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  1. Hi Everyone! A couple of days ago I returned from a fieldtrip to the Solnhofen region in Germany. The trip was organized by my fossilclub the BVP as well as my friend and professional paleontologist Jonathan Wallaard who led the trip. During our 4 day stay we visited 3 different quarries and the Burgermeister-Müller-Museum in Solnhofen. The Solnhofen Limestone is probably one of the most famous Konservat-Lagerstätte in the World. Dating back to the late Jurassic, Tithonian around 152 - 150 million years ago. During this time this area was a tropical archipelago in the Tethys Sea with many small islands and shallow lagoons. Due to its exceptional preservation we have an extensive record of the marine fauna as well a some knowledge of terrestrial species which inhabited the islands (which should have been located around 30 km from the mainland if I heard correctly from one of the quarry owners.) These seas were home to multiple species of ammonites, belemnites and squids; crinoïds like the free-floating Saccocoma; Echinoïds and Starfish; Horseshoe crabs, lobsters, crabs and schrimps; as well as sponges, corals, jellyfish, bivalves, gastropods and brachiopods (which are relatively rare finds.) But also a large diversity of bony fish (some of which could reach multiple meters in length), Hybodont sharks, Chimaera's as well as marine reptiles like the Ichthyosaur "Aegirosaurus", marine crocodiles, turtles and Pleurosaurus. The islands were home to Cycads and Araucariaceae trees, but also by many insects like dragonflies and beetles, reptiles like Sphenodonts and Squamates. Though the most famous of its inhabitants must have been the pterosaurs like Pterodactylus and Rhamphorhynchus as well as some dinosaurs like Compsognathus, Juravenator, Sciurumimus, Archaeopteryx and Alcmonavis. Our first day of digging was on friday (may 19th) at the BGM hobbysteinbruch in Solnhofen which is part of the Mörnsheim Formation (150,8 - 150 mya). https://www.solnhofen-fossilienatlas.de/siteinfo.php?section=sites&siteid=75&sitename=Solnhofen Hobbybruch The main fossils that could be found in this quarry were ammonites, aptychi, coprolites as well as fish. Our group of around 30 people assembled at the quarry at 10 o'clock and after a few words from the quarry owner and Jonathan we set of to dig. An overview of the quarry before we started digging. A couple of minutes later... Jonathan pointed me and my good friend Tom to a good place to dig and so we started cleaning debri so we could start digging. Since the Plattenkalk is layered it is always a good stategy to find some plateaus where so can hack away chunks which you can later split (which I suppose most of you already know). Pic of my hole in which I was working Unfortunately it turns out that the spot I picked must have been a public toilet as pretty much everything I found the first half of the day where coprolites, which turned into a running joke that day I was lucky enough to find a fish early one, though still entirely entombed in the rock but Jonathan warned us to look for bones into the cracked stones and that's how I managed to find it. Will require quite some prep work though. Later that day I started finding multiple Aptychi, Ammonites as well as a rare Bivalve. A plate with 3 ammonites (probably Neochetoceras steraspis) An ammonite with the Aptychus still in place which was found by one of the other members. Our club founder Luc, found this large piece of decorative slab which almost looked like it is petrified wooden dining table. Not a fossil but still cool as heck. And Tinneke managed to find a lovely fish jaw which was excavated by the help of Jonathan. While I didn't take pictures of the following, quite some members found fossil fish (some around 40 cm in lenght) and crustaceans like schrimp.
  2. Taxonomy from Klug & Kriwet, 2012. Alternative name: Squatina alifera References: Münster, G.G. (1842) Beschreibungen einiger neuen Fische in den lithographischen Schiefern von Bayern. Beiträge zur Petrefactenkunde, 5, 55–64. Underwood, C. J. (2002): Sharks, rays and a chimaeroid from the Kimmeridgian (Late Jurassic) of Ringstead, southern England. – Palaeontology, 45 (2): 297–325. Carvalho, Kriwet & Thies (2008): A systematic and anatomical revision of Late Jurassic angelsharks (Chondrichthyes: Squatinidae). Thies, D. & Leidner, A. (2011): Sharks and guitarfishes (Elasmobranchii) from the Late Jurassic of Europe. Palaeodiversity 4: 63–184; Stuttgart. Klug, S. and Kriwet, J. (2013): An offshore fish assemblage (Elasmobranchii, Actinopterygii) from the Late Jurassic of NE Spain. Palaeontologische Zeitschrift 87(2):235-257.
  3. The Theropod Dinosaurs of the genus Allosaurus since their discovery in 1877 are perhaps one the most recognizable theropods of the whole Jurassic period (201.4 ± 0.2-145.0 Million Years ago) despite emerging only in the late Kimmeridgian stage of the Jurassic period. Growing up to 9.7 meters (32 feet) in length fully grown, Allosaurus (also known as the Lions of Jurassic) were the apex predators of most of the terrestrial ecosystems they inhabited. The only theropods from these time that were higher in the food chain were some European non-Allosauroid Theropods and other members of Allosauroidea including the much rarer Epanterias (validity debated, possibly grew fully grown up to 12 meters (40 feet) in length) and Saurophaganax (validity confirmed, fully grown reached 10.5 meters (34 feet) in length). Digital Reconstruction of an adult Allosaurus sp. By artist Frederic Wierum Image Source: https://fredthedinosaurman.artstation.com/projects/Qg0WB The Allosauroids eventually gave rise to some of the largest theropod dinosaurs known in the fossil record currently including the closely related South American genus Giganotosaurus from the Cenomanian stage of the Late Cretaceous period (99.6-95 Million Years ago) in what is now Argentina (which fully grown grew up to 12-13 meters (39-43 feet) in length). But Allosaurus itself has largely been considered to have lived only in the latest stages in Jurassic period (155-145 Million Years ago). I have found some records that might challenge this assumption!!! Digital Reconstruction of an adult Allosaurus sp. By artist Frederic Wierum Image Source: https://fredthedinosaurman.artstation.com/projects/Qg0WB
  4. oilshale

    Mesturus verrucosus WAGNER, 1862

    Taxonomy from Fossilworks.org Identified as juvenile Mesturus verrucosus by M. Ebert, Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, Paleontology and Geobiology, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München. References: Wagner A. (1862): Monographie der fossilen Fische aus den lithographischen Schiefern Bayerns.– Erste Abtheilung: Plakoiden und Pyknodonten.– Abhandlungen der königlich bayerischen Akademie der Wissenschaften, mathematisch-physikalische Classe, 9(2): 279–352 + 4 plates. Nursall, J. R. (1999) . The family †Mesturidae and the skull of pycnodont fishes. In G. Arratia & H.-P. Schultze (eds.)Mesozoic Fishes 2 – Systematics and Fossil Record: pp. 153-188, 23 figs., 2 tabs. © 1999 by Verlag Dr. Friedrich Pfeil, München, Germany – ISBN 3-931516–48-2
  5. oilshale

    Pseudorhina alifera Muenster 1843

    From the album: Vertebrates

    Pseudorhina alifera Muenster 1843 Late Jurassic Tithonian Sappenfeld Bavaria Germany
  6. oilshale

    Gyrodus circularis Agassiz, 1843

    From the album: Vertebrates

    Gyrodus circularis Agassiz, 1843 Late Jurassic Tithonian Painten Formation Painten Germany
  7. From the album: Ammonites of the Betic Ranges (Spain) and world

    Volanoceras volanense (Oppel, 1863). Lower Tithonian. Betic Range (Spain)
  8. phylloceras


  9. phylloceras


  10. phylloceras


    From the album: Ammonites of the Betic Ranges (Spain) and world

    Tithopeltoceras parakasbensis (Fallot & Termier, 1923). Upper Tithonian, Microcanthum Zone. Betic Range, Spain
  11. phylloceras


    From the album: Ammonites of the Betic Ranges (Spain) and world

    Micracanthoceras microcanthum (Oppel in Zittel) (m). Morphotype c described by Tavera (1985). Upper Tithonian, Microcanthum Zone. Betic Range (Spain)
  12. phylloceras


  13. Ludwigia

    Craspedites nodiger

    Calcite Steinkern.
  14. Taxonomy from Schweigert et al. 1998. Description by Schweigert et al. 1998, p. 28 (translated from German by oilshale):"Muensteria vermicularis Sternberg alias Epitrachys rugosus (Eulers) is an elongated, gradually widening structure with a rough, granular surface. Usually it is not strictly straight but slightly curved. Particularly characteristic is a fine striation or wrinkling running transverse to the longitudinal axis. This striation gradually disappears on the broader end, so that it is only dimly discernible in the rock, if at all." References: Sternberg, K. M. (1833): Versuch einer geognostisch-botanischen Darstellung der Flora der Vorwelt. II. Band, 5/6: 1-80, 26 Taf.; Prag (J. Spurny). Ehlers, E. (1869): Über fossile Würmer aus dem lithographischen Schiefer in Bayern.- Palaeontographica, 17: 145-175, 7 Taf.; Cassel. Schweigert, G., Dietl, G. & Röper, M. (1998): Muensteria vermicularis Sternberg (Vermes, Sabellidae) aus oberjurassischen Plattenkalken Süddeutschlands. Mitt. Bayer. Staatsslg. Paläont. hist. Geol. 38, 25-37.
  15. oilshale

    Gyrodus sp.

    The Canjuers sediments are slightly younger than the Solnhofen limestones in Germany. Gyrodus (from Greek: γύρος gyros, 'curved' and Greek: ὀδούς odoús 'tooth') is a genus widely distributed in the Jurassic. Two species, G. circularis and G. hexagonus, are described from Solnhofen. This distinctly elongated looking fish from the Canjuers deposits of about the same age is probably a species not yet described. Diagnosis from Lambers 1991, p. 490 (Genus, emend. Hennig 1906): ”Pycnodontid fishes with the following combination of characters: body form hexagonal; skull without ganoin; dermal bones tuberculated; skull roof composed of frontal, parietal, median dermosupraoccipital, dermosphenotic, dermopterotic, one median and two paired supratemporals; mosaic dermethmoid; snout and cheek region covered with small, polygonal scalelike plates; maxilla half-oval, edentulous; mouth parallel to body axis; gular absent but gular region covered with small scales; two acinaciform branchiostegals; premaxilla with nasal process, bearing two styliform teeth; dentary with four styliform teeth; five longitudinal rows of vomerine teeth, four longitudinal rows of splenial teeth; squamation complete over the whole body, scales towards the caudal smaller than in front, in young specimens tuberculated, in adult specimens reticulated, lacking ganoin, squamation extending between the bases of the dorsal and anal lepidotrichia and covering the basis of the caudal lepidotrichia dorsal and ventral ridgescales with up to 6 spinelets; notochord persistent through life; neural and haemal arches not surrounding the notochord 28—31 paired dorsal elements, 12—14 paired postabdominal elements in front of tail, 12—14 paired ribs; first 10 neural spines autogenous; neural and haemal spines in caudal region with anterior and posterior laminar expansions, strengthened with ridges; curved postcoelomic bone connected to 13th—15th vertebral element; pectoral fin with 25—30 rays; pelvic fin with 10-15 rays; dorsal and anal fins falcate, fin rays bifurcated from their base, transversely segmented, transverse segments tuberculated, dorsal fin 30—40 rays, anal fin about 30 rays; caudal fin stalked, deeply forked; about seven neural spines, about ten hypochordal elements, comprising haemal spines and hypurals, incorporated in the support of the caudal fin, one urodermal, about 40 rays; 7—10 epaxial fin rays; no fulcra; infraorbital canal connected to the preopercular canal, representing the horizontal pitline and more ventrally by a vertical canal, representing the vertical pit-line; supraorbital canal extends into the dermosupraoccipital, where it forms the supratemporal commissure; dorsal lateral line present up to the origin of the dorsal fin.” Identified by M. Ebert, Jura Museum Eichstätt. References: Agassiz, L. (1843). Recherches Sur Les Poissons Fossiles. Tome I (livr. 18). Imprimerie de Petitpierre, Neuchatel xxxii-188. Hennig, G. (1906). Gyrodus und die Organization der Pycnodonten. Palaeontographica, 53,137-208. Kriwet, J. and Schmitz, L. (2005). New insight into the distribution and palaeobiology of the pycnodont fish Gyrodus. Acta Palaeontologica Polonica 50 (1): 49–56. Peyer, K., Charbonnier, S., Allain, R., Läng, É. & Vacant, R. (2014) A new look at the Late Jurassic Canjuers conservation Lagerstätte (Tithonian, Var, France). Comptes Rendus Palevol, Volume 13, Issue 5. Pages 403-420, ISSN 1631-0683.
  16. oilshale

    Amiopsis lepidota (Agassiz, 1833)

    Taxonomy from Fossilworks.org. Etymology: Lepidota (Greek), a form of lepidotós, scaly. Grande & Bemis 1998, p.490: “ Originally described as †Megalurus lepidotus by Agassiz in 1833:146, and listed that way by numerous authors over the next 100 years or so, but †Megalurus Agassiz is a junior homonym--see generic list for †Amiopsis Kner, 1863, above. Also referred to as †Urocles lepidotus by Jordan (1919:567); Lange (1968:32); Lambers (1992:295); and others." Grande & Bemis 1998, p.493: “Emended species diagnosis-†Amiopsis lepidota differs from other species of the genus by the following adult characters A through D (note there is a range of overlap between some species for characters B, C, and D). (A) The opercle is wider than in other species of the genus (0.96-1.00 compared to 0.77-0.83 in †A. woodwardi, 0.91-0.92 in †A. damoni, 0.82 in †A. dolloi, and an estimated 0.80 in †A. prisca, based on our study sample). (B) There are seven to nine procurrent epaxial caudal rays (versus five or six in †A. damoni, and three in †A. dolloi; the count in †A. prisca is unknown, and the count of †A. woodwardi is within the range of †A. lepidota). (C) There are 61-65 total centra and 48-52 total vertebrae in post-juvenile stages (versus 58-61 centra and 45-48 vertebrae in †A. woodwardi, 59-60 centra and 47 vertebrae in †A. damoni, 56-57 centra and 46 vertebrae in †A. dolloi, and 70-74 centra and 55-56 vertebrae in †A. prisca). (D) There are 17-19 dorsal proximal radials (versus 14-16 in †A. woodwardi, and 15-17 in †A. dolloi; †A. damoni and †A. prisca are within the range of †A. lepidota)." Line drawing from Grande & Bemis 1998, p. 497: References: Kner, R. (1863). Über einige fossile Fische aus den Kreide- und Tertiärschichten von Comen und Podsused. Sitzungsberichte der Akademie der Wissenschaften in Wien mathematisch-naturwissenschaftliche Klasse 48:126-148. Agassiz, L. (1833-1844). Recherches sur les Poissons Fossiles. 5 volumes plus supplement. Published by the author, printed by Petitpierre: Neuchâtel. Jordan, D. S. (1919). New genera of fishes. Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences. Lambers, P. (1992). On the ichthyofauna of the Solnhofen Lithographic Limestone (Upper Jurassic, Germany). Doctoral thesis. Privately published, Ryksuniversiteit Groningen, 336 pp. Lance Grande & William E. Bemis (1998) A Comprehensive Phylogenetic Study of Amiid Fishes (Amiidae) Based on Comparative Skeletal Anatomy. an Empirical Search for Interconnected Patterns of Natural History, Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology, 18:S1, 1-696, DOI: 10.1080/02724634.1998.10011114.
  17. oilshale

    Ophiopsiella procera (Agassiz, 1843)

    The genus previously known as Ophiopsis Agassiz, 1834 (except Ophiopsis muensteri Agassiz, 1834), was reassigned by Lane & Ebert 2015 to Ophiopsiella. Taxonomy from Lane & Ebert 2015. Lane & Ebert 2015, p. e883238-4 :”Diagnosis—The genus Ophiopsiella is characterized by the following unique combination of features: medium-sized halecomorph fishes with body depth increased anteriorly to form a low hump and tapering posteriorly; parietals equal in length to dermopterotics; antorbitals do not reach the orbit; lacrimal large and deep; *low number of suborbitals with ventral-most suborbital represented by a single large bone (rather than numerous small bones); rostral with lateral horns; posterior infraorbital inclined posterodorsally; preopercle reaches dorsal border of opercle; subopercular with anterior dorsal extension; dermopterotic deep posteriorly and tapering anteriorly; single, undivided dorsal fin; vertebrae lacking posterior fossae; scales have posterior serrations; dorsal fin elongate, occupying over one-third of the dorsal body length, tapering posteriorly; caudal fin forked; *17–19 caudal fin rays; main lateral line continuing into a row of small ossicles between the seventh and eighth caudal fin rays; scales thick, rhomboidal, not deeper than broad; pelvic fins opposite the midpoint of the dorsal fin; *high number (14C) of caudal peduncle scales; posterior border of dorsal fin opposite anal fin; robust maxilla with a shallow posterior notch; lateral line pores located within scale borders (not forming a posterior notch); and basal and fringing fulcra present on both dorsal and ventral lobes of caudal fin.” Lane & Ebert 2015, p. e883238-4: “Emended Species Diagnosis—Ophiopsiella with *44 vertical scale rows from postcleithra to hinge line; 24–25 dorsal fin rays; 18–19 principal caudal fin rays; *anteriormost four dorsal fin rays extremely elongated compared with subsequent rays, forming a crescent-shaped concave curve posteriorly; *caudal fin deeply forked posteriorly; posttemporal, extrascapular, and postcleithra serrated posteriorly; anterodorsal body scales serrated along their entire posterior border; prominent predorsal hump with maximum body depth at dorsal fin origin. Pterygial formula: " References: Agassiz, L. 1834. Abgerissene Bemerkungen über fossile Fische. pp. 379–390 in: von Leonhard, K. C. & Bronn, H. G. (eds.): Neues Jahrbuch für Mineralogie, Geognosie, Geologie und Petrefaktenkunde, 1834 (4). E. Schweitzbarts Verlagsbuchhandlung, Stuttgart. Lane, J. A. & Ebert, M., 2015: A taxonomic reassessment of Ophiopsis (Halecomorphi, Ionoscopiformes), with a revision of Upper Jurassic species from the Solnhofen Archipelago, and a new genus of Ophiopsidae. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology, 35 (1): e883238. doi: 10.1080/02724634.2014.883238
  18. Mesolimulus walchi in dorsal preservation with (poorly) retained "death trace". Taxonomy from Russel et al. 2021. Russel et al. 2021, p. 6: "Emended diagnosis. Prosoma semi-circular, genal spines without indentations that terminate at a first fifth of thoracetron. Cardiac lobe cone-shaped with crenulated margins and cardiac ridge. Ophthalmic ridges present and do not curve towards lateral prosomal margins. Posterior prosomal rim pronounced and lacks beads along margin. Occipital bands present and pronounced. Thoracetron trapezoidal and has pronounced flange. Lateral margin ridges absent. Moveable spine notches present and pronounced. Moveable spines long. Medial lobe triangular, has ridge and spines on ridge. Terminal thoracetronic spines medium sized and posterolaterally directed. Telson embayment strongly concave. Telson keeled. “ References: Russell D. C. Bicknell; Błażej Błażejowski; Oliver Wings; Tomaž Hitij; Mark L. Botton (2021). Critical re‐evaluation of Limulidae uncovers limited Limulus diversity. Papers in Palaeontology, pp. 1-32. doi:10.1002/spp2.1352 D. R. Lomax & Ch. A. Racay (2012). A Long Mortichnial Trackway of Mesolimulus walchi from the Upper Jurassic Solnhofen Lithographic Limestone near Wintershof, Germany. ICHNOS - International Journal for Plant and Animal Traces 01/2012; 19(3):175-183. DOI:10.1080/10420940.2012.702704 J. C. Lamsdell (2016). Horseshoe crab phylogeny and independent colonizations of fresh water: Ecological invasion as a driver for morphological innovation - Palaeontology (59), 181-194.
  19. oilshale

    Magila latimana Muenster 1839

    Taxonomy from Fossilworks.org. The state of preservation of Magila is mostly poor, which becomes understandable when you consider that Magila was a burrowing crustacean living in the ground. Therefore, a more calcified carapace was not necessary. Only the exceptionally wide claws are mostly well preserved. These probably also served for digging. Diagnosis from Garassino & Schweigert 2006, p. 22: “Carapace cylindrical laterally flattened; deep cervical groove strongly directed forward; one or two carinae weak in antennal region; rostrum short and edentate; antennal spine well developed; pereiopods I-III chelate; pereiopod I larger and stronger than pereiopods II-III; pereiopods IV-V achelate; uropodal exopod with diaeresis.” Line drawing: References: Garassino, Alessandro & Schweigert, Günter (2006). The Upper Jurassic Solnhofen decapod crustacean fauna review of the types from old descriptions Part I. Infraorders Astacidea, Thalassinidea, and Palinura. Memorie della Societa Italiana di Scienze Naturali e del Museo Civico di Storia Naturale di Milano, Volume XXXIV - Fascicolo I. Schweitzer, C. E., Feldmann, R. M., Garassino, A., Karasawa, H. and Schweigert, G. (2010). Systematic list of fossil decapod crustacean species. Crustaceana Monographs 10:1-222.
  20. oilshale

    Archaeomaene tenuis (Woodward 1895)

    Taxonomy from Lynne Bean 2021. Archaeomaene tenuis can be easily distinguished from the much more common Cavenderichthys talbragarensis by the more posterior dorsal fin. Diagnosis for Archaeomaene tenuis from Bean 2021 (modified from Woodward 1895): “ Same as family with the following additional characteristics. The supraorbital sensory canal has branched (ramified) tubules [*]. The dorsal fin is placed opposite to the anal fin. Pelvic, dorsal and anal fins are without fringing fulcra [*]. There are six uroneurals; the epaxial margin of the caudal fin has a few long basal fulcra and long fringing fulcra extending along the whole margin; both leading margins of the caudal fin have a single principal ray. Scales are elasmoid cycloidal [*]. (An asterisk [*] notes a uniquely derived character or autapomorphy of the genus).” Line drawing from Bean 2021, p. 116: References: Woodward, A.S., 1895. The fossil fishes of the Talbragar Beds (Jurassic?). Geological Survey of New South Wales, Palaeontology. Memoir 9: 1‒27. Bean, Lynne (2021) Revision of the Mesozoic freshwater fish clade Archaeomaenidae, Alcheringa: An Australasian Journal of Palaeontology, 45:2, 217-259, DOI: 10.1080/03115518.2021.1937700 Bean, Lynne (2021) The morphological revisions of freshwater fish from Late Jurassic - Early Cretaceous sites in Australia and other Gondwanan continents leads to new phylogenetic hypotheses of relationships among stem teleosts. Thesis (PhD) DOI: 10.25911/5JM5-WY12
  21. Taxonomy from Fossilworks. From Ebert 2014, p. 39: "Belonostomus sphyraenoides Agassiz, 1844 is known only from the Eichstätt basin. Belonostomus is very rare in the Plattenkalk basin of Eichstätt and as far as I know, all specimens belong to B. sphyraenoides. The Plattenkalk of Eichstätt is dated as eigeltingense β horizon of the Tithonian (Schweigert et al. 2013). Belonostomus sphyraenoides has about 71 vertebrae and 71 lateral line scales." References: Agassiz, L. (1833-1844): Recherches sur les Poissons Fossiles.- 5 vols., 1420 pp. 396pls., with supplements. Petitpierre, Neuchâtel et Soleure. Ebert, Martin (2014) The genus Belonostomus Agassiz, 1834 (Neopterygii, Aspidorhynchiformes) in the late Jurassic of the Solnhofen Archipelago, with a focus on Belonostomus kochii Münster, 1836 from Ettling (Germany). Archaeopteryx 32: 15-43.
  22. Since the summer of 2007, the Jura Museum Eichstätt has maintained a scientific research excavation in the Ettling limestone quarry (Markt Pförring). For a long time, this limestone quarry was considered almost fossil-empty, until private collectors discovered a number of exceptionally well-preserved specimens. The Ettlingen site yielded numerous species previously unknown in the rest of the Plattenkalk region. The fish are very difficult to prepare - the preparation is done under the microscope purely mechanically by scraping only with fine needles and scalpels. The last two pictures are taken under UV light. Recently Macrosemimimus was also found in the somewhat older lithographic limestones of Painten (Upper Kimmeridgian). Taxonomy from Schröder et al. 2012. Differential Diagnosis from Schröder et al. 2012, p. 513: "Medium-sized Macrosemimimus of up to ca. 20 cm standard length (SL), differing from the other species of this genus in the following combination of morphological features: skull bones smooth, devoid of ganoine; scales smooth and with straight posterior border except for a variably developed single posteroventral spine; small extrascapular bones placed lateral to posterior portion of parietals; preoperculum shallow leaving a naked area below the dermopterotic; maxilla with long articular process; moderately tritoral dentition; short longitudinal ridge on ceratohyal. Line drawing of the head from Schröder et al. 2012, p. 516 (scale bar equal 1 cm) References: Schröder, K. M.; López-Arbarello, A.; Ebert, M. (2012). "Macrosemimimus, gen. nov. (Actinopterygii, Semionotiformes), from the Late Jurassic of Germany, England, and France". Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology. 32 (3): 512–529. doi:10.1080/02724634.2012.649626. Ebert, M. & Kölbl-Ebert, M. (2014) Forschungsgrabung Ettling: Grabungsbericht 2014. Archaeopteryx 32:44-49
  23. charlie3425

    Fossils from the French west coast

    I was able to obtain a couple of fossils found on the western coast line of France. The first one is presumably a piece of paddle bone from the upper tithonian, found between Wimereux and Cap de la Crèche. It measures about 220 x 160 x 65mm. Very heavy. The second is a vertebra found between Cap d'Alprech and Equihen (Tithonian). Measuring about 80 x 65 x 35mm. Could these be pliosaur or rather plesiosaur fossils? I'm sure they are too worn to identify better than sp.? Thanx for notes!
  24. Taxonomy from Mindat.org. Diagnosis from Enay and Hess 1962, p. 662 (translated from french by oilshale): "Small species. Disc granulated on both sides (radial shields included), the granules hiding small imbricate plates. Radial shields and plates articulated by means of two condyles and a facet carried by both the radial shield and the corresponding plate. Radial shields of moderate width, those of the same radius not touching. Ambulacral parts of oral plates or jaws (= oral frames of Matsumoto) without wings. Double peristomal plates. About 6 contiguous oral papillae on each side. Probably no dental papillae. Teeth obtuse, not very strong. Adoral plates in contact proximal to the buccal shield. Brachial spines 3, erect, a little longer than the article. Ventral brachial plates pentagonal, longer than wide, contiguous on half of the arm only. Dorsal brachial plates triangular with a very convex distal margin. Tentacular pores on almost the entire length of the arms, two tentacular scales per pore. Vertebrae with zygospondyle articulation." Kutscher and Röper 1965 note that “Ophiopetra lithographica differs from Sinosura kelheimense, which occurs simultaneously with it, already by the protruding, distinct spines, the non-keeled dorsal shields, the distinct spiny warts and the sickle-shaped bursal spines.” (translated from german by oilshale). References: Enay, R.; Hess, H. (1962) Sur la découverte d'Ophiures (Ophiopetra lithographica ng.nsp.) dans le Jurrassique supérieur du Haut-Valrmomey (Jura méridional). Eclogae geologicae Helvetiae. 55(2), 657-673, pl. I-II. Kutscher, M.; Röper, M. (1965) Die Ophiuren des Papierschiefers von Hienheim (Malm zeta 3, Untertithon). Archaeopteryx, 13: 85-99.
  25. Hi all! In continuation of the previous reports. Less text, more pics Bits of scenery:
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