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  1. The idea that sensory pits were present in Theropod dinosaurs is not a new one, but for some reason I can't find any information on them and chat GPT says the presence of these structures in dinosaurs lacks fossil evidence. Below I present sensory pits in the jaw of an alligator and in the jaw of Albertosaurus. These pits are also known to be present in the jaws of some birds. In birds and crocodilians these sensory pits are believed to be used to detect vibrations in different substrates ( water for crocodilians and wood/soil for birds) in order to enhance prey detection and capture. My idea for sensory pits in Theropod dinosaurs (the ones that had them) is that they may have been used to detect prey in rotting logs or in shallow burrows. Why would large theropods have them? It is generally believed that young theropods were obviously alot smaller than the adults and probably ate things like insects or small vertebrates. I believe it is very likely that young Theropods used these sensory pits to help them locate these small animals that would be in substrates like wood (rotting stumps?) or soil. It's possible they were able to detect vibrations in the ground from approaching animals as a defense mechanism while they slept. It seems probable to me that these sensory pits may have been retained into adulthood by animals like Albertosaurus, etc...and lost by others. Of course these are believed to be present in piscivores like Baryonyx and Spinosaurus as well, which probably would have used them to enhance their fishing abilities. I intend to do some research into this and see if these sensory pits appear to be more common in juveniles ( where available) and how wide spread they were among Theropods in addition to the implications for feeding habits, etc in these animals as they aged. I would be interested in hearing some of your ideas about this.
  2. Fullux

    Tiny theropod tooth

    Any idea what this little tooth could be from? It was found in the Hell Creek formation outside of Faith, South Dakota. It has no serrations and the seller says it may be a juvenile richardoestesia.
  3. ThePhysicist

    Tyrannosaurid vs Dromaeosaurid

    From the album: Hell Creek / Lance Formations

    As a theropod tooth aficionado, I thought it useful to compare two families present in the Hell Creek Formation. They become increasingly difficult to distinguish as they get smaller, but this graphic presents some features which may be used to differentiate them on two similarly-sized exceptional specimens. Keep in mind there is some variability due to position, ontogeny, etc., so it's beneficial to study more than one tooth for each family.
  4. Marco90

    Spinosaurus aegyptiacus

    From the album: My collection in progress

    Spinosaurus aegyptiacus Stromer 1915 Location: Kem Kem Beds, Morocco Age: 95 Mya (Cenomanian, Upper Cretaceous) Measurements: 7x2 cm Kingdom: Animalia Phylum: Chordata Subphylum: Vertebrata Class: Reptilia Subclass: Diapsida Superorder: Dinosauria Order: Saurischia Suborder: Theropoda Family: Spinosauridae
  5. Mahnmut


    From the album: Skeleton models

    Upper cretaceous of Mongolia, mostly handmade using parts of different models, skull sculpted digitally

    © Jan Frost

  6. Mahnmut


    From the album: Skeleton models

    Upper cretaceous of northern Africa Model handmade

    © Jan Frost

  7. Mahnmut


    From the album: Skeleton models

    Upper cretaceous Madagascar Modified elenco T-rex

    © Jan Frost

  8. ThePhysicist

    Bull Canyon Theropod?

    Hi y'all, found this partial tooth in micromatrix from the Triassic-aged Bull Canyon formation. Serration density looks to be 9-10 / mm on the dc. Could it be dinosaurian?
  9. ThePhysicist


    From the album: Aguja Formation

  10. ThePhysicist

    Theropod tooth fragment

    From the album: Aguja Formation

    Finally, a theropod! It's just a fragment, however.
  11. PointyKnight

    Kem Kem Notosuchian or Theropod?

    Hey everyone! I just received a few teeth from the Kem Kem Beds near Taouz, Morocco. Among them one has me particularly stumped - I’ll do my best to provide as much information as possible, but let me know if more is needed! The tooth was listed as a theropod, though even the seller thought that assignment was only tentative. Its total height is 14mm. As the pictures above show, it’s moderately recurved as well as slightly curved lingually, with very distinct flutes running the whole length of the crown, 6 lingually and 9 labially, with the lingual flutes appearing stronger. It’s mediolaterally compressed, with a flat (or slightly concave?) lingual and more rounded labial profile, and a slightly lingually offset mesial carina. The distal carina reaches the base of the crown, whereas the mesial carina stops slightly short of it. The serration density on the distal carina is about 5/mm, on the mesial carina it’s about 7.5/mm (definitely noticeably smaller), getting more dense towards the base. When it comes to weird carnivores there’s of course no shortage in the Kem Kem, with a plethora of unusual teeth without a known owner. So far I haven’t come across one quite like this. I wouldn’t want to exclude the possibility of it being a theropod completely from the start. Still, my first thought went to Notosuchia: There’s an abundance of notosuchians known from the Kem Kem Group, probably as many described as undescribed. For one, there’s the small uruguaysuchid Araripesuchus rattoides (SERENO & LARSSON 2009), which can be excluded pretty easily. Aside from A. rattoides teeth being generally far smaller, the morphology doesn’t fit either: Specimens such as MNN GAD19 illustrate well that the largest teeth in Araripesuchus, its caniniforms, are recurved, but far more bulbous than what we are looking for. The other parts of its dentition are highly heterodont, with mostly small, low, rounded crowns. Additionally, none of its teeth are fluted in the fashion we see here. Next in line are the peirosaurids Hamadasuchus rebouli (BUFFETAUT 1994) and an as of yet undescribed taxon likely closer to more derived peirosaurids, Peirosauridae B [ROM 52620 and ROM 49282]. The latter is often attributed to H. rebouli, but will hopefully be revised after the description of BSPG 2005 I 83. IBRAHIM et al. 2020 lump everything into Hamadasuchus, but didn’t do their own analysis and note that reevaluations are in order. Similar to Araripesuchus, peirosaurids are highly heterodont, with conical anterior teeth and lower, more robust posterior teeth. The relatively high number of specimens helps in this regard: While recurved, the anterior teeth in Hamadasuchus are subconical and not overtly fluted. The posterior teeth, while possessing serrated carinae and showing some fluting, are far more stout and bulbous. In Peirosaurid B, the anterior teeth, most notably the caniniforms, are indeed fluted and recurved, but are very conical and do not possess serrated carinae. The posterior teeth, while possessing serrated carinae, some mediolateral compression, and being overall taller than in Hamadasuchus, are not recurved or fluted, but symmetrical and far more blunt than the pointed form we are looking for. Lastly, there are the ziphosuchians: IBRAHIM et al. 2020 use ‘Candidodontidae’ CARVALHO et al. 2004, though they note it’s unclear what exactly this family comprises of, so it might be best to treat its members simply as basal ziphosuchians. Libycosuchus brevirostris (STROMER 1914, 1915) has very little preserved in terms of teeth, and sits between other notosuchians which have very strange dentitions themselves. Looking at relatives such as Candidodon (CARVALHO & CAMPOS 1988), it would appear that these basal taxa would also have had mostly heterodont dentitions with conical anterior and low posterior teeth. Additionally, BUFFETAUT 1976 notes that the teeth appear to have been comparatively small overall, which appears right when looking at the alveoli of BSP 1912. I couldn’t find any reference to fluting or serrations in its immediate relatives, only in the far more derived members of this group, called ‘advanced notosuchians’ by POL & LEARDI 2015. There’s some evidence that animals similar to these younger South American taxa might have existed in the Kem Kem noted by IBRAHIM et al. 2020, but even then, the anterior teeth in this group show a consistently conical or teardrop-shaped cross-section, not the compressed shape we see here. IBRAHIM et al. 2020 go on to refer some material to Sebecidae SIMPSON 1937, though this is likely due to the general instability in notosuchian taxonomy. The material isn’t described in the text, but is highly doubtful to be from a true sebecid, as that family is only known from the Maastrichtian onward. Quite frankly I’m at a bit of a loss. I know trying to ID Kem Kem teeth too often ends in ‘We just don’t know’, and having looked at the options I haven’t made much headway - the tooth doesn’t really resemble anything that’s described or goes into the direction of what’s undescribed and fragmentary, at least to me. So I’d like to hear your opinions - is there something I have grossly overlooked? Is it just a very weird notosuchian or something else? Could it be a theropod after all? I’d love to hear your thoughts! Thank you very much for your help! BUFFETAUT, E. 1976: Der Land-Krokodilier Libycosuchus STROMER und die Familie Libycosuchidae (Crocodylia, Mesosuchia) aus der Kreide Afrikas BUFFETAUT, E. 1994: A New Crocodilian from the Cretaceous of Southern Morocco CARVALHO, I.d.S., & CAMPOS, D.d.A. 1988: Um mamífero triconodonte do Cretáceo Inferior do Maranhão, Brasil CARVALHO, I.S., RIBEIRO, L.C.S. & AVILLA, L.S. 2004: Uberabasuchus terrificus sp.nov., a New Crocodylomorpha from the Bauru Basin (Upper Cretaceous), Brazil IBRAHIM andabunchofothers, 2020: Geology and Paleontology of the Upper Cretaceous Kem Kem Group of Eastern Morocco POL, D. & LEARDI, J.M. 2015: Diversity Patterns of Notosuchia (Crocodyliformes, Mesoeucrocodylia) During the Cretaceous of Gondwana SERENO, P.C. & LARSSON, H.C.E. 2009: Cretaceous Crocodyliforms from the Sahara SIMPSON, G.G. 1937: New Reptiles from the Eocene of South America STROMER, E. 1914: Ergebnisse der Forschungsreisen Prof. E. Stromers in den Wüsten Ägyptens. II. Wirbeltier-Reste der Baharije-Stufe (unterstes Cenoman). 1. Einleitung und 2. Libycosuchus @Troodon
  12. Praefectus

    Tyrannosaur Tooth

    Premaxillary tooth EDIT: Changed from Tyrannosaurus rex to Tyrannosaurid indet.
  13. A ‘Jurassic Park’ icon was so much different in real life, BRG_Com https://bgr.com/2020/07/08/dilophosaurus-jurassic-park-study/ Famous Jurassic Park Dinosaur Was More Powerful than Previously Thought, Sci News, July 9, 2020 http://www.sci-news.com/paleontology/dilophosaurus-wetherilli-08620.html The paper is: Marsh, A., & Rowe, T. (2020). A comprehensive anatomical and phylogenetic evaluation of Dilophosaurus wetherilli (Dinosauria, Theropoda) with descriptions of new specimens from the Kayenta Formation of northern Arizona. Journal of Paleontology, 94(S78), 1-103. doi:10.1017/jpa.2020.14 https://www.cambridge.org/core/journals/journal-of-paleontology/article/comprehensive-anatomical-and-phylogenetic-evaluation-of-dilophosaurus-wetherilli-dinosauria-theropoda-with-descriptions-of-new-specimens-from-the-kayenta-formation-of-northern-arizona/39C2921EDC6E951AC9F94A22158CA4E5 Yours, Paul H.
  14. New Feathered Carnivorous Dinosaur Found in Brazil by Enrico de Lazaro, Sci.News, July 14, 2020 http://www.sci-news.com/paleontology/aratasaurus-museunacionali-08633.html Fossilised foot of a three-toed dinosaur that lived in Brazil 115 million years ago is identified as belonging to a new species that may be a forerunner of today's birds. Daily Mail https://www.dailymail.co.uk/sciencetech/article-8517113/Fossilised-foot-three-toed-dinosaur-lived-Brazil-115-million-years-ago-found.html The open access paper is: Sayão, J.M., Saraiva, A.Á.F., Brum, A.S., Bantim, R.A.M., de Andrade, R.C.L.P., Cheng, X., de Lima, F.J., de Paula Silva, H. and Kellner, A.W., 2020. The first theropod dinosaur (Coelurosauria, Theropoda) from the base of the Romualdo Formation (Albian), Araripe Basin, Northeast Brazil. Scientific Reports, 10(1), pp.1-15. https://www.nature.com/articles/s41598-020-67822-9 Yours, Paul H.
  15. Everyone probably knows the theropod distal femur from the Taynton Limestone Formation of Oxfordshire that was illustrated by Robert Plot in 1677 and thought to be from a Roman war elephant or biblical giant, and which was dubbed " humanum"* by Richard Brookes in 1763. However, even though the femur illustrated by Plot (now missing) has often been considered to belong to Megalosaurus, but as noted in Halstead and Sarjeant (1993), this femur might belong to a theropod other than Megalosaurus, as Duriavenator, Magnosaurus, Iliosuchus, and Cruxicheiros co-existed lived in the same time and region as Megalosaurus. *" humanum" was not a binomial, but instead an anatomical label; see Halstead and Sarjeant (1993). Halstead, L. B.; Sarjeant, W. A. S. (1993). humanum Brookes - the earliest name for a dinosaur. Modern Geology 18: 221–224.
  16. PointyKnight

    Hell Creek Metatarsal Joint Fragment

    Hey everyone, I recently came across this fossil online. It was listed as a metatarsal joint fragment, which to me checks out, but the person further identified it as a Dromaeosaurid [though they didn't specify based on what characters] and tentatively assigned it to Dakotaraptor based on size. Now I was wondering: Can remains this fragmental even be reliably distinguished from the other small- to medium-sized theropods in Hell Creek? The fossil was found in Hell Creek deposits in Wyoming [no info on the exact location], measures 30.9 x 27.5mm [not specified along which sides], and weighs 252 grams. Thank you for any input on this!
  17. Hi! I recently aqcuired quite a lot of "microfossils" to kick off my Triassic collection, as I personally find it one of the most interesting time periods and while I am aware possibly not all of them are ID'd correctly I just wanted to get some nice fossils from this time period regardless of their ID's. All the fossils I acquired are from the Bull Canyon Formation, Dockum Group, San Miguel County, New Mexico, USA (Norian age) But I myself am not very knowledgeable yet in this material as I just started my collection but I am aware that some if not most of the ID's on these fossils given by the seller might be wrong as everything I read about the Bull Canyon formation says that the formation isn't that well discribed yet. I tried to make the photo's as good as I could, but it wasn't always easy given their extremely small size, so I hope the quality is good enough to work with. So I am kinda hoping is someone here on the forum would like to give it a try to see if he/she could confirm or disprove given ID's. Thank you in advance! The first set of 2 teeth were listed as the Phytosaur "Pseudopalatus" teeth which after doing a bit of research is considered a junior synonym for "Machaeroprosopus" The next collection of 3 teeth were listed as the Pseudosuchian "Revueltosaurus" The next tooth was listed as a "Theropod indet" tooth, and I know there are at least 2 species of theropod present at Bull Canyon, a Coelophysid called Gojirasaurus and a herrerasaurid called Chindesaurus. But I am not even sure whether this tooth is dinosaurian or not. The next set of teeth were listed as "Arganodus" lungfish teeth And the final tooth was listed as a "Sphenodont" (Rhynchocephalia indet.) tooth with affinities to Clevosaurus (which is found in Nova Scotia, Great Britain and China)
  18. Anomotodon

    French ?Spinosaurid

    From the album: Dinosaurs and Reptiles

  19. Jaimin013

    Allosaurus sp.

    From the album: My Collection

    Allosaurus sp. Morrison Formation Upper Jurassic Moffat County, Colorado Size: 6cm
  20. The Amateur Paleontologist

    DPP Theropods by size

    Found this rather interesting diagram in the Currie & Longrich (2009) paper describing Hesperonychus. The diagram shows outlines of several carnivorous theropods from the Dinosaur Provincial Park assemblage, to illustrate the size & morphological range. I thought some people might like to see this @Troodon @Canadawest @Paleoworld-101
  21. The Amateur Paleontologist

    Entire theropod cladogram

    Hey everyone Would anyone here know of the most recent and up-to-date cladogram for the entire Theropoda? In what paper does it appear in? Thanks for the help. -Christian
  22. emc2

    Is it a raptor claw?

    Is it a raptor claw?
  23. Jaimin013

    Tyrannosaurus Rex Tooth? ID

    Hi everyone, I am new to fossils and have got hold of a Tyrannosaurus Rex from someone I know. The tooth was found in Hell Creek Formation, Faith, South Dakota USA and is 2.5 inches in length and the teeth itself is really heavy (pics attached). Let me know if you need me to take clearer photos of serrations as it is quite hard as my camera's macro focus doesn't work very well. As you can see from the pics this teeth has some surface wear to the enamel and serrations... Serrations worn may have been from feed wear. Please can you help me identify if its from the Tyrannosaurus Rex as opposed to one of the members like the Nanotyrannosaurus or Carcharodontosaurus? Thank you! Jai
  24. M.Mark

    Theropod tooth from Kem Kem

    I recently received as a gift this very small theropod tooth fragment from Morocco. I labeled it as Theropod indet., but I'm searching for a possibly more specific ID. In my opinion it may be a 2 cm broken tip of a small tooth from a Carcharodontosaur, but I also thought of the Abelisaur possibility. I tend to ignore the relatively unknown Deltadromeus and the hipothetical dromaeosaur, given the lack of good material, but I'm open to suggestions. Here you can see two focus photos of the serrations I took with a small digital microscope. As you see, there is a slight difference between the two sides. Still001.bmp Still004.bmp
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