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  1. Hello, I was scrolling throug some already sold pieces on our favourite online auction site and came across this monster of a Rex tooth. Now I wonder, why in the world does it look so weird ? Description said, that there were some restorations done on the tip and enamel, but it looks nearly completly fake to my eyes.... Sice : 3 inch Age : 70 mio. years Formation : Lance Creek formation, Weston County, Wyoming, USA @hadrosauridae, @ThePhysicist, @Phos_01
  2. Hi y'all, about a year ago I started digital sculpting on my tablet and began with some Devonian "shark" teeth, inspired by ones in my collection (see topic here). Several months later after becoming more familiar with the process, I decided to try my hand at dinosaur skulls. In particular, I wanted to render the juvenile Tyrannosaurid, "Jane" (BMRP 2002.4.1) since regardless of your stance on the species, it's an important and cool fossil. Here I present my amateur first pass. My end goal is to have a 1:1 scale 3D print. And for you Tyranno-nerds, yes it accurately has incisiform premaxillary teeth with a lingual apicobasal ridge. To get the shape of all the teeth right, I referenced a couple in my collection. They were duplicated and squashed around to match the variation in morphology of the dentition. I also uploaded the model for you to interact with; honest critiques are welcome as it's not a final version I feel is ready for full scale printing. Certain aspects of the anatomy, especially the hard-to-see interior portions are probably where most errors lie. In December, I however did print a smaller scale to see how it looked: The nice thing about digital sculpting is that I can copy the entire skull and very readily reshape it into a similar one. The natural choice is to do a young juvenile / baby T. rex. This is as much a hypothesis as it is art. I based it off of the Witmer Lab's more rigorous reconstruction of "Chomper", and a similarly-sized young Tarbosaurus (which was a close cousin of T. rex). I again uploaded the model for your enjoyment / inspection: Next, I decided to wander much farther from Tyrannosaurs and shape it into a Troodontid, Pectinodon bakkeri. Of course Pectinodon is only known from its teeth, so I at least got the shape of those right (again, based off of a fossil in my collection). The rest was inspired by the reconstructions of others, presumably informed by more completely-known Troodontids. And finally, a sneak peak of what I'll be working on, Acheroraptor temertyorum. This time it's from scratch since there are some things I want to do differently. Thanks for reading, hope you enjoyed!
  3. Mrhobgobble

    ID Help

    Need help with this.. 4.5 inches long, 3 inches wide, 3 inches high, has obvious blood groove 20240511_160227.heic 20240511_160145.heic 20240511_160145.heic 20240511_160059.heic
  4. Hi, I got this beautiful tooth recently of wich I am pretty sure its T.rex, but I would realy like to have that confirmed here! Hell Creek formation, Jordan, Montana. This specimen measures 5.6 cm Thanks alot in advance!
  5. ATC

    Paleoart 3D

    The goal of this project was born by and for people who love dinosaurs and paleoart in general. My purpose is to give people a representation as realistic as possible of what these great extinct creatures were, regardless of the time or work involved. With the funds raised I will publish my first 3d models, a Trex and an Edmontosaurus as an example. of what can be created later.As a photo is worth a thousand words, here you can see the level of detail used to. greetings to all.
  6. svcgoat

    Tyrannosaurus Vert?

    Sellers says this is a Trex vert from the Hell Creek Formation. Any way to tell the difference between a Trex and a Herbivore? @jpc @hadrosauridae
  7. bradb7216

    Anyone know if this a tooth?

    Any help here? Looks a lot like some T-Rex teeth I’ve seen. Found in Indiana.
  8. OK, some naive, pure speculation about those “useless forearms” on large theropods (T-rex, abelisaurs, etc…) Could it be that, in theropods, arms muscles actually compete with head and neck muscles for attachment space on the shoulder girdle? I can’t answer this because I have no idea how the muscles are laid out for theropods. Is there even such a thing as neck muscles that attach to the shoulder girdle, or are these completely unrelated muscle systems? Would reducing arm musculature provide any sort of advantage to the head and neck of theropods? My thought is that, having the combination of having powerful jaws capable of securing a grip on massive victims, then having the necessary neck and head strength needed to either wrench around or yank big chunks off the dangerously powerful prey of the time might be such a key advantage that it would be worth giving up your arms for. This would not mean, then, that their forearms are necessarily “useless”, which might explain why some of these tiny arms remain as well-muscled as they can be (without sacrificing head or neck power). In addition, I heard somewhere that weight and volume grow by the CUBE of size while muscle strength only grows by the SQUARE of size (that is, by the area of a muscle cross-section). I don’t know if it’s really that simple, but it would mean that, as these theropod heads and necks get bigger and bigger, they would need proportionally a LOT more neck musculature to catch up with the faster growth in head weight and inertia. Of course, this would not explain why those tiny, wacky alvarezsaurids have small forearms… that would have to be a totally different selection pressure. Does this make any sense at all or did I just make a complete fool of myself? Be gentle… I’m obviously new at this, lol!
  9. Updated Nov 25, 2022 Collectors, online sellers and some dealers periodically ask me to help them in the identification of tyrannosaur type teeth. So I thought I would put together a guide from Western North America (US/Canada) to help in identification. The following is the current understanding of those Tyrannosaurids described/known with the stratigraphic unit where they are found. If I missed any let me know. Albertosaurus sarcophagus : Horseshoe Canyon Formation cf Albertosaurus indet: Wapiti Formation Gorgosaurus libratus : Dinosaur Park Formation Gorgosaurus sp. or cf Gorgosaurus: Two Medicine Formation, Oldman Formation, Foremost Formation, Daspletosaurus horneri : Two Medicine Formation Daspletosaurus wilsoni: Judith River Formation Daspletosaurus torosus : Oldman Formation Daspletosaurus sp. or cf Daspletosaurus: Dinosaur Park Formation Dynamoterror dynastes: Menefee Formation Tyrannosaurus rex : Hell Creek Formation, Lance Formation, Frenchman Formation, Scollard Formation, Denver Formation, (Trex fossils are also known from: Livingstone Fm, Laramie Fm, McRae Fm, Willow Creek Fm) Tyrannosaurus sp.: Javelina Formation, Ojo Formation Nanotyrannus lancensis : Hell Creek Formation, Lance Formation cf Nanotyrannus : Frenchman Formation, Scollard Formation, Denver Formation Thanatotheristes degrootorum : Foremost Formation Tyrannosaurid indet. (spp): Judith River Formation, Mesaverde Formation (Group), Fruitland Formation, Aguja Formation Teratophoneus curriei: Kaiparowits Formation Lythronax argestes: Wahweap Formation Nanuqsaurus hoglundi: Prince Creek Formation Tooth Identification Aublysodon mirandus Premaxillary teeth, those without serrations. This dinosaur is considered nomen dubium and teeth ascribed to it belong to other Tyrannosaurs. Albertosaurus sarcophagus Probably the easiest to identify since its the only Tyrannosaurid described from the Horseshoe Canyon Formation. The most important item in acquiring one of these teeth is the provenance of where it was found. Alberta is not adequate to identify it. You need a specific locality like Drumheller or Tolman Bridge. BTW this is true for all the Tyrannosaurid's discussed in this topic. A disposition is also needed for all dinosaur teeth removed from Alberta. These teeth can get quite large from collection of SMM Gorgosaurus libratus (cf, sp.) The first step in identification is Provenance: you need to know State/Province along with the County (USA) or Locality (Canada) where the tooth was found. Differentiating isolated teeth between Gorgosaurus and Daspletosaurus is very difficult and in most cases its indeterminate. A paper that came out in 2005 which was authored by Phil Currie et al. studied isolated teeth from this period looking at tooth and serration morphology. Their conclusion was that "it is difficult to quantifiably distinguish these teeth reliably by taxon". Therefore identifying them as Tyrannosaurid indet. is the easiest approach in those faunas that Gorgosaurus may be present? There is a quantitative process described in a new paper that may help which will be discussed later. Please note that lots of collectors would like to use size to differentiate these teeth from Daspletosaurus. However Gorgosaurus teeth can get quite large as seen in this photo of a Maxilla with one tooth which is over 3 inches and located in the back of this jaw. Daspletosaurus horneri, D. wilsoni, D. torosus (cf, sp.) The first step in identification is Provenance: you need to know State/Province along with the County (USA) or Locality (Canada) where the tooth was found. A paper that came out in 2005 which was authored by Phil Currie et al. studied isolated teeth from this period looking at tooth and serration morphology. Their conclusion was that "it is difficult to quantifiably distinguish these teeth reliably by taxon". Therefore identifying them as Tyrannosaurid indet. is the easiest approach in those faunas that Daspletosaurus may be present? However, its reasonable to say that teeth over 4" are PROBABLY from a Daspletosaurus. There is a quantitative process described in a new paper that may help which will be discussed later. *****Since the Judith River and Two Medicine Formations fall within the range of all three of these species its going to be difficult to assign teeth to a specific species unless you know the age of the deposit it. Denver Fowler: "Hill County exposures are more easy to date because there we have the boundary between the upper Oldman Fm and the lower part of the Dinosaur Park Fm. Havre exposures were called Judith River Fm historically, but we should probably use Oldman & Dino Park now." And maybe ditto for those teeth found in the Belly River Group of Alberta. Denver Fowler "I expect that D. wilsoni is stratigraphically equivalent to the lower part of the Dinosaur Park Formation. At the moment this is based on the fact that the Judith in eastern Montana was deposited at the time when the WI seaway was receded at its maximum (in the Campanian)" Denver's response to my question on this subject. "There isn't currently any evidence for stratigraphic (time) overlap between the species. However, the 2Med and Judith River likely represent enough time such that it would be possible to find D. torosus in the Judith and both D. torosus and D. wilsoni in the 2Med." (Posted by Denver Fowler) Tyrannosaurus rex/ Nanotyrannus lancensis (cf, sp.) Whether you agree or disagree that Nanotyrannus is a valid taxon what is very clear to me is that we have two distinct morphologies of tyrannosaurid teeth at the very end,of the cretaceous. I can say that because I have handled over 1000 teeth over the years ranging from 3 mm to 5 inches two morphs are present in all ranges up to around 2 inches. Serration density through sampling I've done with teeth in my collection do not appear by itself to be a differentiator between these two morphologies. Density will change with size becoming less on larger teeth and can be the same with equivalent size teeth with both morphologies. DSDI (Denticle Size Difference Index) is also not a differentiator and through my sampling and Carr (2004) and indicates that DSDIs decrease in progressively larger specimens, that is, there are fewer mesial denticles per given unit length than distal denticles in large specimens and there are as many or more mesial than distal denticles in small specimens. Also, the DSDI among dentary teeth is higher than that in the maxilla, indicating that mesial denticles are smaller in the dentary than in the maxillary dentition. So how do you tell the difference between these two morphologies. Well, if a tooth is larger than 2 1/2" and has bulk its clearly T rex, regardless of what the serrations say. It cannot be anything else. With small teeth since serrations density is not a differentiator the other characteristic of the tooth plays a key role. I've found that maxillary teeth can be the most difficult to differentiate and a few teeth are just indeterminate, at least with me. The best way to distinguish between the two morphology the shape at the base, compression of the crown and tip and if there is a pinch at the base. Shape at the base T rex dentary teeth and the very anterior maxillary teeth are oval at the base while Nano teeth are unique as tyrannosaurids and rectangular. However, T rex maxillary teeth can be rectangular so you will have to determine if there is a pinch at the base a characteristic found on Nanotyrannus teeth Here are examples of the cross sections of couple small Rex teeth under 1 1/2 inch and Adult Nano's Tyrannosaurus rex Dentary teeth are oval Maxillary Teeth are rectangular Nanotyrannus Bases are rectangular and show a pinch on both sides. Profile of the teeth is another characteristic Nanotyrannus teeth are compressed, with a pointed tip T rex teeth are fat, with a rounded tip, often the serrations wrap around from the mesial to distal carina to form a continuous carina Crown Height Ratios In the study I did, since nothing is published, with 30 Nanotyrannus teeth the average was 2.2 For Trex teeth the mean for Maxillary teeth is 1.75 and for Dentary its around 2 but all these can change depending on position Heterodonty in Tyrannosaurus rex: implications for the taxonomic and systematic utility of theropod dentitions Joshua B. Smith (2005) T rex Premaxillary Teeth can easily be confused with dentary D1 position. Here is a photo of how to determine what you have. Identifying Gorgosaurus and Daspeletosaurus Teeth using Dental Features A recent paper by Hendrickx et al. (Oct 2019) has provided us a way to try to identify certain teeth using dental features. Positional Daspletosaurus & Gorgosaurus teeth have distinct denticle features that can hopefully can be used to differentiate the species which currently does not exist. Together with @Omnomosaurus we are looking at studying this technique to determine if its a practical method for collectors to use for identification, obtain data on campanian tyrannosaurid teeth and try to understand if the results we are getting is any good? We will be using teeth from my collection and members for the study. @dinosaur man has a topic where a lot of member data will be collected. Step 1 The most critical part in using this process is knowing where the tooth sits in the jaw - Premaxillary, Mesial or Lateral Here is a photo of to help in determining its location Paper https://www.researchgate.net/publication/261630184_Morphometry_of_the_teeth_of_western_North_American_tyrannosaurids_and_its_applicability_to_quantitative_classification Step 2 DSDI (Denticle Size Difference Index) needs to be determined DSDI = MC / DC MC = Number of denticles per 5 mm on the mesial carina at mid-carina DC = Number of denticles per 5 mm on the distal carina at mid-crown Mesial Carina is on the outer curvature Distal Carina is on the inside curvature Step 3 1) If your tooth is from a lateral position in the jaw and your DSDI is <0.8 your tooth may be considered a Gorgosaurus or cf Gorgosaurus depending on the locality of where it was found. 2) If your tooth is from a Mesial position in the jaw and your DSDI is >1.2 your tooth may be considered a Daspletosaurus sp. or cf Daspletosaurus depending on the locality of where it was found. Premaxillary Teeth 1) In my opinion all these teeth should be identified as "Tyrannosaurid indet" 2) The paper does make the following statement "In the young specimens of Daspletosaurus, the carinae of the premaxillary teeth are unserrated (TMP 1994.143.1; Currie, 2003) and show the beaded condition. My concern is that it does not specify what size young teeth are and its looking at TMP 1994.143.1 which is a Daspletosaurus sp in Dinosaur Park Fm. Do all Daspletosaurus premax teeth in other faunas have contain similar features? Gorgosaurus premax teeth are not mentioned. Study Currently 33 teeth from the collection of Troodon, Omnomosaurus, dinosaur man Localities included : Judith River Formation (18 teeth), Two Medicine Formation (13 Teeth), Dinosaur Park Formation (1 Tooth), One unknown Results: 1) None of the lateral teeth have had DSDI < 0.8 and could be described as Gorgosaurus 2) Three of the Mesial teeth had DSDI > 1.2 and could be described as Daspletosaurus 3) One of the Premaxillary teeth was not serrated but could not verify if it was a young tooth 4) So 9% of the population can be tentatively assigned Hendrickx et al paper https://palaeo-electronica.org/content/2019/2806-dental-features-in-theropods
  10. LordWampa

    Tyrannosaurus Rex / Nano tooth?

    Hello, this tooth is listed as Tyrannosaurus Rex / Nano tooth. It measures 2cm and it comes from Carter County in the Hell Creek Formation. Is the id correct? Can it be either a nan o or a trex tooth? I will tag you @Troodon as you are the expert in this matter! And this other tooth from the same place measuring 2.2cm. And this third tooth 3,2cm same location.
  11. AranHao

    Different colors of wear surface

    Hello, everyone. I have a T-rex tooth. It has a wear surface at the distal serration. Yes, I think it is black, but when I shine it with strong light, it appears brown and slightly yellow. I would like to know what causes the wear surface to show different colors? Thank you
  12. Although the research regarding this was only published this month, there has been a lot of intense speculation and controversy as to whether theropods especially Tyrannosaurus Rex were comparable to being "primates" of their time. "According to her findings, theropods had as many neurons in their brains as monkeys do today, with the T-Rex boasting "baboon-like" numbers of up to 3 billion neurons. That's a pretty scary level of intelligence for a killing machine the size of a house.With that many neurons, a T-Rex wouldn't have just possessed uncanny cognition. It also might have lived longer, up to 40 years, Herculano-Houzel estimates. That's enough time and smarts to potentially be a social creature with its own culture, like primates and whales, and also suggests they may have worked together, too." Some great sources and videos, feel free let me know your thoughts on this below! The actual study can be found online and reported in the Journal of Comparative Neurology https://www.science.org/content/article/some-dinos-may-have-been-brainy-modern-primates-controversial-study-argues https://phys.org/news/2023-01-phylogenetic-bracketing-dinosaurs-neuron-density.html https://www.sciencealert.com/t-rex-was-a-lot-brainier-than-we-thought-researcher-claims
  13. This partial crown was collected from the Hell Creek Formation, Garfield County, Montana. I acquired it for a teaching collection because I think it tells a story. The basal section shows almost an inch in diameter. Is this a Trex tooth? The tooth shows antemortem enamel spalling and wear as described by Schupert and Ungar, 2005. It feels as though that the tooth was broken as a result of probably bone crushing and was worn smooth with continued feeding, then shed some time later. I would appreciate your thoughts.
  14. AranHao

    strange tooth

    Hello all I met a very strange tooth. The label is Tyrannosaurus Rex tooth. Its enamel is white instead of yellow under the UV light (the picture is a video screenshot). The last photo is another tooth under the UV light to show that the device is not causing the color difference. Have you met? This is the first time I've met. I'd like to hear your opinions on this. Thank you
  15. ThePhysicist

    T. rex tooth

    From the album: Hell Creek / Lance Formations

    It's remarkable that the minute features of this tooth can be preserved with such clarity after 66 million years!
  16. Pliosaur

    Tyrannosaurus Rex Tooth?

    Hello! Is this a Tyrannosaurus Rex tooth? Found in Hell Creek Formation of Garfield County, MT Tooth measures 1.75 inches, see picture with caliper Thanks in advance!
  17. Pliosaur

    Tyrannosaurus Rex Tooth

    Is this a Tyrannosaurus rex tooth? from the Hell Creek Formation in Carter County, Montana, USA! The tooth has great serrations, a good tip, a partial root, and no repair or restoration! It measures 1.077 inches (2.74 cm) along its longest edge (straight line) and measures .43 x .322 inches (1.09 x .818 cm) at its base!
  18. Hi all, saw this listing for a tooth, it’s from Meade County, South Dakota and looks to me like either a Nanotyrannus or Tyrannosaurus rex tooth. Want your opinions, I personally am leaning towards Nanotyrannus due to the pinch however it seems to be pretty robust. Thanks in advance measures about 1 cm
  19. Hello I was looking at a few teeth and wanted help with identifcation First one I’m almost certain is a tyrannosaurid, even though it’s in horrible condition and am leaning towards Tyrannosaurus Rex due to robustness and no pinch. it comes from Garfield county, hell creek form and measures .6 inch. Second one is also likely a tyrannosaurid, im leaning towards Nanotyrannus but it’s probably a indeterminate tyrannosaurid. It’s from hell creek form, no locality unfortunately. Size is about 1 3/8 by 1/2 inch. 3rd one seems to be a Acheroraptor, also no locality besides hell creek form. And measures .35 inch. Last one is probably just indeterminate theropod tooth, maybe can be narrowed to tyrannosaurid? It seems to be a premax and also no locality besides hell creek, measures about .5 inch. Thanks in advance for your opinions.
  20. Sergiorex

    Identification nano, trex or raptor

    This was found in Powder River county, Montana. and I was wondering what species it is, they think it’s nano but I’m leaning towards trex as it’s more robust and has a circular bottom
  21. I just bought this tooth, it hasn’t arrived yet but I wanted to see your thoughts on the identification of the tooth. I personally am leaning heavily towards the Tyrannosaurus rex but want to see other peoples thoughts. The tooth is quite robust and probably would’ve been quite long if complete. It doesn’t have the pinch and yea that’s why I think it’s rex. The tooth is from Garfield county in hell creek formation and about 1 inch long. There seems to be a pinch on the first image but if you look at the last one you can tell it’s just bulging.
  22. ThePhysicist

    Tyrannosaurid vs Dromaeosaurid

    From the album: Hell Creek / Lance Formations

    As a theropod tooth aficionado, I thought it useful to compare two families present in the Hell Creek Formation. They become increasingly difficult to distinguish as they get smaller, but this graphic presents some features which may be used to differentiate them on two similarly-sized exceptional specimens. Keep in mind there is some variability due to position, ontogeny, etc., so it's beneficial to study more than one tooth for each family.
  23. Hi guys, just little wip with my version of TRex Skull Different mats and lights Some detailing
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