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  1. Barrelcactusaddict

    Sumatra Blue Amber (Sinamar Fm., ~30 Ma)

    From the album: Fossil Amber and Copal: Worldwide Localities

    4.3g dark, transparent blue amber from West Sumatra. After grinding and polishing, I was surprised to discover that it contains 2 ants and 2 winged ants (possibly wasps); these were a little tricky to photograph, due to the amber's strong fluorescence under 140 lumen LED light, so these inclusions had to be backlit. I used a Canon EOS 500D, Canon 60mm f/2.8 Macro Lens, and combined 2x and 4x Hoya circular magnifier lenses (8x).

    © Kaegen Lau

  2. Fullux

    Coal Fossils

    Howdy all, Found some plant fossils inside some coal plates eroding out if a creek in Edmonson County. This one is pretty clearly a stigmaria and I've labeled it as Lepidodendrales indet. This next one I'm pretty sure is a wood fragment from a cordaites, though, I could be wrong. To my knowledge, cordaites is the only woody plant in the area. I compared the grain to that of some cordaites petrified wood and it looks pretty similar. this next one is on the same plate as the previous one. I'm not entirely sure what it is but it looks similar to the grain of palm or bamboo wood. I want to say this is pith from a Calamites but I'm unsure. . This appears to be a leaf impression, I'm guessing a species of calamites, though possibly some sort of pteridosperm. I also found some large calamites stems in the same site in a coal plate but I was unable to take them with me, as they were very brittle and falling apart. I unfortunately do not have any pictures, but they did have visible nodes.
  3. Wendyjo44

    Please help with Identification

    I have tried to research what this is and cannot come up with anything. There are shiney black lines throughout it which to me it looks like coal but I know nothing about it. Can someone please give me an opinion or at least lead me in the right direction of somehow identifying this?
  4. Arshia

    Is this coal?

    It feels very light. I haven't had the chance to weigh it yet. I have also not tested yet if it has any magnetic properties.
  5. CamelbackMike

    Anthracite area fossil tree

    We found these "bark" pieces this past weekend at an Anthracite mine in Carbon County, Pennsylvania. The 3rd picture appears to be a different species and not similar to the diamond shaped things on Lepidodendron.
  6. ChasingGhostsYT

    Pennsylvania’s Carboniferous Fauna

    I am seeking info on Pennsylvania’s Carboniferous plant fauna. The ID plates I currently have access to are ok, but lack info beyond ferns. I have been digging a coal hillside in the Llewelyn Formation, and exposed some cool pine cone and seed pod like material (attached), and I’d like to learn species name and background information. 1.Pine cone sides 2. Cone up close 3 Seed Pod
  7. oscarinelpiedras

    Some Carboniferous flora

    Here you have some beautiful fossils that I have been finding lately ^^, all of them come from the same coal mine in the NW of Spain, Stephanian B, Upper Carboniferous. I hope you like them! 1. Parasphenophillum crenulatum 2. Neuropteris ovata var. Hoffman 3. Aphlebia crispa 4. Diplacites emarginatum 5. Oligocarpia gutbieri 6. Calamite suckowi
  8. oscarinelpiedras

    IMG20221210163124

    From the album: Neuropteris ovata

  9. Apologies for the dramatic title. I thought it sounded cool and stuck with it even though 90 + 80 + 80 is only 250 . Anyways... This past 30 days, I decided to make it a point to check out some new spots. I won't be living in Austin soon, so I thought it would be good to branch out and scout some new locations with potential. I've found lots of creek-worn mosasaur bits and pieces over the past year. I'm ready to find things in situ, and, one day, something articulated. It's a tall order, I know, but I feel like it's the next step and really the ultimate goal I've always had. So, the first step towards this objective was to find locations and, of course, take a look. This is what I saw! Location 1. Austin Chalk: In my usual Ozan stomping grounds, I've come across a variety of fossils ranging from the Eagle Ford to the Ozan itself. Included, was an assortment of spectacular Austin Chalk invertebrates along with the occasional and highly sought-after mosasaur vertebra. They can be readily distinguished from their Ozan counterparts by their yellow-orange preservation and lack of pyritic elements. Honestly, I come across them just as commonly as I do Ozan verts, so I took this to be a sign that the Austin Chalk could be a good bet. In Austin, it's a pretty wide formation with lots of members to look into. I did some research and found a place with some potential. When I arrived, it was a hot afternoon. I picked up my backpack and swapped my school notes out for a rock hammer and a couple of icy bottled waters. Walking down a little trail, I came across the first large exposure of Austin Chalk in what I believe to be the Dessau member. Literally within the first minute, I had to take a double-take at a white glint on the ground. "Surely there couldn't already be a shark tooth," I thought to myself as I kneeled for a closer inspection. Sure enough, it wasn't just a shiny piece of shell; it was indeed the enamel to a bleached tooth from the king shark of the Late Cretaceous seas, the infamous Cretoxyrhina mantelli! Thankfully, it popped out in one piece. A recreation of the tooth in situ and after extraction. I poked around the rest of the surrounding exposure. There were a couple of mangled echinoid bits and gastropods, but not much else, so I continued on to search the main creek. Unfortunately, the only apparent path forward was along a narrow and steeply banked feeder stream. Many of you will know that navigating through these can be a real pain. The brush was densely packed and smelly stagnant water had to be avoided with every step. There were thorny vines dangling from each limb and I was constantly tasked with picking off the burrs that snagged onto my clothing and in my hair. Last year, I was in a similar situation when I was suddenly attacked by a hive of wasps (don't worry, I managed to avoid getting stung too much). It's a fun story to tell friends now, but I must admit that the thought always crawls back into my mind when I am in a position that's a bit difficult to get out of in a hurry. Anyways, after about twenty minutes, I took the final hop over a fallen tree to get to the main creek. It was nice to breathe in the fresh, open air as I sat my backpack down and took a rest, of course, with my eyes perusing along the limestone bed. After the brief sit-down, I began to notice the beauty of the area I was in. The air was filled with the drip-drop of water leaking from the fern-covered bank and the reflection of the greenery was simply mesmerizing. I couldn't help but snap a quick photo. A beautiful, hidden place away from the city. Though, not too far... there's a shopping cart wedged in the gravel just out of frame. In terms of fossils, this place was loaded. Just about everywhere I stepped, I was standing over piles of clams and oysters along with the occasional baculites segment. I didn't bother taking any of these with me, however, as I have plenty already. I noticed there was a decent amount of chert as well, so artifacts were on my radar when I came across a preform. A little farther down the creek, I found a nice ammonite fragment. I didn't intend on keeping it, but sometimes it's nice to have something to hold so I took it along with me. By now, much of the afternoon had come and went. It was about time I turned around and faced the prospect of navigating my way through the dreaded feeder creek in reverse. As I was coming to a stop, I saw a girl walking along the slanted banks of the creek who almost certainly did not enter the way I did. I tried my best to get her attention without spooking her (keep in mind I look and smell like a swamp monster at the moment). She was nice enough to come close to the limestone ledge and introduce herself as I trudged my way through knee deep waters towards dry land. Turns out, she's a local who often hikes by the creek. We chatted for some time and I ended up giving her the preform and ammonite fragment, hopefully inspiring a future hobbyist. After explaining the situation I was in, she laughed and pointed out a trail that led back to the road. When I climbed out and exited the trail sore and tired, I kicked myself. My car was right in front of me. I could have taken this path from the beginning, but instead I took the road never traveled and boy did it make all the difference. Location 2. Ozan Formation: Although many of the mosasaur verts I come across are from the Austin Chalk, a significant portion are still from the good ole Ozan. With that in mind, I took a trip to a creek I usually don't hunt that had a decently-sized exposure. Something in a book tipped me off to this particular site, so I had high hopes. The trip from the road to the waterway wasn't as troublesome as the feeder creek from the week before, but it was still a challenge. I worked my way along the dirt bank to a place I could safely enter the waters when I saw what I was more so wary of. Across the lazy stream was a tent set up along a slope with a clothesline and shopping carts around it. On the initial drive to this spot, I did take notice of the pronounced homeless presence in the area. From the cover of the trees, I took a moment to scope out the tent and the surrounding area. The last thing I wanted was to have an unexpected encounter in a secluded place like this. Luckily, it seemed nobody was home, so I entered the creek, though making sure to have my rock hammer visibly in hand. When I approached the first gravel bar, I was greeted with tons of broken down blocks of Ozan shale and various Austin Chalk fossils. Curious, I started splitting the blocks open to see what the area had to offer. Each one was filled with heart urchin spines and plates! Most were fragmented and all were extremely fragile. Still, I took this to be a good sign. After hours of splitting the loose slabs, I finally found a complete irregular urchin. It's a definite upgrade from the half of one I had found a while back in the Ozan (though that one did have a nice red color). A compressed heart urchin. Looks to be Pliotoxaster/Hemiaster? It may appear round, but it is totally flat! The slab splitting continued with some compressed ammonites and enchodus teeth, but not much more, so it was time to move on to the main event. As I walked the rest of the gravel bar, however, I was forced to once again stop in my tracks. Lying in the mud right in front of me was, by far, the largest mosasaur vertebra I had ever seen in person. It had the preservation of what I assume to be Austin Chalk (of course as soon as I return to the Ozan). The underside of the vert was badly weathered, but it was, nevertheless, far heavier than any others in my collection. Plus, I only need one decent side to show in my picture . Gargantuan mosasaur vertebra. I wonder how long the whole lizard was. Welp, there's really no better motivator than something like that, so I took the short walk to the main exposure. A large expanse of creek bed was Ozan shale ripe for the picking. I got straight to working chiseling out every strange thing just poking out of the ground. Most of them were only oddly shaped pyritic accumulations, I'm guessing originally bivalves and poop. Now and then I would come across a Hamulus squamosus worm tube or piece of fish bone. The bed was a little difficult to see as the lack of recent rain meant that the detritus and algae had yet to be washed away. I didn't find much in the water. Thankfully, the dry parts of the bed were easy to probe. Eventually, I came upon something unmistakably bony. Before I could stop myself to snap a photo, I was already digging. It popped out easily and was instantly apparent of being mosasaur, the very thing I was seeking most. Frantically searching for a continuation of the vertebral column, I spotted what I thought was the head of the next vertebra behind. In my mind, I could see it all right in front of me. The ultimate prize was right there! Just some minor excavating and I'll have done it! Perhaps in theme with fool's gold, I was fooled by the imprint of the very fossil I had just pulled out . I was bummed out for a second, until I had time to realize that this was my first ever mosasaur vert found in situ! Out popped my first in situ mosasaur vert! Cleaned up, it is a real beauty. The color of the cuboidal pyrite outgrowths looks amazing when moved under the light. "Fool's gold" is a real disservice as far as names go. And with that, the sun was already starting to set. The finds of the day. 2 mosies, a flattened echinoid, a Hamulus squamosus tube, an Austin Chalk ammonite, and an Austin Chalk Exogyra tigrina. Location 3. Ozan Formation: After crossing such a major milestone, I had no choice but to head out for the Ozan again once a brief rain had passed. This new location was similar to number 2 in that it was a large expanse of Ozan creek bed. Unfortunately, the route to reach it from the road was a treacherous one. I didn't intend on swimming across a sudden deepening of the creek waters, so I had to search along the steep banks for ways to traverse the barrier. There was somewhat of a flattened trail along a slope with various obstacles that seemed the most doable to me. For the most part, I side-stepped my way across, hugging the dirt and tree limbs to avoid losing balance or putting too much weight on the unstable ground. Now and then, I'd have to cross through a bush that would replenish the population of burrs covering every part of me. By that point, I couldn't have complained too much as things were going relatively smoothly. That is until I made one misstep and had to quickly catch myself by snagging an exposed tree root. Regaining my composure, I heard the rustling and sliding of a plastic bag followed by a loud splash of water from underneath my feet. I usually carry my dirty pair of tennis shoes in a plastic bag since I swap between them and water shoes on my excursions. Now they were just a white shimmer far beyond reach. I hopped off the bank and landed on firm ground. Most of the bed was readily exposed to the air. There was a high density of deer and raccoon tracks. I was entertained most by the shale claw marks I saw at the bottom of shallow pools that I interpreted to be raccoons taking a refreshing swim. From way up the creek, I even caught a glimpse of a coyote jumping from out of the foliage. He sniffed around a bit before noticing me and darted off the other way. I settled down to catch my breath and inspected broken bits of Ozan shale nearby. Pretty soon I spotted the first regular echinoid I've seen in the Ozan. Unfortunately, it was too fragile and didn't survive the journey home. A regular echinoid and a mess of urchin spines surrounding. This portion of the Ozan is rich in echinoid material, though heavily compressed and often very fragile. Denture clams are the other most common find of which fragments can also be seen here. After some rehydration, I got up to start looking for bone. It took some time, but I eventually found a peculiar specimen sticking out of the shallows. It was too suspect to ignore, so I began excavating. Spongey thing as originally found. I was hoping it would be a rib or something, but it just didn't look right. The pores of the cancellous bone were much larger than what I was familiar with for reptiles and the thing didn't seem like fish at all. Typical for fossils in this layer, there was pyrite all over. However, there was an additional mineral I hadn't encountered before. Encrusting the entirety of the underside were selenite(?) crystals in prismatic shapes. As I dug deeper and deeper, the form continued on. The spongey thing was long and had curvature. There was another short one layered just underneath it intersecting close to the hammer. If it's vertebrate, I have no idea what bone it would be. I suspect it's invertebrate in nature. Revealing more of it showed that a separate, shorter piece was present just underneath. Both structures were flattened, fragile, and had to be removed in chunks. From what I could tell, their spongey structure remained consistent across the entirety of their lengths. Once extracted, I searched the surrounding space, but found no sign of continuation. Post extraction I was completely stumped by what I had found. All I could think was spongey, pores, spongey, pores. I am embarrassed to admit it took me way too long to cut off the "y" and realize that it's likely a sponge. Pore bearing (porifera) is about as accurate as you can get when describing it. So, I settled with that as my final guess for what this mystery structure could be. Though, this is still up for debate, so let me know if there are any opposing opinions. From there, I took a couple of paces before stumbling upon the next thing of interest. It was a robust black protrusion with some apparent symmetry. Okay, if the last thing was pseudo-bone, surely this had to be the real thing. As per usual, there was pyritic encrusting on it. From how it was positioned, it was hard to say how long it could be - if there was much more to try and dig out. I got to chiseling and it popped right out within the first few swings. Instantly, I knew I had once again fallen for some pseudo-bone. That being said, it was the first time I had found carbonized wood in the Ozan. I don't usually keep fossil wood, but this guy is interesting enough to warrant it. A pyritized deposit of coal, pretending to be a mosasaur rostral. The fossil wood with a pyritized denture clam and Serratolamna(?) tooth on top. A piece of an artifact and irregular urchin on top. The clam on the right is a cool optical illusion. It's only 3/4 of an inch tall. Here and there I made some other nice smaller finds. A fragment of an artifact, some shark teeth, and an even better flattened irregular urchin to name a few. Though, I had spent a lot of the recent weeks hammering away at things in creeks, so I thought it would be best to call it early and head home to have a nice meal and reflect on my prizes. No articulated mosasaur bits, but a great many lessons learned and special memories to reminisce upon in the future. I know I'm preaching to the choir with this one, but there are few things as magical as traveling alone and exploring a side of the outdoors you hadn't encountered before. It's hard to explain, but I love just parking somewhere and walking into a part of the brush where few people go, if ever. It's freeing in a sense. But for now, I've creek walked way too much. I'm gonna go hunt a roadcut or something
  10. I've been looking at the records of the Carboniferous Eugenodontid Chondrichthyan Edestus in Illinois (famously referred to as the coal shark) in Illinois and I've found that there are a large amounts of reports from Underground mines at Sparta and Coulterville, Randolph County Illinois. I also found a record from fossilworks.org simply listed as "Coal mines of western illinois" at the coordinates 38.7° N, 90.0° W. http://www.fossilworks.org/cgi-bin/bridge.pl?a=collectionSearch&taxon_no=34453&max_interval=Carboniferous&country=United States&state=Illinois&is_real_user=1&basic=yes&type=view&match_subgenera=1 O. P. Hay. 1909. On the nature of Edestus and related genera, with descriptions of one new genus and three new species. Proceedings of the United States National Museum 37:43-61 I'm wondering what are the actual best pits and mines by Sparta and Coulterville Illinois to find Edestus fossils, which ones and either still open or (if closed) still accessible, what safety precautions should one take if fossil hunting in one of these mines or pits, and is Mecca Quarry on the Indiana-Illinois border a good place to find Edestus specimens?
  11. On September 17th, 2022, ESCONI held a field trip to a coal mine spoil pile near Danville, IL. It was a fairly hot day with temperatures in the upper 80's. However, it was a productive field trip. There had been quite a bit of work on the hill this summer and it was looking quite different from the spring. The road to the top went around from the left instead of the right. There weren't as many exposed fossils in "Red Dog" found this time, but concretions were readily available for collecting. There were a few Forum members present. @deutscheben @connorp I'm sure I'm forgetting a few, please announce yourself! Here are some photos of the trip. Some of the photos were taken with a drone. I need to take some more photos of fossils, so stay tuned... I'll post concretions if/when they open. There was a bunch of poison ivy all around outside of the hill. Mushrooms were plentiful. And, of course fossils!
  12. My last few excursions have been a continuation of my exploration of the Woodbine. In my experience, it is a very difficult formation to hunt on, so even the smallest of discoveries is a welcome sight to behold. If you have the fortune of finding something there, it is likely to be different and unlike anything from the nearby surrounding formations. My most recent outing took me to an exposure rich with coalified material. The "peat" layer I dug into was extremely brittle and fell apart with minimal effort. Densely packed in was numerous chunks of wood and fragments of leaves likely from the forest floor of the ancient continent Appalachia. If I hadn't dug it out from under several meters of rock myself, I would have thought these things to be modern in age (many of the leaves were just like the dried ones you could find in throughout a yard). I tried my best to spot any bones, but it seemed that only plants were present. I spent most of the day carefully splitting these slabs only to find bits of leaves that immediately fell apart upon exposure. Luckily, I was able to grab a handful of nice specimens that I could take home and consolidate with some paraloid b72. They are much sounder structurally now, though they are still very fragile. I'm not sure if it's even worth trying to ID as many of my specimens are extremely fragmented. However, I think they are distinct enough to see the general shape of the leaves and create a crude snapshot of a Cretaceous forest floor. If you see something you recognize, feel free to share! Here are some photos: Piece 1: Sort of looks like a conifer leaf Piece 2: Piece 3: Piece 4: A tiny leaf Piece 5: This one is actually double-sided. On the front is a large leaf. The other side has a conglomerate of many small leaves similar to the ones found on piece 3. Thanks for reading!
  13. Hello everyone, I have recently received an old collection from an old married couple who weren't interested in it anymore. Some of the items were purchased in 1905! They got them from the man's father who was Dutch. Unfortunately, many of the fossils did not come with their labels, and the labels I do have are written in Dutch, and in cursive... I will be posting most of the fossils on the forum through the next few days in hopes of getting some id's, locations, ages, as well as any other useful information. If the photos aren't clear enough just tell me the number so that I can send a better image. Here are the plants. I assume most of them come from a coal mine. #1 #2 There was some writing on the back #3 #4 #5.5 (Edit: accidentally added 5 twice) #5 #6 #7 #8 #9 #10 #11 #12 #13 #14 #15 #16 #17 #18 #19 #20 #21 #22 #23 The next two look like calamites #24 #25 Looks like sigillaria #26 #27 #28 #29 #30 I think this is the wrong label, it appears to say something like "lava from Vesuvius" #31 #32 #33 #34
  14. Hello dear forum members, among the collection of my late uncle there was a box of coal fossils, most of which are flat crumbly pieces of plant material. I left most of these in their protective wrappings for now. among the fragments on the bottom of the box I found some nodules, I think these caught my uncles eye and where collected on the same trip as the plant fossils. (from Germany, hard coal, not lignite, thats all I know). The nodules are heavy like ore minerals (pyrite comes to mind) There is one with an interesting texture. Maybe a coprolite?? @GeschWhat? Will post more plant fossils another day, probably after we move in july. Is paraloid adequate for crumbly coal?
  15. Hi everyone! I'm new to fossil hunting and I found a few interesting rocks underneath Sea Cliff Bridge near Wollongong in Australia. There was a lot of coal in the area for context. I will attach some photos of the rocks I found, I'm particularly interested in the small white (quartz??) lines intersecting the black part of the stone. Any help would be hugely appreciated! Thanks
  16. Eloise

    Late Carboniferous Megaspore

    Hi everyone, I've been working on a project about fossilised megaspores found in a Namurian (Late Carboniferous) coal seam in the UK. There are very few papers and photographs of megaspores so classification is a challenge! I have a couple of my unidentified specimens here that have been extracted from the coal, and was wondering if anyone could help me out? Light microscope images are attatched. The maximum diameter of the compressed spore is 1125 µm for Species A, and 1225 µm for Species B. I believe that the depositional environment was a Late Carboniferous swamp forest, dominated by arborescent lycopsids. All the best, Eloise
  17. Hi people! I'm a PhD student studying a Duckmantian fossil forest in North Wales. I have found these phosphatic fish/shark? teeth and scales I need an ID on. I suspect they are Adamantina Foliacea (Cuny and Stemmerik 2018) but that is a marine shark and this sequence is almost certainly completely freshwater and thought to be an upland swamp. I'm currently doing isotope work on the nodules and plant fossils and that appears to be confirming this is a completely freshwater system. Anyone have any ideas? You'll have to click on the images again once you've opened them to zoom in! Sorry for the poor quality! Thanks, Tom
  18. Barrelcactusaddict

    Krantzite (Profen Fm., ~41.3-38 Ma)

    From the album: Fossil Amber and Copal: Worldwide Localities

    “Krantzite” Profen Coal Mine Profen, Saxony-Anhalt State, Germany Profen Fm. (~41.3-38 Ma) Chemical Composition: C: 79.25%, H: 10.41%, O: 10.34% Total Weight: 1.5g Longest Specimen: 14mm Lighting: 140lm LED Longwave UV Entry four of ten, detailing various rare ambers from European, Asian, and North American localities. This amber has rather unusual physical properties, despite being chemically quite near to succinite (i.e. Baltic amber), in terms of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen ratios: whereas succinite is rather hard, Krantzite is described as being “tender”, as well as “sectile and somewhat elastic”; Krantzite also fuses at a slightly lower temperature (225˚C, compared to 250˚C). In terms of appearance, unoxidized material generally bears a lighter coloration than succinite, and pieces are usually very small in size. Krantzite is a relatively widespread amber within Saxony-Anhalt State: it occurs in at least 12 deposits located within a roughly 6,000 square mile (9,650 sq. km.) area, all within Saxony-Anhalt. Most of the deposits are located near Nachterstedt, Nienburg, Amsdorf, Nietleben, Mücheln, and the most notable, Profen; despite the notability of the latter, there are four specific mining localities within the Mücheln area alone, each being a Krantzite occurrence. Regarding the history of the Profen Opencast Mine: exploration began in 1941, with actual coal production starting 3 years later; coal began to be mined from the lowest levels in 1951. A southern construction site for mining operations began in 1971, with conveyor bridges from both sites being connected in 1982: the bridge connection was demolished in 1990. Coal production in the Profen Opencast Mine is expected to remain operational until 2035. Sources: "The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana 1837-1868: Descriptive Mineralogy"; p. 1005; Dana 1892 “Neufunde von fossilen Harzen aus dem Mitteldeutschen Braunkohlenrevier”; p. 166 (Abb. 2); Wimmer, Krumbiegel, Cosmowska-Ceranowicz, Wagner-Wysiecka 2015 https://second.wiki/wiki/profen

    © Kaegen Lau

  19. Barrelcactusaddict

    Krantzite (Profen Fm., ~41.3-38 Ma)

    From the album: Fossil Amber and Copal: Worldwide Localities

    “Krantzite” Profen Coal Mine Profen, Saxony-Anhalt State, Germany Profen Fm. (~41.3-38 Ma) Chemical Composition: C: 79.25%, H: 10.41%, O: 10.34% Total Weight: 1.5g Longest Specimen: 14mm Lighting: 140lm LED Longwave UV Entry four of ten, detailing various rare ambers from European, Asian, and North American localities. This amber has rather unusual physical properties, despite being chemically quite near to succinite (i.e. Baltic amber), in terms of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen ratios: whereas succinite is rather hard, Krantzite is described as being “tender”, as well as “sectile and somewhat elastic”; Krantzite also fuses at a slightly lower temperature (225˚C, compared to 250˚C). In terms of appearance, unoxidized material generally bears a lighter coloration than succinite, and pieces are usually very small in size. Krantzite is a relatively widespread amber within Saxony-Anhalt State: it occurs in at least 12 deposits located within a roughly 6,000 square mile (9,650 sq. km.) area, all within Saxony-Anhalt. Most of the deposits are located near Nachterstedt, Nienburg, Amsdorf, Nietleben, Mücheln, and the most notable, Profen; despite the notability of the latter, there are four specific mining localities within the Mücheln area alone, each being a Krantzite occurrence. Regarding the history of the Profen Opencast Mine: exploration began in 1941, with actual coal production starting 3 years later; coal began to be mined from the lowest levels in 1951. A southern construction site for mining operations began in 1971, with conveyor bridges from both sites being connected in 1982: the bridge connection was demolished in 1990. Coal production in the Profen Opencast Mine is expected to remain operational until 2035. Sources: "The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana 1837-1868: Descriptive Mineralogy"; p. 1005; Dana 1892 “Neufunde von fossilen Harzen aus dem Mitteldeutschen Braunkohlenrevier”; p. 166 (Abb. 2); Wimmer, Krumbiegel, Cosmowska-Ceranowicz, Wagner-Wysiecka 2015 https://second.wiki/wiki/profen

    © Kaegen Lau

  20. From the album: Fossil Amber and Copal: Worldwide Localities

    "Ajkaite" Ajka-Csingervölgy, Ajka District, Hungary Ajka Coal Fm./Csehbánya Fm. (~86.8-83.4 Ma) Chemical Composition: C: 80%, H: 10%, O: 9%, S: 1-2% Refractive Index: 1.541 Specific Gravity: 1.0 Weight of Specimen: 2.4g Dimensions: 18x14x13mm Lighting: Longwave UV (Convoy S2) Ajkaite is a fossil resin with chemical composition markedly different from succinite (i.e., Baltic amber); it also contains low levels of sulfur. Ajkaite is found within layers of fossiliferous marl (numerous fossil shells can be seen in the matrix in the images): the marl is also accompanied by layers of coal, sand, sandstone, and siltstone. Ajkaite is found in both the Ajka Coal Fm. and the Csehbánya Fm., which two Formations are roughly the same age, and laterally transition into each other. The coal mines roughly 4km southeast of Ajka first began production in 1872, and continued until the last mine was closed on September 3, 2004. Now, Ajkaite specimens can only be found in spoil-banks or refuse piles (Jókai coal refuse) near the city. Various arthropods have been found trapped within Ajkaite, e.g., Araneae (spiders), Diptera (flies), Coleoptera (beetles), and Hymenoptera (ants, wasps). Since much of this amber is typically cloudy, X-ray tomography (CT scan) is often used to visually document the inclusions. Sources: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0195667121003451?fbclid=IwAR2in5-wXBSojVWPQKkSwSuEPuZ5Wd77Z5I0iYfRPWHbc5PAHI7gegfmr3o https://pubs.usgs.gov/bul/1627/report.pdf?fbclid=IwAR142uewIjbJxH2oQDfnoX3j4C0K-cH33lTKfDd7AePr-rfIUQCkPylTmXg https://www.nature.com/articles/s41598-021-03573-5.pdf?origin=ppub&fbclid=IwAR2- https://www.nature.com/articles/s41598-021-03573-5.pdf?origin=ppub&fbclid=IwAR2-JvTOC8CPgd4eft49V5vrItPEtiXd1iWmKkjzd8Vdw75ZXmjGGOIz5jU https://pubs.usgs.gov/bul/1627/report.pdf?fbclid=IwAR142uewIjbJxH2oQDfnoX3j4C0K-cH33lTKfDd7AePr-rfIUQCkPylTmXg

    © Kaegen Lau

  21. From the album: Fossil Amber and Copal: Worldwide Localities

    "Ajkaite" Ajka-Csingervölgy, Ajka District, Hungary Ajka Coal Fm./Csehbánya Fm. (~86.8-83.4 Ma) Chemical Composition: C: 80%, H: 10%, O: 9%, S: 1-2% Refractive Index: 1.541 Specific Gravity: 1.0 Weight of Specimen: 2.4g Dimensions: 18x14x13mm Lighting: Longwave UV (Convoy S2) Ajkaite is a fossil resin with chemical composition markedly different from succinite (i.e., Baltic amber); it also contains low levels of sulfur. Ajkaite is found within layers of fossiliferous marl (numerous fossil shells can be seen in the matrix in the images): the marl is also accompanied by layers of coal, sand, sandstone, and siltstone. Ajkaite is found in both the Ajka Coal Fm. and the Csehbánya Fm., which two Formations are roughly the same age, and laterally transition into each other. The coal mines roughly 4km southeast of Ajka first began production in 1872, and continued until the last mine was closed on September 3, 2004. Now, Ajkaite specimens can only be found in spoil-banks or refuse piles (Jókai coal refuse) near the city. Various arthropods have been found trapped within Ajkaite, e.g., Araneae (spiders), Diptera (flies), Coleoptera (beetles), and Hymenoptera (ants, wasps). Since much of this amber is typically cloudy, X-ray tomography (CT scan) is often used to visually document the inclusions. Sources: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0195667121003451?fbclid=IwAR2in5-wXBSojVWPQKkSwSuEPuZ5Wd77Z5I0iYfRPWHbc5PAHI7gegfmr3o https://pubs.usgs.gov/bul/1627/report.pdf?fbclid=IwAR142uewIjbJxH2oQDfnoX3j4C0K-cH33lTKfDd7AePr-rfIUQCkPylTmXg https://www.nature.com/articles/s41598-021-03573-5.pdf?origin=ppub&fbclid=IwAR2- https://www.nature.com/articles/s41598-021-03573-5.pdf?origin=ppub&fbclid=IwAR2-JvTOC8CPgd4eft49V5vrItPEtiXd1iWmKkjzd8Vdw75ZXmjGGOIz5jU https://pubs.usgs.gov/bul/1627/report.pdf?fbclid=IwAR142uewIjbJxH2oQDfnoX3j4C0K-cH33lTKfDd7AePr-rfIUQCkPylTmXg

    © Kaegen Lau

  22. From the album: Fossil Amber and Copal: Worldwide Localities

    "Ajkaite" Ajka-Csingervölgy, Ajka District, Hungary Ajka Coal Fm./Csehbánya Fm. (~86.8-83.4 Ma) Chemical Composition: C: 80%, H: 10%, O: 9%, S: 1-2% Refractive Index: 1.541 Specific Gravity: 1.0 Weight of Specimen: 2.4g Dimensions: 18x14x13mm Ajkaite is a fossil resin with chemical composition markedly different from succinite (i.e., Baltic amber); it also contains low levels of sulfur. Ajkaite is found within layers of fossiliferous marl (numerous fossil shells can be seen in the matrix in the images): the marl is also accompanied by layers of coal, sand, sandstone, and siltstone. Ajkaite is found in both the Ajka Coal Fm. and the Csehbánya Fm., which two Formations are roughly the same age, and laterally transition into each other. The coal mines roughly 4km southeast of Ajka first began production in 1872, and continued until the last mine was closed on September 3, 2004. Now, Ajkaite specimens can only be found in spoil-banks or refuse piles (Jókai coal refuse) near the city. Various arthropods have been found trapped within Ajkaite, e.g., Araneae (spiders), Diptera (flies), Coleoptera (beetles), and Hymenoptera (ants, wasps). Since much of this amber is typically cloudy, X-ray tomography (CT scan) is often used to visually document the inclusions. Sources: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0195667121003451?fbclid=IwAR2in5-wXBSojVWPQKkSwSuEPuZ5Wd77Z5I0iYfRPWHbc5PAHI7gegfmr3o https://pubs.usgs.gov/bul/1627/report.pdf?fbclid=IwAR142uewIjbJxH2oQDfnoX3j4C0K-cH33lTKfDd7AePr-rfIUQCkPylTmXg https://www.nature.com/articles/s41598-021-03573-5.pdf?origin=ppub&fbclid=IwAR2- https://www.nature.com/articles/s41598-021-03573-5.pdf?origin=ppub&fbclid=IwAR2-JvTOC8CPgd4eft49V5vrItPEtiXd1iWmKkjzd8Vdw75ZXmjGGOIz5jU https://pubs.usgs.gov/bul/1627/report.pdf?fbclid=IwAR142uewIjbJxH2oQDfnoX3j4C0K-cH33lTKfDd7AePr-rfIUQCkPylTmXg

    © Kaegen Lau

  23. From the album: Fossil Amber and Copal: Worldwide Localities

    "Ajkaite" Ajka-Csingervölgy, Ajka District, Hungary Ajka Coal Fm./Csehbánya Fm. (~86.8-83.4 Ma) Chemical Composition: C: 80%, H: 10%, O: 9%, S: 1-2% Refractive Index: 1.541 Specific Gravity: 1.0 Weight of Specimen: 2.4g Dimensions: 18x14x13mm Ajkaite is a fossil resin with chemical composition markedly different from succinite (i.e., Baltic amber); it also contains low levels of sulfur. Ajkaite is found within layers of fossiliferous marl (numerous fossil shells can be seen in the matrix in the images): the marl is also accompanied by layers of coal, sand, sandstone, and siltstone. Ajkaite is found in both the Ajka Coal Fm. and the Csehbánya Fm., which two Formations are roughly the same age, and laterally transition into each other. The coal mines roughly 4km southeast of Ajka first began production in 1872, and continued until the last mine was closed on September 3, 2004. Now, Ajkaite specimens can only be found in spoil-banks or refuse piles (Jókai coal refuse) near the city. Various arthropods have been found trapped within Ajkaite, e.g., Araneae (spiders), Diptera (flies), Coleoptera (beetles), and Hymenoptera (ants, wasps). Since much of this amber is typically cloudy, X-ray tomography (CT scan) is often used to visually document the inclusions. Sources: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0195667121003451?fbclid=IwAR2in5-wXBSojVWPQKkSwSuEPuZ5Wd77Z5I0iYfRPWHbc5PAHI7gegfmr3o https://pubs.usgs.gov/bul/1627/report.pdf?fbclid=IwAR142uewIjbJxH2oQDfnoX3j4C0K-cH33lTKfDd7AePr-rfIUQCkPylTmXg https://www.nature.com/articles/s41598-021-03573-5.pdf?origin=ppub&fbclid=IwAR2- https://www.nature.com/articles/s41598-021-03573-5.pdf?origin=ppub&fbclid=IwAR2-JvTOC8CPgd4eft49V5vrItPEtiXd1iWmKkjzd8Vdw75ZXmjGGOIz5jU https://pubs.usgs.gov/bul/1627/report.pdf?fbclid=IwAR142uewIjbJxH2oQDfnoX3j4C0K-cH33lTKfDd7AePr-rfIUQCkPylTmXg

    © Kaegen Lau

  24. Barrelcactusaddict

    Fushun Amber (Guchenzgi Fm., 56-50 Ma)

    From the album: Fossil Amber and Copal: Worldwide Localities

    Roughly 200g of small (≈1g) nodules and runs of amber from the West Open Pit Mine in Fushun, China; the mine was closed in 2019, but small pieces of amber are still recovered from coal found in the gangue piles; it is separated from the matrix by mechanical action and immersion in large vats of saltwater solution, and recovered with netting as it collects at the surface. This material is hard, takes a high polish, and is often shaped and drilled to make beads. Its chemical and spectrographic signatures indicate this amber is derived from a cupressaceous source.

    © Kaegen Lau

  25. From the album: Fossil Amber and Copal: Worldwide Localities

    Waterworn amber from the beaches near Homer, Alaska; this piece weighs 0.7g and measures 11x9x9mm. The town of Homer is situated on the shores of the Cook Inlet on the western half of the Kenai Peninsula, south of Anchorage. A few geological Formations (Kenai Group) in the nearby area contain coal reserves, but mainly the Beluga Fm. is exposed along the beaches of Homer to Anchor Point: this Formation is of freshwater origin, and comprises layers of sandstone, siltstone, and coal. The Pliocene-aged Sterling Fm. is located slightly farther inland, with numerous streams cutting through it and emptying into the Cook Inlet, however this Formation does not contain much coal. There were a few coal mines north and south of Tustumena Lake, back in the late-19th to mid-20th centuries: the Bluff Point Mine, west of Homer, was active from 1899-1951.

    © Kaegen Lau

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