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Found 23 results

  1. Pentremites.jpg

    From the album Northern's inverts

  2. Devonoblastus whiteavesi.jpg

    From the album Northern's inverts

  3. I went shopping for a nice Cystoid (We don't have in my area as far as I know) - Bought a Holocystites scutellatus - When researching the taxonomy, Wikipemedia Commons gives the following: Regnum: Animalia • Phylum: Echinodermata • Subphylum: Blastozoa • Classis: Cystoidea • Ordo: Aristocystitida • Familia: Aristocystitidae • Genus: Holocystites Hall, 1864 Fossilworks gives: Kingdom: Animalia Phylum: Echinodermata Subphylum: †Blastozoa - Sprinkle 1973 Class: †Diploporita Superfamily: †Sphaeronitida Family: †Holocystitidae Genus: †Holocystites So - Is it a CYSTOID or a BLASTOID? Or is science not sure???? I bought another one that Fossilworks DOES classify as a cystoid. Did some reading... seems the fossils from this location are listed as Holocystites and Cystoids. Any insight here? I am trying to build a nice representative collection, so I can start identifying on my own... and try to study when I have the time!!! Dave Ruckser
  4. From the album MY FOSSIL Collection - Dpaul7

    Blastoids - Two Pentremites in Matrix Chesterian Zone of the Bangor Limestone Formation in northern Alabama Mississippian Period (ca 325,000,000 years old) Blastoids (class Blastoidea) are an extinct type of stemmed echinoderm.[1] Often called sea buds, blastoid fossils look like small hickory nuts. They first appear, along with many other echinoderm classes, in the Ordovician period, and reached their greatest diversity in the Mississippian subperiod of the Carboniferous period. However, blastoids may have originated in the Cambrian. Blastoids persisted until their extinction at the end of Permian, about 250 million years ago. Although never as diverse as their contemporary relatives, the crinoids, blastoids are common fossils, especially in many Mississippian-age rocks. Pentremites is an extinct genus of blastoid echinoderm belonging to the family Pentremitidae. These echinoderms averaged a height of about 11 centimetres (4.3 in)but occasionally ranged up to about 3 times that size. They, like other blastoids, superficially resemble their distant relatives, the crinoids or sea lilies, having a near-idential lifestyle living on the sea floor attached by a stalk. They trapped food floating in the currents by means of tentacle-like appendages. Pentremites species lived in the early to middle Carboniferous, from 360.7 to 314.6 Ma. Its fossils are known from North America. Kingdom: Animalia Phylum: Echinodermata Class: †Blastoidea Order: †Spiraculata Family: †Pentremitidae Genus: †Pentremites
  5. From the album MY FOSSIL Collection - Dpaul7

    Blastoids - Two Pentremites in Matrix Chesterian Zone of the Bangor Limestone Formation in northern Alabama Mississippian Period (ca 325,000,000 years old) Blastoids (class Blastoidea) are an extinct type of stemmed echinoderm.[1] Often called sea buds, blastoid fossils look like small hickory nuts. They first appear, along with many other echinoderm classes, in the Ordovician period, and reached their greatest diversity in the Mississippian subperiod of the Carboniferous period. However, blastoids may have originated in the Cambrian. Blastoids persisted until their extinction at the end of Permian, about 250 million years ago. Although never as diverse as their contemporary relatives, the crinoids, blastoids are common fossils, especially in many Mississippian-age rocks. Pentremites is an extinct genus of blastoid echinoderm belonging to the family Pentremitidae. These echinoderms averaged a height of about 11 centimetres (4.3 in)but occasionally ranged up to about 3 times that size. They, like other blastoids, superficially resemble their distant relatives, the crinoids or sea lilies, having a near-idential lifestyle living on the sea floor attached by a stalk. They trapped food floating in the currents by means of tentacle-like appendages. Pentremites species lived in the early to middle Carboniferous, from 360.7 to 314.6 Ma. Its fossils are known from North America. Kingdom: Animalia Phylum: Echinodermata Class: †Blastoidea Order: †Spiraculata Family: †Pentremitidae Genus: †Pentremites
  6. From the album MY FOSSIL Collection - Dpaul7

    Pentremites Blastoid echinoderm fossil Kentucky, USA Early to Middle Carboniferous, from 360.7 to 314.6 years ago Blastoids (class Blastoidea) are an extinct type of stemmed echinoderm. Often called sea buds, blastoid fossils look like small hickory nuts. They first appear, along with many other echinoderm classes, in the Ordovician period, and reached their greatest diversity in the Mississippian subperiod of the Carboniferous period. However, blastoids may have originated in the Cambrian. Blastoids persisted until their extinction at the end of Permian, about 250 million years ago. Although never as diverse as their contemporary relatives, the crinoids, blastoids are common fossils, especially in many Mississippian-age rocks. Kingdom: Animalia Phylum: Echinodermata Class: Blastoidea Order: Spiraculata Family: Pentremitidae Genus: Pentremites
  7. From the album MY FOSSIL Collection - Dpaul7

    Pentremites Blastoid echinoderm fossil Kentucky, USA Early to Middle Carboniferous, from 360.7 to 314.6 years ago Blastoids (class Blastoidea) are an extinct type of stemmed echinoderm. Often called sea buds, blastoid fossils look like small hickory nuts. They first appear, along with many other echinoderm classes, in the Ordovician period, and reached their greatest diversity in the Mississippian subperiod of the Carboniferous period. However, blastoids may have originated in the Cambrian. Blastoids persisted until their extinction at the end of Permian, about 250 million years ago. Although never as diverse as their contemporary relatives, the crinoids, blastoids are common fossils, especially in many Mississippian-age rocks. Kingdom: Animalia Phylum: Echinodermata Class: Blastoidea Order: Spiraculata Family: Pentremitidae Genus: Pentremites
  8. Nucleocrinus powelli REIMANN, 1935

    Found as surface float at the bottom of the Windom exposure. Reference: Wilson, K. A. “Field Guide to the Devonian Fossils of New York” (2014). Paleontological Research Institution Special Publication No. 44.
  9. Those of you with keener memories may remember that I posted about a trip to Sulphur, IN earlier this year. After that trip, I've been wanting to get back pretty badly, dreaming of finding another shark tooth. Columbus day and the cool weather got me back down there on Monday. Like a trained dog, I headed right back to where I found the tooth before, knowing that it was improbable that I would find another. Within 30 minutes, I came up with this: This appears to be a mostly present disarticulated trilobite. Any ideas as to species? My previous trilo tail was thought to be Paladins Chesterensis. This matches pretty closely to photos I can find of Paladins online. I proceeded to find a couple more trilo tail fragments. One was clearly just a small piece, so I left it. Another might have more of the trilo embedded in the rock, so I brought it home. It's tiny. My next significant find was the biggest blastoid I've ever seen. It outclasses my previous biggest by 1/4" in width. As you can see, the part showing out of the rock is an inch wide point-to-point. The rock it is embedded in is a bit thin, so it's possible that it's crushed/squashed out flat and wide, but the exposed portion doesn't show any breakage. It may also just have the back side broken off. I didn't find anything else real exciting. I picked up some more of the dime sized blastoids, I just can't help myself. (I'm also thinking of sending them in to my son's kindergarten class.) I also picked up a few 3d brachiopods, which you don't see a lot of at Sulphur. I did see where someone else had slid down the slope from the shale layer...quite a ways. The Sulphur site is not for the faint of heart.
  10. Here's my haul from the last Dallas Paleo Society field trip to an abandoned quarry in Gore, OK. The age of the site is Pennsylvanian, Morrowan stage. The hunting was a bit difficult, due to all the recent rains encouraging TONS of plant growth throughout the site. No telling what wonderful fossils were concealed by all of the weeds. Still & all, we all found some good stuff & no one ran afoul of any snakes. First up, the big draw of the site, a blastoid. I found this one lying on the path into the quarry. I think this might be a weathered horn coral. It wouldn't be a Pennsylvanian site without some crinoid stem pieces! A 'stick' of bryozoan! Brachiopod with a little bryozoan crust! Another brachiopod with a heavier coat of bryozoan (Continued... )
  11. My latest prize

    Yesterday (Wednesday--it's now after 1AM), my husband and I went out hunting with Mikeymig (hi, Mike! Thanks for the trip!). We were looking around a steep slope of Windom shale pieces (Upper Devonian). I was mostly looking for loose brachiopods and horn corals, both of which were fairly plentiful at this site. In one area, I noticed a cluster of small corals on the path at my feet, and stopped to pick them up. One of the smaller pieces was suspiciously round.... Blastoid! It's about 1 cm wide. Mike identified it for us as Nucleocrinus. Apparently, they're rare at that site. This is a first for me. I've never found a blastoid (or a crinoid calyx) before. And if I hadn't been looking closely at my footing, I probably would have stepped on it!
  12. The spring here in New York has been great for we who collect fossils. There wasn't much rain at first but we did have a couple good gully washers recently that cleaned up my sites. I have found a couple of surprises like a huge brach stuck in the middle of a small gully within a waterfall and a topnotch Greenops prepped by Brian Dasno of Watertown NY. I hope the summer of 2015 will be as giving as the spring has been. I hope you enjoy viewing my specimens as much as I have finding them. Thanks, Mikey
  13. The snow is finally gone but the water is still freezing. It was 70 degrees out and rain was on the way. I got out to one of my favorite places and found a couple neat things that I think some of you might enjoy. Thanks! We found this brachiopod (Spinatrypa) during a collecting trip on 4/2 and when we got home and washed the mud off, we found a blastoid. We would have never found this rare fossil if we didn't pick up the brachiopod. A couple nice brachs I found last Thursday in NY. The Megastrophia is 2.5" x 2.5" and the Spinocyrtia is 2.8" long.
  14. Blastoid

    From the album 2014 highlights

    Found near Lake Fort Gibson dam, Oklahoma

    © &copy 2014 Zach DuFran

  15. I'd heard this location had blastoids, which I've never seen before, so last Friday me and a friend headed down there. We arrived around 930 or so and were immediately stuck by the steepness of the cut "we have to go up this?". We got up near the top where the really productive layer is and immediately started finding blastoids, archimedes, and small horn corals. Most blastoids were in the 1/2" range, I found one archimedes that is around 6" in a slab. Buddy found one blastoid that is probably over 1". The horn corals are generally small. Lots of crinoid bits and pieces also. We took a break for lunch and when we returned we had company. On the west side there was now a man and his son. We hit the east side but it wasn't very productive. Dropped back down and the man & son were gone, but now there was an older lady with 3 young boys. We crossed over and said hi. They were looking for fossils on the very bottom layer, which is hard limestone and not very productive. The boys got very excited when they saw my rock pick and boots. I gave them some of the duplicates of everything I had picked up earlier. I told them the good stuff was up there. Things evolved and me and my buddy wound up taking the two older boys up the road cut to hunt. The boys were very polite, calling us "sir" the whole time. We spent around 30 minutes up high, with them finding several examples on their own. I ended up giving them my bottle of water because they were dried out. I was identifying what they were finding or debunking psuedofossils (lots of those when you're 10/13) the whole time. They eventually asked me if I was a scientist. Eventually grandma yelled up that it was time to go, so we had to get down. I think all the grown-ups were much more concerned about it than the kids. The 13 year old scrabbled down 3 steep 4' shelves in no time. But I slowed down the 10 yeard old, I was afraid he was going to fall. I ended up getting below him and lifting him down each shelf. He actually told me I was really nice. Overall a fun trip, if a bit short. It was made more enjoyable by getting to help stir an interest in science in some youngsters.
  16. Spent a few wonderful hours in Hungry Hollow today! Found numerous interesting specimens in the South Pit, 2 of which are these awesome Blastoids! I never get tired of finding these and I make it my goal to find at least one each time I am there. I did not find one the last time I was there but to make up for that, today I found 2! I searched the UMMP image archive to help me identify them but I can only accurately identify one of them. Devonoblastus whiteavesi (on the left) Can someone help me identify this one?? note the star design on the basal
  17. I went to the North Pit of Hungry Hollow for a few hours on Friday. I spent most of my time digging through the clay piles and walking around the water's edge, scoping out a few recognizable shapes that are by now completely camouflaged by the clay. It's amazing that my eyes even zeroed in on my tiny trilobites but I guess they had waited long enough for me to take them home, and today was the day! One trilobite turned out to be just the head but the other is pretty cute. I met one hiker from Pennsylvania (Greg) that came through the trail along the North side of the river. I introduced myself and we chatted for a few minutes. i always enjoy meeting tourists from different parts of the country. As I headed out, I decided to try the north cliff near the parking area and there I found a very nice Heteroschisma alatum (blastoid). It is about 1/4" wide and 3/8" long. In my pill bottle it went! I hope the photo is clear enough to see the detail. I got called back home or I would have stayed there a few more hours, even though the sun was beating down on me. Even one good find keeps me there longer than I anticipated! Incidentally, I went home with a large bag of garbage that I collected in the pit. I try to take anything out (cans, bottles, plastic bags etc) that I can, each time I go there and it always surprises me that I find more the next time I go. I hope people will be mindful that it's a privilege for us to be able to dig there at the generosity of the land owners. Please take your litter home with you. Detail is a bit clearer in the image above. I took the time to dig a few footholds so I wouldn't take a spill down the hill!
  18. Some great finds this week - 4 Blastoids in one day (Aug 4) and 1 on Aug 10. Found my very first one last week. Now I WANT to find them and that seems to be what my eyes focus in on. My OCD (just kidding) wouldn't allow me to go home until I found one on my Aug 10 fossil hunt. And lo' and behold, I did! Found some very cool assorted trilobite bits - I'm a newbie so all pieces of trilobite are intriguing to me, even bums! I can never pass up Cyrtinas, they're awesome! Found the biggest one so far in my collection... I found LOTS of other interesting things that I have multiples of. Some PERFECT brachiopods, large and small (not pictured). Can't leave them behind when they're that pristine. I'm still learning to identify fossils properly. I had the good fortune of having a fossil buddy along with me who is much more knowledgeable and a real gentleman. We braved the cliffs and got out alive. It sure makes for fun fossil foraging! Can't wait to go out again!!! I need a manicure!
  19. Can You Help Id This Blastoid?

    Found this on August 4, in the same general location where I found my first Hyperoblastus Nucriformis blastoid on July 31. I'm not even sure that it is a blastoid. Can someone help ID it for me? It is about half an inch long. It appears to be fragmented on the fat end... I found it near the top of the Arkona formation in the South Pit of Hungry Hollow. Lise
  20. Spent 4 wonderful hours in the North and South Pit of Hungry Hollow with some new friends! Found a wonderful blastoid (my first) - it is 5/8" long! I hope the photo does it justice. I need some practice!! Also found some new brachiopods I did not have before... several pretty crinoid sections, most of a trilobite, some great coral sections and some ammonites. Oh, and a nice button coral! Tim found a beautiful crinoid feather star.. not too sure what it is called. It was at least 3" long and 3" wide... I would include a photo here but it's not mine to publish so hopefully he will publish one! It's always great to spend time hunting fossils with people who appreciate them and the patience it takes to find them! I can't wait to get back out there!
  21. Mystery Blastoid From Arkona

    Hi all, It's been a while since I've posted but I recently took a trip up to Arkona for one last search before winter sets in. It was a chilly day with light rain in the morning but time flew by thanks to a surprise visit by Jschmo (Darrell). He's a great guy to collect with an very knowledgeable. He pointed out to me where the Microcyclus thedforensis level is in the Arkona Fm. and then I proceeded to find a couple dozen specimens. My find for the day is this crushed, 9.5mm long blastoid: Sorry for the lighting but as it's still raining outside from Sandy I took the pics with my Zorb Microscope camera. I'm not sure who it is so any suggestions are welcomed. -Dave
  22. Cystoid, Blastoid, Or Crinoid?

    Found by a friend in the Mojave Desert. I wasn't sure if this was a cystoid, blastoid, or crinoid - or something else? I appreciate the help. -Zach
  23. These are a few of the pdf files (and a few Microsoft Word documents) that I've accumulated in my web browsing. MOST of these are hyperlinked to their source. If you want one that is not hyperlinked or if the link isn't working, e-mail me at joegallo1954@gmail.com and I'll be happy to send it to you. Please note that this list will be updated continuously as I find more available resources. All of these files are freely available on the Internet so there should be no copyright issues. Articles with author names in RED are new additions since July 10, 2018. Phylum Echinodermata Subphylum Blastozoa Class Blastoidea - Blastoids Bodenbender, B.E. (1995). Morphological, Crystallographic, and Stratigraphic Data in Cladistic Analyses of Blastoid Phylogeny. Contributions from the Museum of Paleontology - The University of Michigan, Vol.29, Number 9. Bodenbender, B.E. and D.C. Fisher (2001). Stratocladistic Analysis of Blastoid Phylogeny. J.Paleont., 75(2). Broadhead, T.W. (1984). Macurdablastus, A Middle Ordovician Blastoid from the Southern Appalachians. The University of Kansas Paleontological Contributions, Paper 110. Etheridge, R. and P.H. Carpenter (1886). Catalogue of the Blastoidea in the Geological Department of the British Museum (Natural History). Taylor and Francis, London. Etheridge, R. and P.H. Carpenter (1882). XXV. On certain Points in the Morphology of the Blastoidea, with Descriptions of some new Genera and Species. The Annals and Magazine of Natural History [Fifth Series], Number 52. Fay, R.O. (1961). Blastoid Studies. University of Kansas Paleontological Contributions, Article 27, Echinodermata 3. (26.89MB) Golden, J. and M.H. Niteki (1971). Catalog of Type and Referred Specimens of Crinozoa (Blastoidea) in Field Museum of Natural History.Fieldiana Geology, Vol.23, Number 4. Haas, O. (1945). Remarks on Some Chester Pentremites. American Museum Novitates, Number 1289. Joysey, K.A. and A. Breimer (1963). The Anatomical Structure and Systematic Position of Pentablastus (Blastoidea) from the Carboniferous of Spain. Palaeontology, Vol.6, Part 3. Macurda, D.B. (1983). Systematics of the Fessiculate Blastoidea. Papers on Paleontology - The University of Michigan, Number 22. (304 pages, 32 MB) Macurda, D.B. (1979). The Ontogeny and Taxonomy of the Mississippian Blastoid Genus Schizoblastus. Contributions from the Museum of Paleontology - The University of Michigan, Vol.25, Number 3. Macurda, D.B. (1977). Two Carboniferous Blastoids from Scotland. Palaeontology, Vol.20, Part 1. Macurda, D.B. (1973). The Stereomic Microstructure of the Blastoid Endoskeleton. Contributions from the Museum of Paleontology - The University of Michigan, Vol.24, Number 8. Macurda, D.B. (1966). The Devonian Blastoid Belocrinus from France. Palaeontology, Vol.9, Part 2. Macurda, D.B. (1964). A New Spiraculate Blastoid, Pyramiblastus, from the Mississippian Hampton Formation of Iowa. Contributions from the Museum of Paleontology - The University of Michigan, Vol.XIX, Number 8. Sprinkle, J. and J.A. Waters (2013). New Ridged, Conical, Fessiculate Blastoid from the Permian of Timor. J.Paleontol., 87(6). Waters, J.A., et al. (2015). Advancing Phylogenic Inference in the Blastoidea (Echinodermata): Virtual 3D Reconstructions of the Internal Anatomy. In: Progress in Echinoderm Palaeobiology. Zamora, S. and I. Rabano (eds.), Cuadernos del Museo Geominero, 19. Class Diploporita Frest, T.J., H.L. Strimple and C.R.C. Paul (2011). The North American Holocystites Fauna (Echinodermata: Blastozoa: Diploporita): Paleobiology and Systematics. Bulletins of American Paleontology, Number 380. Makhlouf, Y., et al. (2017). The diploporite blastozoan Lepidocalix pulcher from the Middle Ordovician of northern Algeria: Taxonomic revision and palaeoecological implications. Acta Palaeontologica Polonica, 62(2). Sheffield, S.L. (2017). The Homology and Phylogeny of the Diploporita (Blastozoa: Echinodermata). Ph.D. Dissertation - University of Tennessee, Knoxville. (184 pages) Class Eocrinoidea Allaire, N., et al. (2017). Morphological disparity and systematic revision of the eocrinoid genus Rhopalocystis (Echinodermata, Blastozoa) from the Lower Ordovician of the central Anti-Atlas (Morocco). Journal of Paleontology. Clausen, S. (2004). New Early Cambrian eocrinoids from the Iberian Chains (NE Spain) and their role in nonreefal benthic communities. Eclogae geol.Helv., 97. Nardin, E., E. Almazan-Vasquez and B.E. Buitron-Sanchez (2009). First report of Gogia (Eocrinoidea, Echinodermata) from the Early-Middle Cambrian of Sonora (Mexico), with biostratigraphical and palaeoecological comments. Geobios, 42. Parsley, R.L. and Y. Zhao (2006). Long Stalked Eocrinoids in the Basal Middle Cambrian Kaili Biota, Taijiang County, Guizhou Province, China. J.Paleont., 80(6). Rozhnov, S.V. (1994). Comparative morphology of Rhipidocystis Jaekel, 1900 and Cryptocrinites von Buch, 1840 (Eocrinoidea; Ordovician). In: Echinoderms through Time. Feral and Roux (eds.), Balkema, Rotterdam. Zamora, S., S. Darroch and I.A. Rahman (2013). Taphonomy and ontogeny of early pelmatozoan echinoderms: A case study of a mass-mortality assemblage of Gogia from the Cambrian of North America. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 377. Class incertae sedis Noailles, F., B. Lefebvre and L. Kašička (2014). A probable case of heterochrony in the solutan Dendrocystites (Echinodermata: Blastozoa) of the Prague Basin (Czech Republic) and a revision of the family Dendrocystitidae Bassler, 1938. Bulletin of Geosciences, 89(3). Class Parablastoidea Paul, C.R.C. and J.C.W. Cope (1982). A Parablastoid from the Arenig of South Wales. Palaeontology, Vol.25, Part 3. Rozhnov, S.V. (2013). A New Genus of Parablastoidea (Echinodermata) from the Middle Ordovician of Ladoga Glint on the Volkhov River (Ladoga Region). Paleontological Journal, Vol.47, Number 2. Sprinkle, J. and C.D. Sumrall (2008). New Parablastoids from the Western United States. The University of Kansas Paleontological Contributions, Number 16. Class Rhombifera Nardin, E. and J. Bohaty (2013). A new pleurocystitid blastozoan from the Middle Devonian of the Eifel (Germany) and its phylogenetic importance. Acta Palaeontologica Polonica, 58(3). Sumrall, C.D. and J. Sprinkle (1998). Early ontogeny of the glyptocystid rhombiferan Lepadocystis moorei. In: Echinoderm Research 1998. Carnevali, C. and Bonasoro (eds.), Balkema, Rotterdam. General Blastozoa Donovan, S.K. and C.R.C. Paul (1985). Coronate Echinoderms from the Lower Palaeozoic of Britain. Palaeontology, Vol.28, Part 3. Foerste, A.F. (1920). Racine and Cedarville Cystids and Blastoids With Notes on Other Echinoderms. The Ohio Journal of Science, Vol.XXI, Number 2. Foote, M. (1992). Paleozoic record of morphological diversity in blastozoan echinoderms. Proc.Natl.Acad.Sci., USA, Vol.89. Nardin, E., et al. (2010). Reappraisal of ambulacral branching patterns in blastozoans. In: Echinoderms: Durham. Harris, et al. (eds.), Taylor&Francis Group, London. Sumrall, C.D., et al. (2009). An Enigmatic Blastozoan Echinoderm Fauna from Central Kentucky. J.Paleont., 83(5). Subphylum Crinozoa (Except Class Crinoidea) Class Cystoidea Ehlers, G.M. and J.B. Leighly (1922). Lipsanocystis traversiensis, a New Cystid from the Devonian of Michigan. Papers from the Michigan Academy of Science, Arts, and Letters, Vol.II. Foerste, A.F. (1920). Racine and Cedarville Cystids and Blastoids With Notes on Other Echinoderms. The Ohio Journal of Science, Vol.XXI, Number 2. Henderson, R.A. and J.H. Shergold (1971). Cyclocystoides from Early Middle Cambrian Rocks of Northwestern Queensland, Australia. Palaeontology, Vol.14, Part 4. Hussey, R.C. (1928). Cystoids from the Trenton Rocks of Michigan. Contributions from the Museum of Paleontology - University of Michigan, Vol.III, Number 4. Kesling, R.V. (1963). Morphology and Relationships of Cyclocystoides. Contributions from the Museum of Paleontology - The University of Michigan, Vol.XVIII, Number 9. Kesling, R.V. (1963). Key for Classification of Cystoids. Contributions from the Museum of Paleontology - The University of Michigan, Vol.XVIII, Number 6. Kesling, R.V. (1962). Morphology and Taxonomy of the Cystoid Cheirocrinus anatiformis (Hall). Contributions from the Museum of Paleontology - The University of Michigan, Vol.XIII, Number 1. Kesling, R.V. (1962). An Interpretation of Rhombifera bohemica Barrande, 1867, An Unusual Hydrophoridian Cystoid. Contributions from the Museum of Paleontology - The University of Michigan, Vol.XVII, Number 13. Kesling, R.V. (1961). Notes on Jaekelocystis hartleyi and Pseudocrinites gordoni, Two Rhombiferan Cystoids Described by Charles Schuchert in 1903. Contributions from the Museum of Paleontology - The University of Michigan, Vol.XVI, Number 3. Kesling, R.V. (1961). A New Glyptocystites from Middle Ordovician Strata in Michigan. Contributions from the Museum of Paleontology - The University of Michigan, Vol.XVI, Number 2. Kesling, R.V. and L.W. Mintz (1961). Notes on Lepadocystis moorei (Meek) An Upper Ordovician Callocystid Cystoid. Contributions from the Museum of Paleontology - The University of Michigan, Vol.XVII, Number 4. Mergl, M. and R.J. Prokop (2006). Lower Ordovician cystoids (Rhombifera, Diploporita) from the Prague Basin (Czech Republic). Bulletin of Geosciences, 81(1). Paul, C.R.C. (1972). Morphology and Function of Exothecal Pore-Structures in Cystoids. Palaeontology, Vol.15, Part 1. Paul, C.R.C. (1968). Morphology and Function of Dichoporite Pore-Structures in Cystoids. Palaeontology, Vol.11, Part 5. Paul, C.R.C. (1968). Macrocystella Callaway, the Earliest Glyptocystitid Cystoid. Palaeontology, Vol.11, Part 4. Paul, C.R.C. (1967). Hallicystis attenuata, A New Callocystitid Cystoid from the Racine Dolomite of Wisconsin.Contributions from the Museum of Paleontology - The University of Michigan, Vol.XXI, Number 11. Paul, C.R.C. (1967). A Redescription of the Cystoid Lipsanocystis transversensis Ehlers and Leighley (Rhombifera: Callocystitidae). Contributions from the Museum of Paleontology - The University of Michigan, Vol.XXI, Number 9. Stumm, E.C. (1955). Three New Species of the Cystid Genus Lipsanocystis from the Middle Devonian Traverse Group of Michigan. Contributions from the Museum of Paleontology - The University of Michigan, Vol.XII, Number 6. Thomka, J.R., et al. (2016). Taphonomy of 'cystoids' (Echinodermata: Diploporita) from the Napoleon quarry of southeastern Indiana, USA: The Lower Silurian Massie Formation as an atypical Lagerstätte. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 443. Class Edrioasteroidea Edrioasteroidea - Africa/Middle East Guensburg, T.E. and S.V. Rozhnov (2014). A Unique Edrioasteroid from the Upper Middle Cambrian of Iran, Its Phylogenetic Implications and Paleoecology. Paleontological Journal, Vol.48, Number 4. Sumrall, C.D. and S. Zamora (2011). Ordovician edrioasteroids from Morocco: faunal exchanges across the Rheic Ocean. Journal of Systematic Palaeontology, Vol.9, Issue 3. Edrioasteroidea - Asia/Malaysia/Pacific Islands Zhao, Y.-L., et al. (2010). Kailidiscus, A New Plesiomorphic Edrioasteroid from the Basal Middle Cambrian Kaili Biota of Guizhou Province, China. J.Paleont., 84(4). Zhu, X.-J., S. Zamora and B. Lefebvre (2014). Morphology and palaeoecology of a new edrioblastoid from the Furongian of China. Acta Palaeontologica Polonica, 59(4). Edrioasteroidea - Australia/New Zealand Holloway, D.J. and P.A. Jell (1983). Silurian and Devonian Edrioasteroids from Australia. Journal of Paleontology, Vol.57, Number 5. Jell, P.A. (2014). A Tremadocian asterozoan from Tasmania and a late Llandovery edrioasteroid from Victoria. Alcheringa, 38. Webby, B.D. (1968). Astrocystites distans Sp.Nov., An Edrioblastoid from the Ordovician of Eastern Australia. Palaeontology, Vol.11, Part 4. Edrioasteroidea - Europe (including Greenland and Siberia) Sumrall, C.D. (2009). First Definite Record of Permian Edrioasteroids: Neoisorophusella maslennikovi N.Sp. from the Kungurian of Northeast Russia. J.Paleont., 83(6). Zamora, S. (2013). Morphology and Phylogenetic Interpretation of a New Cambrian Edrioasteroid (Echinodermata) from Spain. Palaeontology, Vol.56, Part 2. Zamora, S. and A.B. Smith (2010). The oldest isorophid edrioasteroid (Echinodermata) and the evolution of attachment strategies in Cambrian edrioasteroids. Acta Palaeontologica Polonica, 55(3). Zamora, S., et al. (2007). A Middle Cambrian edrioasteroid from the Murero biota (NE Spain) With Australian Affinities. Annales de Paleontologie, 93. Edrioasteroidea - North America Bassler, R.S. (1936). New Species of American Edrioasteroidea. Smithsonian Miscellaneous Collections, Vol.95, Number 6. Bell, B.M., H.L. Strimple and C.O. Levorson (1976). Edrioasteroids (Echinodermata) of the Maquoketa Formation of Iowa. Proceedings of the Iowa Academy of Science, Vol.83, Number 1, Article 6. Guensburg, T.E. and J. Sprinkle (1994). Revised Phylogeny and Functional Interpretation of the Edrioasteroidea Based on New Taxa from the Early and Middle Ordovician of Western Utah. Fieldiana Geology, New Series Number 29. Kammer, T.W., E.C. Tissue and M.A. Wilson (1987). Neoisorophusella, a New Edrioasteroid Genus from the Upper Mississippian of the Eastern United States. Journal of Paleontology, Vol.61, Number 5. Kesling, R.V. (1967). Edrioasteroid with Unique Shape from Mississippian Strata of Alberta. Journal of Paleontology, Vol.41, Number 1. Kesling, R.V. and L.W. Mintz (1960). Internal Structures in Two Edrioasteroid Species, Isorophus cincinnatiensis (Roemer) and Carneyella pilea (Hall). Contributions of the Museum of Paleontology - The University of Michigan, Vol.XV, Number 14. Kesling, R.V. and G.M. Ehlers (1958). The Edrioasteroid Lepidodiscus squamosus (Meek & Worthen) AND Timeschytes, A New Genus of Hemicystitid Edrioasteroid from the Middle Devonian Four Mile Dam Limestone of Michigan. Journal of Paleontology, Vol.32, Number 5. Meyer, D.L. (1990). Population Paleoecology and Comparative Taphonomy of Two Edrioasteroid (Echinodermata) Pavements: Upper Ordovician of Kentucky and Ohio. Historical Biology, Vol.4. Shroat-Lewis, R.A., et al. (2014). A Paleoecologic Comparison of Two Edrioasteroid (Echinodermata) Encrusted Pavements from the Upper Ordovician Corryville Formation of Florence, Kentucky and the Miamitown Shale of Sharonville, Ohio, U.S.A. Palaios, Vol.29. Shroat-Lewis, R.A., et al. (2011). Paleoecologic Assessment of an Edrioasteroid (Echinodermata)-Encrusted Hardground from the Upper Ordovician (Maysvillian) Bellevue Member, Maysville, Kentucky. Palaios, Vol.26. Sprinkle, J. (1985). New Edrioasteroid from the Middle Cambrian of Western Utah. The University of Kansas Paleontological Contributions, Paper 116. Sprinkle, J. and C.D. Sumrall (2015). New edrioasterine and astrocystitid (Echinodermata: Edrioasteroidea) from the Ninemile Shale (Lower Ordovician), central Nevada. Journal of Paleontology, 89(02). Sumrall, C.D. (2010). The Systematics of a New Upper Ordovician Edrioasteroid Pavement from Northern Kentucky. J.Paleont., 84(5). Sumrall, C.D. (2001). Paleoecology and Taphonomy of Two New Edrioasteroids from a Mississippian Hardground in Kentucky. J.Paleont., 75(1) Sumrall, C.D. (2000). The Biological Implications of an Edrioasteroid Attached to a Pleurocystidid Rhombiferan. J.Paleont., 74(1). Sumrall, C.D. (1996). Late Paleozoic Edrioasteroids (Echinodermata) from the North American Midcontinent. J.Paleont., 70(6). Sumrall, C.D. (1992). Spiraclavis nacoensis, A New Species of Clavate Agelacrinitid Edrioasteroid from Central Arizona. J.Paleont., 66(1). Sumrall, C.D. and J. Sprinkle (2015). Unusual ambulacral branching pattern in a new Ordovician giant edrioasteroid, Bizzaroglobus. J.Paleont., 89(2). Sumrall, C.D. and R.L. Parsley (2003). Morphology and Biomechanical Implications of Isolated Discocystinid Plates (Edrioasteroidea, Echinodermata) from the Carboniferous of North America. Palaeontology, Vol.46, Part 1. Sumrall, C.D. and A.L. Bowsher (1996). Giganticlavus, A New Genus of Pennsylvanian Edrioasteroid from North America. J.Paleont., 70(6). Sumrall, C.D., C.E. Brett and M.L. McKinney (2009). A New Agelacrinitid Edrioasteroid Attached to a Large Hardground Clast from the McKenzie Member of the Mifflintown Member (Silurian) of Pennsylvania. J.Paleont., 83(5). Sumrall, C.D., J. Sprinkle and R.M. Bonem (2006). An Edrioasteroid-Dominated Echinoderm Assemblage from a Lower Pennsylvanian Marine Conglomerate in Oklahoma. J.Paleont., 80(2). Edrioasteroidea - South America/Central America/Caribbean Sumrall, C.D., et al. (2013). The first report of South American edrioasteroids and the paleoecology and ontogeny of rhenopyrgid echinoderms. Acta Palaeontologica Polonica, 58(4). General Edrioasteroidea Bassler, R.S. (1935). The Classification of the Edtioasteroidea. Smithsonian Miscellaneous Collections, Vol.93, Number 8. Kesling, R.V. (1960). Hydropores in Edrioasteroids. Contributions from the Museum of Paleontology - The University of Michigan, Vol.XV, Number 8. Lewis, R.A. (2011). The Paleoecology and Biogeography of Ordovician Edrioasteroids. Ph.D. Dissertation - University of Tennessee, Knoxville. (187 pages) Oswald, K.J. (2005). Investigation of Discocystinid Edrioasteroid Feeding Strategies. Honors Thesis Project - University of Tennessee, Knoxville. Sumrall, C.D., J. Garbisch and J.P. Pope (2000). The Systematics of Postibullinid Edrioasteroids. J.Paleontol., 74(1). Zamora, S., C.D. Sumrall and D. Vizcaino (2013). Morphology and ontogeny of the Cambrian edrioasteroid echinoderm Cambraster cannati from western Gondwana. Acta Palaeontologica Polonica, 58(3). Subphylum Echinozoa (Except Echinoidea) Class Helicoplacoidea Dornbos, S.Q. and D.J. Bottjer (2001). Taphonomy and Environmental Distribution of Helicoplacoid Echinoderms. PALAIOS, Vol.16. Dornbos, S.Q. and D.J. Bottjer (2000). Evolutionary paleoecology of the earliest echinoderms: Helicoplacoids and the Cambrian substrate revolution. Geology, Vol.28, Number 9. Wilbur, B.C. (2005). A Revision of Helicoplacoids and Other Early Cambrian Echinoderms of North America. Ph.D. Dissertation - The University of Texas at Austin. Class Holothuroidea - Sea Cucumbers Applegate, S.P., et al. (2009). Two Lower Cretaceous (Albian) fossil holothurians (Echinodermata) from Tepexi de Rodriguez, Puebla, Mexico. Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington, 122(1). Henderson, A.S., A.D. Talwar and M.B. Hart (1992). Some Holothurian Sclerites from The Corallian Group of North Dorset. Proceedings of the Ussher Society, 8. Kalita, K.D., S.K. Kulshrestha and N. Sahni (2002). Fossil Holothurian Sclerite Assemblage from the Callovian-Oxfordian Rocks of Jaisalmer, Western Rajasthan, India. Journal of the Palaeontological Society of India, Vol.47. Kerr, A.M. and J. Kim (2001). Phylogeny of Holothuroidea (Echinodermata) inferred from morphology. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society, 133. Reich, M. (2017). First report of sea cucumbers Echinodermata: Holothuroidea) from the latest Cretaceous of Bavaria, Germany. Zitteliana, 89. Reich, M. (2015). Different Pathways in Early Evolution of the Holothurian Calcareous Ring? In: Progress in Echinoderm Palaeobiology. Zamora, S. and I. Rabano (eds.), Cuadernos del Museo Geominero, 19. Reich, M. (2013). How many species of fossil holothurians are there? In: Echinoderms in a Changing World. Johnson (ed.), Taylor & Francis Group, London. Reich, M. (2012). On Mesozoic laetmogonid sea cucumbers (Echinodermata: Holothuroidea: Elasipodida)*. Zoosymposia, 7. Reich, M. (2004). Holothurians from the Late Cretaceous 'Fish shales' of Lebanon. In: Echinoderms - Munchen. Heinzeller, T. & J.H. Nebelsick (eds.), Taylor & Francis Group, London. Reich, M. (2004). Aspidochirote holothurians (Echinodermata) from the Middle Triassic of southern Germany. In: Echinoderms - Munchen. Heinzeller, T. & J.H. Nebelsick (eds.), Taylor & Francis Group, London. Reich, M. (2001). Ordovician holothurians from the Baltic Sea area. In: Echinoderms 2000. Barker, M. (ed.), A.A. Balkema Publishers. Reich, M. and F. Wiese (2010). Apodid sea cucumbers (Echinodermata: Holothuroidea) from the Upper Turonian of the Isle of Wolin, NW Poland. Cretaceous Research, 31. Reich, M. and M. Kutscher (2001). Ophiocistoids and holothurians from the Silurian of Gotland, Sweden. In: Echinoderms 2000. Barker (ed.), Swets & Zeitlinger, Lisse. Walkiewicz, A. (1977). Holothurian sclerites from the Korytnica Clays (Middle Miocene; Holy Cross Mountains, Poland). Acta Geologica Polonica, Vol.27, Number 2. Zawidzka, K. (1971). Triassic Holothurian Sclerites from Tatra Mountains. Acta Palaeontologica Polonica, Vol.XVI, Number 4. Class Ophiocistioidea Prokop, R.J. and V. Petr (2002). Survey of echinoderms and a new ophiocistoid Branzoviella talpa gen. et sp.nov. (Echinodermata, Ophiocistioidea) in the Lower Devonian, Lochkov Formation of the Barrandian area, Czech Republic. Bulletin of the Czech Geological Survey, Vol.77, Number 3 Reich, M. and R. Haude (2004). Ophiocistioidea (fossil Echinodermata): an overview. in: Echinoderms: Munchen. Heinzeller and Nebelsick (eds.), Taylor & Francis Group, London. Reich, M. and M. Kutscher (2001). Ophiocistoids and holothurians from the Silurian of Gotland, Sweden. In: Echinoderms 2000. Barker (ed.), Swets & Zeitlinger, Lisse. Subphylum Homalozoa Class Ctenocystoidea Rahman, I.A. and S. Clausen (2009). Re-evaluating the Palaeobiology and Affinities of the Ctenocystoidea (Echinodermata). Journal of Systematic Palaeontology, 7(4). Class Homostelea Fatka, O. and V. Kordule (2001). Asturicystis havliceki sp. nov. (Echinodermata, Homostelea) from the Middle Cambrian of Bohemia (Barrandian Area, Czech Republic). Journal of the Czech Geological Society, 46/3-4. Class Stylophora (may be Polyphyletic) Clausen, S. and A.B. Smith (2005). Palaeoanatomy and biological affinities of a Cambrian deuterostome (Stylophora). Nature (Letters). Hunter, A.W., et al. (2007). A mixed ophiuroid-stylophoran assemblage (Echinodermata) from the Middle Ordovician (Llandeilian) of western Brittany, France. In: Palaeozoic Reefs and Bioaccumulations: Climatic and Evolutionary Controls. Alvaro, J.J., et al. (eds.), Geological Society, London, Special Publications 275. Lee, S.-B., B. Lefebvre and D.K. Choi (2005). Latest Cambrian Cornutes (Echinodermata: Stylophora) from the Taebaeksan Basin, Korea. J.Paleont., 79(1). Lee, S.-B., B. Lefebvre and D.K. Choi (2004). Morphometric analysis of Tremadocian (earliest Ordovician) kirkocystid mitrates (Echinodermata, Stylophora) from the Taebaeksan Basin, Korea. Geobios, 37. Lefebvre, B. (2001). A Critical Comment on 'Ankyroids' (Echinodermata, Stylophora). Geobios, 34(6). Lefebvre, B. (2000). A New Mitrate (Echinodermata, Stylophora) from the Tremadoc of Shropshire (England) and the Origin of the Mitrocystidida. J.Paleont, 74(5). Lefebvre, B. and J.P. Botting (2007). First report of the mitrate Peltocystis cornuta Thoral (Echinodermata, Stylophora) in the Lower Ordovician of central Anti-Atlas (Morocco). Annales de Paleontologie, 93. Lefebvre, B. and P.R. Racheboef (2007). First Report of Mitrate Stylophorans (Echinodermata) in the Lower Devonian of Bolivia. In: 4th European Meeting on the Palaeontology and Stratigraphy of Latin America. Diaz-Martinez, E. and I. Rabano (eds.), Cuadernos del Museo Geominero, Number 8. Parsley, R.L. and J.C. Gutierrez-Marco (2005). Stylophorans in middle Arenig shallow water siliciclastics: Vizcainocarpus from the Imfout Syncline in Morocco's western Meseta. Bulletin of Geosciences, Vol.80, Number 3. Reid, M. (2017). Taphonomy, palaeoecology and taxonomy of an ophiuroid-stylophoran obrution deposit from the Lower Devonian Bokkeveld Group, South Africa. Masters Dissertation - University of Capetown. (149 pages) Ruta, M. (1998). An Abnormal Specimen of the Silurian Anomalocystitid Mitrate Placocystites forbesianus. Palaeontology, Vol.41, Part 1. General Echinodermata General Echinodermata - Africa/Middle East Kristan-Tollmann, E. (1991). Echinoderms from the Middle Triassic Sina Formation (Aghdarband Group) in NE Iran. In: The Triassic of Aghdarband (AqDarband), NE-Iran, and its Pre-Triassic Frame. Ruttner, A.W. (ed.), Abh. Geol. B.-A., Vol.38. Lefebvre, B., M. Ghobadipour and E. Nardin (2005). Ordovician echinoderms from the Tabas and Damghan regions, Iran: palaeobiogeographical implications. Bull.Soc.geol.Fr., Vol.176, Number 3. General Echinodermata - Antarctica Blake, D.B. and R.B. Aronson (1998). Eocene Stelleroids (Echinodermata) at Seymour Island, Antarctic Peninsula. J.Paleont., 72(2). Taylor, B.J. (1966). Taxonomy and Morphology of Echinodermata from the Aptian of Alexander Island. Br.Antarct.Surv.Bull., Number 8. General Echinodermata - Asia/Malaysia/Pacific Islands Shu, D.-G., et al. (2002). Ancestral echinoderms from the Chengjiang deposits of China. Nature, Vol.430. General Echinodermata - Europe (including Greenland and Siberia) Forbes, E. (1852). Monograph of the Echinodermata of the British Tertiaries. The Palaeontographical Society. Lewis, D.N., et al. (2007). A field guide to the Silurian Echinodermata of the British Isles: Part 1 - Eleutherozoa and Rhombifera. Scripta Geol., 134. Parsley, R.L. and R.J. Prokop (2004). Functional morphology and paleoecology of some sessile Middle Cambrian echinoderms from the Barrandian region of Bohemia. Bulletin of Geosciences, Vol.79, Number 3. Prokop, R.J. and V. Petr (1999). Echinoderms in the Bohemian Ordovician. Journal of the Czech Geological Society, 44/1-2. Reich, M., L. Viller and M. Kutscher (2004). The echinoderms of the Rugen White Chalk (Maastrichtian, Germany). In: Echinoderms - Munchen. Heinzeller, T. & J.H. Nebelsick (eds.), Taylor & Francis Group, London. Zamora, S. and A.B. Smith (2008). A new Middle Cambrian stem-group echinoderm from Spain: Palaeobiological implications of a highly asymmetric cinctan. Acta Palaeontologica Polonica, 53(2). Zamora, S., J. Javier Alvaro and D. Vizcaino (2009). 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