Parajuvavites mercedis MOJS. and cf. ?Acanthothetidites sp. Fig.25 Slab from this Alaunian fissure with cf. ? Acanthothetidites sp, („thorned"Ammonite on top, 3cm) Fig.26 Paracladiscites multilobatus BRONN, Arcestes sp., Parajuvavites cf. mercedis MOJS.(ribbed ammonite) Size of slab ca. 10cm Fig.27 Matrixrock of this location Natural size on picture ca. 35cm I hope you have enjoyed this report about my favourite collecting area. Unfortunly I cannot load up graphics. Maybe it is possible and I only do not know how to do this. Maybe somebody can help me in this case. A special thank is given to Fossil forum member "Ludwigia" for correcting my uncivil kind of English. Best regards Andreas Literature: DIENER, C.: Fauna of the Tropites-limestone of Byans. In: Himalayan Fossils, Palaeontologia Indica,(ser.15) 5/1, 1-201, Calcutta 1906 KRYSTYN, L. Zur Ammoniten und Conodonten-Stratigraphie der Hallstätter Obertrias(Salzkammergut, Österreich), Verh.Geol. B.-A., Wien 1973 KRYSTYN, L., SCHÄFFER, G. & SCHLAGER, W. (1971b): Der Stratotypus des Nor.- Annales Inst. Geol. Publ. Hungar., 54, 2, 607-629, 7 Abb., Budapest MOJSISOVICS, E. 1893: Die Cephalopoden der Hallstätter Kalke, Abhandlungen der Kaiserlich-Königlichen Geologischen Reichsanstalt, II Band, Wien 1893 MOJSISOVICS, E. 1896: Beiträge zur Kenntniss der obertriadischen Cephalopoden Faunen des Himalaya, Denkschriften der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften Mathematisch–naturwissenschaftliche Classe, 63, 575–701. Wien 1896, TATZREITER, F. 1981, Ammonitenfauna und Stratigraphie im höheren Nor(Alaun, Trias) der Tethys aufgrund neuer Untersuchungen in Timor, Denkschr. Österr. Akad. Wiss., math.-naturwiss. KI., 121, Wien 1981, Springer Verlag TATZREITER, F. 1985. Zur Kenntnis der obertriadischen (Nor; Alaun, Sevat) trachyostraken Ammonoideen Jb. Geol. B.-A. ISSN 0016-7800 Band 128 Heft 2 S.219-226 Wien, Oktober 1985, 8 Abbildungen TATZREITER,F. 1984: Bericht über paläontologische Untersuchungen in Hallstätterkalken auf Blatt 76 Wr. Neustadt und 96 Bad Ischl. - Jb. Geol. B.-A., 128/2, Wien 1985 TOZER, E. T. 1994. Canadian Triassic ammonoid faunas. Geological Survey of Canada Bulletin, 467,1–663.